Bioprocess Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444595256, 9780444595225

Bioprocess Engineering

1st Edition

Kinetics, Sustainability, and Reactor Design

Authors: Shijie Liu
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595256
eBook ISBN: 9780444595225
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 28th September 2012
Page Count: 1000
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Bioprocess Engineering involves the design and development of equipment and processes for the manufacturing of products such as food, feed, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, chemicals, and polymers and paper from biological materials. It also deals with studying various biotechnological processes. "Bioprocess Kinetics and Systems Engineering" first of its kind contains systematic and comprehensive content on bioprocess kinetics, bioprocess systems, sustainability and reaction engineering. Dr. Shijie Liu reviews the relevant fundamentals of chemical kinetics-including batch and continuous reactors, biochemistry, microbiology, molecular biology, reaction engineering, and bioprocess systems engineering- introducing key principles that enable bioprocess engineers to engage in the analysis, optimization, design and consistent control over biological and chemical transformations. The quantitative treatment of bioprocesses is the central theme of this book, while more advanced techniques and applications are covered with some depth. Many theoretical derivations and simplifications are used to demonstrate how empirical kinetic models are applicable to complicated bioprocess systems.

Key Features

  • Contains extensive illustrative drawings which make the understanding of the subject easy
  • Contains worked examples of the various process parameters, their significance and their specific practical use
  • Provides the theory of bioprocess kinetics from simple concepts to complex metabolic pathways
  • Incorporates sustainability concepts into the various bioprocesses


Bioprocess Engineering Students and Bioprocess Engineers, along with Chemical Engineers

Table of Contents



Greek Symbols



Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 Biological Cycle

1.2 Green Chemistry

1.3 Sustainability

1.4 Biorefinery

1.5 Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering

1.6 Mathematics, Biology, and Engineering

1.7 The Story of Penicillin: The Dawn of Bioprocess Engineering

1.8 Bioprocesses: Regulatory Constraints

1.9 The Pillars of Bioprocess Kinetics and Systems Engineering

1.10 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 2. An Overview of Biological Basics

2.1 Cells and Organisms

2.2 Stem Cell

2.3 Cell Chemistry

2.4 Cell Feed

2.5 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 3. An Overview of Chemical Reaction Analysis

3.1 Chemical Species

3.2 Chemical Reactions

3.3 Reaction Rates

3.4 Approximate Reactions

3.5 Rate Coefficients

3.6 Stoichiometry

3.7 Yield and Yield Factor

3.8 Reaction Rates Near Equilibrium

3.9 Energy Regularity

3.10 Classification of Multiple Reactions and Selectivity

3.11 Coupled Reactions

3.12 Reactor Mass Balances

3.13 Reaction Energy Balances

3.14 Reactor Momentum Balance

3.15 Ideal Reactors

3.16 Bioprocess Systems Optimization

3.17 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 4. Batch Reactor

4.1 Isothermal Batch Reactors

4.2 Batch Reactor Sizing

4.3 Non-Isothermal Batch Reactors

4.4 Numerical Solutions of Batch Reactor Problems

4.5 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 5. Ideal Flow Reactors

5.1 Flow Rate, Residence Time, Space Time, Space Velocity, Dilution Rate

5.2 Plug Flow Reactor

5.3 Gasification and Fischer–Tropsch Technology

5.4 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) and Chemostat

5.5 Multiple Reactors

5.6 Recycle Reactors

5.7 Distributed Feed and Withdraw

5.8 PFR or CSTR?

5.9 Steady Nonisothermal Flow Reactors

5.10 Reactive Extraction

5.11 Graphic Solutions using Batch Concentration Data

5.12 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 6. Kinetic Theory and Reaction Kinetics

6.1 Elementary Kinetic Theory

6.2 Collision Theory of Reaction Rates

6.3 Reaction Rate Analysis/Approximation

6.4 Unimolecular Reactions

6.5 Free Radicals

6.6 Kinetics of Acid Hydrolysis

6.7 Summary

Reading Materials


Chapter 7. Parametric Estimation

7.1 Regression Models

7.2 Classification of Regression Models

7.3 Criteria for “Best” Fit and Simple Linear Regressions

7.4 Correlation Coefficient

7.5 Common Abuses of Regression

7.6 General Regression Analysis

7.7 Quality of Fit and Accuracy of Data

7.8 Batch Kinetic Data Interpretation: Differential Regression Model

7.9 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 8. Enzymes

8.1 How Enzymes Work

8.2 Enzyme Kinetics

8.3 Immobilized Enzyme Systems

8.4 Analysis of Bioprocess with Enzymatic Reactions

8.5 Large-Scale Production of Enzymes

8.6 Medical and Industrial Utilization of Enzymes

8.7 Kinetic Approximation: Why Michaelis–Menten Equation Works

8.8 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 9. Chemical Reactions on Solid Surfaces

9.1 Adsorption and Desorption

9.2 LHHW: Surface Reactions with Rate-Controlling Steps

9.3 Chemical Reactions on Nonideal Surfaces based on Distribution of Interaction Energy

9.4 Chemical Reactions on Nonideal Surfaces with Multilayer Approximation

9.5 Kinetics of Reactions on Surfaces Where the Solid Is Either a Product or Reactant

9.6 Decline of Surface Activity: Catalyst Deactivation

9.7 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 10. Cell Metabolism

10.1 The Central Dogma

10.2 DNA Replication: Preserving and Propagating the Cellular Message

10.3 Transcription: Sending the Message

10.4 Translation: Message to Product

10.5 Metabolic Regulation

10.6 How a Cell Senses Its Extracellular Environment

10.7 Major Metabolic Pathway

10.8 Overview of Biosynthesis

10.9 Overview of Anaerobic Metabolism

10.10 Interrelationships of Metabolic Pathways

10.11 Overview of Autotrophic Metabolism

10.12 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 11. How Cells Grow

11.1 Quantifying Biomass

11.2 Batch Growth Patterns

11.3 Biomass Yield

11.4 Approximate Growth Kinetics and Monod Equation

11.5 Cell Death Rate

11.6 Cell Maintenance and Endogenous Metabolism

11.7 Product Yield

11.8 Oxygen Demand for Aerobic Microorganisms

11.9 Effect of Temperature

11.10 Effect of PH

11.11 Effect of Redox Potential

11.12 Effect of Electrolytes and Substrate Concentration

11.13 Heat Generation by Microbial Growth

11.14 Overview of Microbial Growth Kinetic Models

11.15 Performance Analysis of Batch Culture

11.16 Summary

Reading Materials


Chapter 12. Continuous Cultivation

12.1 Continuous Culture

12.2 Choosing the Cultivation Method

12.3 Wastewater Treatment Process

12.4 Immobilized Cell Systems

12.5 Solid Substrate Fermentations

12.6 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 13. Fed-Batch Cultivation

13.1 Design Equations

13.2 Ideal Isothermal Fed-Batch Reactors

13.3 Isothermal Pseudo-Steady State Fed-Batch Growth

13.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Fed-Batch Operations

13.5 Considerations in Implementing Fed-Batch Operations

13.6 Examples of Fed-Batch Use in Industry

13.7 Parameters to Be Controlled or Monitored During Fed-Batch Operations

13.8 Parameters to Start and Finish the Feed and Stop the Fed-Batch Fermentation

13.9 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 14. Evolution and Genetic Engineering

14.1 Mutations

14.2 Selection

14.3 Natural Mechanisms for Gene Transfer and Rearrangement

14.4 Techniques of Genetic Engineering

14.5 Applications of Genetic Engineering

14.6 The Product and Process Decisions

14.7 Host–Vector System Selection

14.8 Regulatory Constraints on Genetic Processes

14.9 Metabolic Engineering

14.10 Protein Engineering

14.11 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 15. Sustainability: Humanity Perspective

15.1 What is Sustainability?

15.2 Sustainability of Humanity

15.3 Water

15.4 CO2 and Biomass

15.5 Woody Biomass Use and Desired Sustainable State

15.6 Solar Energy

15.7 Geothermal Energy

15.8 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 16. Sustainability and Stability

16.1 Feed Stability of a CSTR

16.2 Thermal Stability of a CSTR

16.3 Approaching Steady State

16.4 Catalyst Instability

16.5 Genetic Instability

16.6 Mixed Cultures

16.7 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 17. Mass Transfer Effects: Immobilized and Heterogeneous Reaction Systems

17.1 Molecular Diffusion and Mass Transfer Rate

17.2 External Mass Transfer

17.3 Reactions in Isothermal Porous Catalysts

17.4 Mass Transfer Effects in Nonisothermal Porous Particles

17.5 External and Internal Mass Transfer Effects

17.6 Encapsulation Immobilization

17.7 External and Internal Surface Effects

17.8 The Shrinking Core Model

17.9 Summary

Further Reading


Chapter 18. Bioreactor Design and Operation

18.1 Bioreactor Selection

18.2 Reactor Operational Mode Selection

18.3 Aeration, Agitation, and Heat Transfer

18.4 Scale-up

18.5 Scale-down

18.6 Bioinstrumentation and Controls

18.7 Sterilization of Process Fluids

18.8 Aseptic Operations and Practical Considerations for Bioreactor System Construction

18.9 Effect of Imperfect Mixing

18.10 Summary

Further Reading




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About the Author

Shijie Liu

Dr. Shijie Liu is a professor of bioprocess engineering at the State University of New York – College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF), Syracuse, NY, USA. His contributions include volume averaging in porous media, kinetics of reactions on solid surfaces, cooperative adsorption theory, the theory of interactive enzymes, and the kinetic modeling of polyauxic growth / fermentation. Much of his childhood was spent in the country side of Sichuan Province in China, finished high school in 1978 from Luxi High School, in a little town just a few kilometers away from his home of birth. He graduated from Chengdu University of Science and Technology (now merged into Sichuan University) with a BS degree in Chemical Engineering in 1982. His early career started in the chemical industrial city of Lanzhou, China before moving to Canada. He obtained his PhD degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Alberta in 1992 under Prof. Jacob H. Masliyah. Since then, he worked in the University of Alberta and Alberta Research Council before joining SUNY ESF in 2005. He has over 150 peer-reviewed publications today and maintains strong collaborations with colleagues in China from various universities. He taught a variety of courses including transport phenomena, numerical methods, mass transfer, chemical kinetics, pulp and paper technology, colloids and interfaces, chemical reaction engineering, bioreaction engineering, bioprocess kinetics and systems engineering, bioefinery processes, advanced biocatalysis, advanced bioprocess kinetics, and bioprocess engineering. Dr. Liu currently serves as the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, as well as the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery.

Affiliations and Expertise

College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF), State University of New York, NY, USA


"Combining biology and chemical engineering, Liu presents this overview of bioprocess engineering, applying typical techniques of the chemical industry to biosynthetic processes…Although formulated as a textbook, the level of detail would also make this suitable as a laboratory reference."--Reference & Research Book News, October 2013