Bioregulators of Reproduction - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123799807, 9780323140997

Bioregulators of Reproduction

1st Edition

Editors: David Jagiello
eBook ISBN: 9780323140997
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1981
Page Count: 610
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Description

Bioregulators of Reproduction focuses on the biological regulators of reproductive processes. Discussions are grouped based on sex differentiation and determination, germ cell reproduction, gonadotropins, nonsteroidal gonadal hormones, in vitro fertilization, and post-fertilization. This text is organized into six sections and comprised of 31 chapters, beginning with a discussion on the most important regulatory mechanisms underlying reproduction. The reader is then methodically introduced to the role of the H-Y antigen in primary sex determination, H-Y antigenic determinants of human testis-organizing protein, and how H-Y antibodies confuse antigenic complexes with unaltered self or allo-MHC antigens. The cellular mechanisms of sexual differentiation of the brain, meiosis in female mammals, and interspecies comparisons in molecular reproductive biology are also considered. Other chapters explore the role of haplodins in the ovarian and extraovarian control of meiosis; the link between nucleoprotein transitions and chromatin changes during rat spermatogenesis; and gonadotropin secretion in primates. This book will be of interest to students and scientists in fields ranging from biology and neuroendocrinology to genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, pathology, and zoology.

Table of Contents


List of Participants

Jacob Furth (1896-1979)

Preface

Opening Address

Reproductive Regulation

Text

References

Part I Sex Differentiation and Determination

H-Y Antigen in Primary Sex Determination

Introduction

Phylogenetic Conservatism of H-Y: A Testis-Inducing Function in Mammals

H-Y and Testicular Differentiation In Vivo

H-Y and Testicular Differentiation In Vitro

Biochemistry of H-Y

Summary

References

Associative Recognition of Testis-Organizing H-Y Antigen and Immunological Confusion

H-Y Antigenic Determinants on Human Testis-Organizing Protein

The Altered Self or Associative Recognition of H-Y Antigen by the Immune System

Confusion between Altered Self MHC and Unaltered Self or Allo-MHC

The Same VH Gene is Utilized Both by Τ Cell Receptor and Humoral Antibody Directed against the Same Antigen

Humoral H-Y Antibody Also Sees (H-Y + Altered MHC) Antigen Complexes

Summary

References

Cellular Aspects of Sexual Differentiation of the Brain

Introduction

Possible Modes of Steroid Action

Sexual Dimorphism of Brain Structure

Gonadal Hormones and Brain Development In Vitro

Possible Basis for Sexual Differentiation

The Possible Role of α-Fetoprotein

Sexual Differentiation of the Male and Female Brain

References

An Experimental Approach to Female Mammalian Meiosis: Differential Chromosome Labeling and an Analysis of Chiasmata in the Female Mouse

Materials and Techniques

Results

Discussion

Summary

References

Problems in Interspecies Comparisons in Studies in Molecular Reproductive Biology

Introduction

Ribosomal RNA Gene Organization and Quantitation during Oogenesis

Gene Expression during Early Mammalian Development

Specific Structural Components of Mammalian Oocytes

Concluding Comments

References

The Ovarian and Extraovarian Control of Meiosis: The Role of Haplodins

Introduction

Control of the Onset of Meiosis

The Rete Ovarii

Meiosis in the Mouse

The Rat Ovary

Time-Study Experiments in the Hamster

Haploidins

References

Part II Germ Cell Production

Production of Germ Cells and Regulation of Meiosis

Introduction

The Primordial Germ Cells: The Gonia

The Premeiotic Differentiation of the Germ Cells

Regulation of Meiosis

Concluding Remarks

References

Programming of Gene Expression during Mammalian Oogenesis

Introduction

Oogenesis in the Mouse

Gene Expression during Growth and Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes

Comparison of Gene Expression during Oogenesis and Early Embryogenesis in the Mouse

Summary and Discussion

References

Association of Nucleoprotein Transitions with Chromatin Changes during Rat Spermatogenesis

Introduction

Chromatin Changes during Spermatogenesis

Basic Chromosomal Proteins of Spermatogenic Cells

Cell Separation Methods

Histones of the Meiotic Prophase

Possible Roles of Histone Transitions during Meiosis

Replacement of Histones during Spermiogenesis

Possible Roles of Spermatidal Basic Proteins

Conclusion

References

Interspecific Fertilization

Assessment of the Fertilizing Capacity of Human Spermatozoa

Chromosome Analysis of Human Spermatozoa

Other Applications of the Zona-Free Hamster Egg Technique

References

Meiosis, Synaptonemal Complex, and Cytogenetic Analysis

Introduction

The SC as a Paradigm of the Bivalent

New Insights into Synapsis

Prospects

References

The Structural and Functional Cycle of Sertoli Cells in Culture

Introduction

Isolation and Culture of Sertoli Cells

The Localization of ABP in Proliferating Rat Sertoli Cells in Culture

Hormonal and Cyclic Nucleotide Responsiveness of Sertoli Cells in Culture

Concluding Remarks

References

Meiotic Chromosomes of Mouse Spermatocytes: Identification of Bivalents, Lampbrush Organization, and Transcription Activities

Introduction

Preparative Procedures for the Electron and Light Microscopic Visualization of Meiotic Chromosomes

The Visualization of Autosomal and Sexual Bivalents in Whole-Mount Electron Microscopic Preparations

The Visualization of Transcription Activity in Lampbrush Chromosomes during Male Meiotic Prophase in the Mouse

Concluding Remarks

References

Part III Gonadotropins

The Brain and Gonadotropin Secretion in the Primate

Introduction

Estradiol, the Main Ovarian Hormone Feedback and Its Site of Action

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH): Its Role in Gonadotropin Secretion

GnRH-Estradiol Interrelationships and the Menstrual Cycle

Hypothalamic Sites and Gonadotropin Secretion

References

The Biosynthesis of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

Introduction

Precursor Hypothesis for Synthesis of Small Peptide Hormones

Identification of GnRH Precursors

Identification of GnRH mRNA

References

Structure of the Human Gonadotropin Genes

Introduction

In Vitro Translation of Placental mRNA

Restriction Endonuclease Analysis of Placental cDNA

Cloning of the cDNA for the Subunit of α hCG

Cloning of the cDNA for the Subunit of β hCG

Analysis of α and β Subunits of hCG cDNA Sequences

Evolution of the Genes for the Gonadotropins

Readthrough into the 3' Untranslated Region of the Gene

Isolation of the Gene Encoding the Common α Subunit

Polymorphism of the Sequences Coding for the α Subunit

Conclusions

References

Inhibition of Testicular and Ovarian Functions by LHRH Agonists

Introduction

Inhibition of Testicular Functions in the Rat by Treatment with LHRH Agonists

Inhibition of Ovarian Functions in the Rat by Treatment with LHRH Agonists

Inhibition of Testicular Steroidogenesis in Man by Treatment with an LHRH Agonist

Luteolytic and Antiovulatory Activity of LHRH Agonists in Women

References

TLCK-Binding Proteins in Freshly Harvested and Cultured Porcine Granulosa Cells

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results

Discussion

Summary

References

Part IV Nonsteroidal Gonadal Hormones

Selective Suppression of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone by Foiliculostatin: A Proposed Ovarian Hormone

Introduction

Administration of Follicular Fluid Suppresses Serum FSH

Characterization of Folliculostatin

Is Folliculostatin a Hormone?

References

In Pursuit of Physiological Inhibitors of and from the Ovary

Introduction

Folliculostatin

LH-RBI

References

Gonadostatins and Gonadocrinin: Peptides from the Gonads Regulating the Secretion of Gonadotropins

Introduction

Seminal Plasma Gonadostatin

Follicular Fluid Gonadostatin

Gonadocrinin

References

Dissociation of Luteal Progesterone and Relaxin Secretion: Modulation by Ovarian Factors

Introduction

Relaxin

Concluding Remarks

References

Part V In Vitro Fertilization

In Vitro Fertilization in the Treatment of Human Infertility

Introduction

Protocol for IVF and ET

Results

Discussion

References

Current Problems in In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

Introduction

Indications

Conditions of Applicability of IVF-ET

Strategies for Oocyte Recovery and Their Results

Embryo Transfer

Quality Control Procedures

Evaluation of World Record and Safety of IVF-ET: What to Expect

Research Application of IVF, Not Involving ET

References

Factors Affecting Mammalian In Vitro Fertilization

Introduction

Physical Factors

Biochemical Factors

Quality of Sperm

References

Regulation of Epididymal Steroid Metabolizing Enzymes

Introduction

Differential Regulation of Epididymal Δ4-5α-Reductase and 3α-HSD

Developmental Pattern of Epididymal Δ4-5α-Reductase and 3α-HSD Activities

Longitudinal Distribution of Epididymal Δ4-5α-Reductase and 3α-HSD Activities

Speculations on the Regulation of Epididymal Δ4-5α-Reductase

Summary

References

Sperm-Egg Recognition and Binding in Mammals

Introduction

Sperm Capacitation

Acrosome Reaction and Its Relationship to Sperm Binding

Sperm Binding to the Zona Pellucida

Conclusion

Summary

References

Membrane-Bound Sperm-Specific Antibodies: Their Role in Infertility

Text

References

Part VI Post-Fertilization Phenomena

Regulation of Pronuclear Development

Introduction

Transformation of the Sperm Nucleus into a Male Pronucleus

Aspects Regulating the Metamorphosis of the Sperm Nucleus into a Male Pronucleus

Summary and Conclusions

References

Control of Cell Fate during Early Mouse Embryogenesis

Introduction

Are Blastomeres of the Early Mammalian Embryo Regulative or Mosaic?

Aggregation Experiments

Disaggregation Experiments

Reaggregation Experiments

The inside-outside Hypothesis

When Do Blastomeres Lose Their Lability?

Biochemical Studies on inside and Outside Cells

A Determinant Model

Discussion of the Model

References

Index


Details

No. of pages:
610
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1981
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323140997

About the Editor

David Jagiello