Bioprocess Engineering

Bioprocess Engineering

Kinetics, Sustainability, and Reactor Design

1st Edition - September 28, 2012

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  • Author: Shijie Liu
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595225

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Bioprocess Engineering involves the design and development of equipment and processes for the manufacturing of products such as food, feed, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, chemicals, and polymers and paper from biological materials. It also deals with studying various biotechnological processes. "Bioprocess Kinetics and Systems Engineering" first of its kind contains systematic and comprehensive content on bioprocess kinetics, bioprocess systems, sustainability and reaction engineering. Dr. Shijie Liu reviews the relevant fundamentals of chemical kinetics-including batch and continuous reactors, biochemistry, microbiology, molecular biology, reaction engineering, and bioprocess systems engineering- introducing key principles that enable bioprocess engineers to engage in the analysis, optimization, design and consistent control over biological and chemical transformations. The quantitative treatment of bioprocesses is the central theme of this book, while more advanced techniques and applications are covered with some depth. Many theoretical derivations and simplifications are used to demonstrate how empirical kinetic models are applicable to complicated bioprocess systems.

Key Features

  • Contains extensive illustrative drawings which make the understanding of the subject easy
  • Contains worked examples of the various process parameters, their significance and their specific practical use
  • Provides the theory of bioprocess kinetics from simple concepts to complex metabolic pathways
  • Incorporates sustainability concepts into the various bioprocesses


Bioprocess Engineering Students and Bioprocess Engineers, along with Chemical Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Greek Symbols



    Chapter 1. Introduction

    1.1 Biological Cycle

    1.2 Green Chemistry

    1.3 Sustainability

    1.4 Biorefinery

    1.5 Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering

    1.6 Mathematics, Biology, and Engineering

    1.7 The Story of Penicillin: The Dawn of Bioprocess Engineering

    1.8 Bioprocesses: Regulatory Constraints

    1.9 The Pillars of Bioprocess Kinetics and Systems Engineering

    1.10 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 2. An Overview of Biological Basics

    2.1 Cells and Organisms

    2.2 Stem Cell

    2.3 Cell Chemistry

    2.4 Cell Feed

    2.5 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 3. An Overview of Chemical Reaction Analysis

    3.1 Chemical Species

    3.2 Chemical Reactions

    3.3 Reaction Rates

    3.4 Approximate Reactions

    3.5 Rate Coefficients

    3.6 Stoichiometry

    3.7 Yield and Yield Factor

    3.8 Reaction Rates Near Equilibrium

    3.9 Energy Regularity

    3.10 Classification of Multiple Reactions and Selectivity

    3.11 Coupled Reactions

    3.12 Reactor Mass Balances

    3.13 Reaction Energy Balances

    3.14 Reactor Momentum Balance

    3.15 Ideal Reactors

    3.16 Bioprocess Systems Optimization

    3.17 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 4. Batch Reactor

    4.1 Isothermal Batch Reactors

    4.2 Batch Reactor Sizing

    4.3 Non-Isothermal Batch Reactors

    4.4 Numerical Solutions of Batch Reactor Problems

    4.5 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 5. Ideal Flow Reactors

    5.1 Flow Rate, Residence Time, Space Time, Space Velocity, Dilution Rate

    5.2 Plug Flow Reactor

    5.3 Gasification and Fischer–Tropsch Technology

    5.4 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) and Chemostat

    5.5 Multiple Reactors

    5.6 Recycle Reactors

    5.7 Distributed Feed and Withdraw

    5.8 PFR or CSTR?

    5.9 Steady Nonisothermal Flow Reactors

    5.10 Reactive Extraction

    5.11 Graphic Solutions using Batch Concentration Data

    5.12 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 6. Kinetic Theory and Reaction Kinetics

    6.1 Elementary Kinetic Theory

    6.2 Collision Theory of Reaction Rates

    6.3 Reaction Rate Analysis/Approximation

    6.4 Unimolecular Reactions

    6.5 Free Radicals

    6.6 Kinetics of Acid Hydrolysis

    6.7 Summary

    Reading Materials


    Chapter 7. Parametric Estimation

    7.1 Regression Models

    7.2 Classification of Regression Models

    7.3 Criteria for “Best” Fit and Simple Linear Regressions

    7.4 Correlation Coefficient

    7.5 Common Abuses of Regression

    7.6 General Regression Analysis

    7.7 Quality of Fit and Accuracy of Data

    7.8 Batch Kinetic Data Interpretation: Differential Regression Model

    7.9 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 8. Enzymes

    8.1 How Enzymes Work

    8.2 Enzyme Kinetics

    8.3 Immobilized Enzyme Systems

    8.4 Analysis of Bioprocess with Enzymatic Reactions

    8.5 Large-Scale Production of Enzymes

    8.6 Medical and Industrial Utilization of Enzymes

    8.7 Kinetic Approximation: Why Michaelis–Menten Equation Works

    8.8 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 9. Chemical Reactions on Solid Surfaces

    9.1 Adsorption and Desorption

    9.2 LHHW: Surface Reactions with Rate-Controlling Steps

    9.3 Chemical Reactions on Nonideal Surfaces based on Distribution of Interaction Energy

    9.4 Chemical Reactions on Nonideal Surfaces with Multilayer Approximation

    9.5 Kinetics of Reactions on Surfaces Where the Solid Is Either a Product or Reactant

    9.6 Decline of Surface Activity: Catalyst Deactivation

    9.7 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 10. Cell Metabolism

    10.1 The Central Dogma

    10.2 DNA Replication: Preserving and Propagating the Cellular Message

    10.3 Transcription: Sending the Message

    10.4 Translation: Message to Product

    10.5 Metabolic Regulation

    10.6 How a Cell Senses Its Extracellular Environment

    10.7 Major Metabolic Pathway

    10.8 Overview of Biosynthesis

    10.9 Overview of Anaerobic Metabolism

    10.10 Interrelationships of Metabolic Pathways

    10.11 Overview of Autotrophic Metabolism

    10.12 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 11. How Cells Grow

    11.1 Quantifying Biomass

    11.2 Batch Growth Patterns

    11.3 Biomass Yield

    11.4 Approximate Growth Kinetics and Monod Equation

    11.5 Cell Death Rate

    11.6 Cell Maintenance and Endogenous Metabolism

    11.7 Product Yield

    11.8 Oxygen Demand for Aerobic Microorganisms

    11.9 Effect of Temperature

    11.10 Effect of PH

    11.11 Effect of Redox Potential

    11.12 Effect of Electrolytes and Substrate Concentration

    11.13 Heat Generation by Microbial Growth

    11.14 Overview of Microbial Growth Kinetic Models

    11.15 Performance Analysis of Batch Culture

    11.16 Summary

    Reading Materials


    Chapter 12. Continuous Cultivation

    12.1 Continuous Culture

    12.2 Choosing the Cultivation Method

    12.3 Wastewater Treatment Process

    12.4 Immobilized Cell Systems

    12.5 Solid Substrate Fermentations

    12.6 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 13. Fed-Batch Cultivation

    13.1 Design Equations

    13.2 Ideal Isothermal Fed-Batch Reactors

    13.3 Isothermal Pseudo-Steady State Fed-Batch Growth

    13.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Fed-Batch Operations

    13.5 Considerations in Implementing Fed-Batch Operations

    13.6 Examples of Fed-Batch Use in Industry

    13.7 Parameters to Be Controlled or Monitored During Fed-Batch Operations

    13.8 Parameters to Start and Finish the Feed and Stop the Fed-Batch Fermentation

    13.9 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 14. Evolution and Genetic Engineering

    14.1 Mutations

    14.2 Selection

    14.3 Natural Mechanisms for Gene Transfer and Rearrangement

    14.4 Techniques of Genetic Engineering

    14.5 Applications of Genetic Engineering

    14.6 The Product and Process Decisions

    14.7 Host–Vector System Selection

    14.8 Regulatory Constraints on Genetic Processes

    14.9 Metabolic Engineering

    14.10 Protein Engineering

    14.11 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 15. Sustainability: Humanity Perspective

    15.1 What is Sustainability?

    15.2 Sustainability of Humanity

    15.3 Water

    15.4 CO2 and Biomass

    15.5 Woody Biomass Use and Desired Sustainable State

    15.6 Solar Energy

    15.7 Geothermal Energy

    15.8 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 16. Sustainability and Stability

    16.1 Feed Stability of a CSTR

    16.2 Thermal Stability of a CSTR

    16.3 Approaching Steady State

    16.4 Catalyst Instability

    16.5 Genetic Instability

    16.6 Mixed Cultures

    16.7 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 17. Mass Transfer Effects: Immobilized and Heterogeneous Reaction Systems

    17.1 Molecular Diffusion and Mass Transfer Rate

    17.2 External Mass Transfer

    17.3 Reactions in Isothermal Porous Catalysts

    17.4 Mass Transfer Effects in Nonisothermal Porous Particles

    17.5 External and Internal Mass Transfer Effects

    17.6 Encapsulation Immobilization

    17.7 External and Internal Surface Effects

    17.8 The Shrinking Core Model

    17.9 Summary

    Further Reading


    Chapter 18. Bioreactor Design and Operation

    18.1 Bioreactor Selection

    18.2 Reactor Operational Mode Selection

    18.3 Aeration, Agitation, and Heat Transfer

    18.4 Scale-up

    18.5 Scale-down

    18.6 Bioinstrumentation and Controls

    18.7 Sterilization of Process Fluids

    18.8 Aseptic Operations and Practical Considerations for Bioreactor System Construction

    18.9 Effect of Imperfect Mixing

    18.10 Summary

    Further Reading



Product details

  • No. of pages: 1000
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2012
  • Published: September 28, 2012
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595225

About the Author

Shijie Liu

Shijie Liu
Dr. Shijie Liu is a professor of bioprocess engineering at the State University of New York – College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF), Syracuse, NY, USA. His contributions include volume averaging in porous media, kinetics of reactions on solid surfaces, cooperative adsorption theory, the theory of interactive enzymes, and the kinetic modeling of polyauxic growth / fermentation. Much of his childhood was spent in the country side of Sichuan Province in China, finished high school in 1978 from Luxi High School, in a little town just a few kilometers away from his home of birth. He graduated from Chengdu University of Science and Technology (now merged into Sichuan University) with a BS degree in Chemical Engineering in 1982. His early career started in the chemical industrial city of Lanzhou, China before moving to Canada. He obtained his PhD degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Alberta in 1992 under Prof. Jacob H. Masliyah. Since then, he worked in the University of Alberta and Alberta Research Council before joining SUNY ESF in 2005. He has over 150 peer-reviewed publications today and maintains strong collaborations with colleagues in China from various universities. He taught a variety of courses including transport phenomena, numerical methods, mass transfer, chemical kinetics, pulp and paper technology, colloids and interfaces, chemical reaction engineering, bioreaction engineering, bioprocess kinetics and systems engineering, bioefinery processes, advanced biocatalysis, advanced bioprocess kinetics, and bioprocess engineering. Dr. Liu currently serves as the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, as well as the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery.

Affiliations and Expertise

College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF), State University of New York, NY, USA

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