Biopolymers

Biopolymers

1st Edition - January 1, 1973

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  • Author: Alen Walton
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144476

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Description

Biopolymers deals with the methods of physical characterization and the principles underlying them, with emphasis on quantitative aspects of sequence, conformation, and structure in both laboratory-synthesized and native biopolymers. The book reviews structural units of biopolymers and describes characterization of biopolymers, the available techniques, the evaluation of underlying principles, and experimental applications. Some of these methods include Raman spectroscopy, theoretical conformation analysis, electron microscopy, and morphology of laboratory-synthesized polymers. The text explains the factors controlling conformation of polypeptides, the steric maps of dipeptides, potential energy maps, and the calculation of tertiary polypeptide structure. The investigator can use X-ray diffraction to determine the structure of polymers and macromolecules, such as diffraction by a crystal, by poorly crystalline polymer systems, or by a helical chain. The book notes that materials that can be crystallized from strong solvents reveal morphology similar to that of commercial polymers, which are different from that of polypeptides or proteins in native tissue. The text explains the basis of infrared and Raman spectroscopy in probing molecular structure and conformation of biological macromolecules. The investigator can also employ nuclear magnetic resonance and dielectric relaxation for conformation in physical organic chemistry, outside of biological macromolecule applications. The book can prove helpful for researchers in ultra-trace analysis, polymer research, and analytical chemistry.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    1. Structural Units of Biopolymers

    Introduction

    Amino Acids

    Sugars

    Nucleotides

    References

    2. Conformation

    Introduction

    The Peptide Bond

    Factors Controlling Conformation of Polypeptides

    Characteristics of Helices

    Steric Maps of Dipeptides

    Interatomic Interaction Potentials

    Potential Energy Maps

    Calculation of Tertiary Polypeptide Structure and Summary of Polypeptide

    Conformation

    Conformational Analysis for Other Biopolymers

    References

    Appendix

    3. Structure Determination by X-Ray Diffraction

    Introduction

    Diffraction of X Rays by a Crystal. The Reciprocal Lattice

    Symmetry of Chain Molecules

    Structure Determination

    Diffraction by Poorly Crystalline Polymer Systems

    Diffraction by a Helical Chain

    Identification of the Chain Conformation

    Single Crystals of Globular Proteins

    References

    4. Tertiary Structure and Morphology of Synthetic Biopolymers

    Introduction

    Types of Molecular Arrangement

    The Calculation of Crystal Structures

    Observation of Morphology of Synthetic Biopolymers

    Discussion of Morphology

    Morphology of Synthetic Polysaccharides and Polynucleotides

    Summary

    Appendix: Electron Diffraction

    References

    5. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy

    Introduction

    Spectroscopy of Polypeptides

    Spectroscopy of Polynucleotides

    Polysaccharides

    References

    6. Electronic Spectroscopy

    Introduction

    The Chromophores

    The Peptide Bond

    Nucleotides

    Line Broadening

    Oligomers

    Ultraviolet Absorption by Biopolymers

    Optical Rotation

    Optical Rotatory Dispersion

    Circular Dichroism

    Nucleosides and Nucleotides

    Optical Properties of Polysaccharides

    Conformational Transitions of Polysaccharides

    Spectra of Complexes

    References

    7. Physical Properties of Biopolymers in Dilute Solutions

    Symbols

    Introduction

    Determination of Particle Size and Shape

    Osmometry

    Light Scattering

    Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering by Solutions of Macromolecules

    Viscometry

    Sedimentation

    Flow Birefringence

    Characterization of Conformation, Structure, and Conformational Transitions in Solution

    Appendix: Statistical Ways of Averaging a Distribution of Molecular Weights

    References

    8. Electrical and Magnetic Field Effects

    Introduction

    Proton Magnetic Resonance

    The Chemical Shift

    Spin Coupling

    Linewidth

    The Charge Distribution and Chemical Shifts of Amino Acids

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Peptide Oligomers

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Polypeptides

    Coupling Constants and Conformational Analysis

    Application of nmr Spectroscopy to Native Proteins

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Polynucleotides

    Dielectric Dispersion by Biopolymers

    Dielectric Properties of Biopolymer Solutions

    Dielectric Dispersion and Rotatory Diffusion Coefficient

    Experimental Information

    References

    9. Conformation of Polypeptides

    Homobiopolymers in the Solid State

    Homobiopolymers in Solution

    Conformation in Mixed Solvents

    Temperature-Induced Transitions

    Copolymers

    Sequential Polypeptides

    References

    10. Fibrous Proteins and Biopolymer Models

    Introduction

    Silk Proteins

    Collagen

    Elastin

    Resilin

    The Keratins

    The Muscle Proteins

    Summary of Fibrous Proteins

    References

    11. The Polysaccharides

    Introduction

    Polysaccharide Structures

    Cellulose

    Chitin

    Xylans

    Mannans

    Amylose

    Alginic Acids

    A-B-Polysaccharides

    Carrageenans

    Hyaluronic Acid

    References

    12. Nucleic Acids and Polynucleotides

    Introduction

    Double-Helical Conformation

    Solid-State Structure

    Solution Properties

    Transfer RNA

    Protein Synthesis and the Genetic Code

    References

    13. Globular Proteins

    X-Ray Diffraction

    Prediction of Chain Conformation for Globular Proteins

    Myoglobin

    Hemoglobin

    Lysozyme

    Ribonuclease

    Chymotrypsin

    Papain

    Carboxypeptidase A

    Other Techniques for Determining the Conformation of Globular Protein

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 616
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1973
  • Published: January 1, 1973
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144476

About the Author

Alen Walton

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