Biopolymers and Biotech Admixtures for Eco-Efficient Construction Materials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081002148, 9780081002094

Biopolymers and Biotech Admixtures for Eco-Efficient Construction Materials

1st Edition

Editors: Fernando Pacheco-Torgal Volodymyr Ivanov Niranjan Karak Henk Jonkers
eBook ISBN: 9780081002094
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081002148
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 12th January 2016
Page Count: 464
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Table of Contents

  • Related titles
  • List of contributors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Foreword
  • 1. Introduction to biopolymers and biotech admixtures for eco-efficient construction materials
    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. Biopolymers and biotech admixtures for eco-efficient construction materials
    • 1.3. Outline of the book
  • Section One. Production of biopolymers for eco-efficient construction materials
    • 2. Basic concepts on biopolymers and biotechnological admixtures for eco-efficient construction materials
      • 2.1. Construction biotechnology
      • 2.2. The types of biopolymers
      • 2.3. Microbial polysaccharides and their applications in civil engineering
      • 2.4. Bioclogging of soil using in situ production of microbial polysaccharides
      • 2.5. Microbial plastics for civil engineering
      • 2.6. Biocements and biogrouts
      • 2.7. Conclusions
    • 3. Biotechnological production of biopolymers and admixtures for eco-efficient construction materials
      • 3.1. Biotechnology for the production of construction materials
      • 3.2. Biotechnological production of bioplastics for construction
      • 3.3. Biotechnological production of polysaccharide admixtures
      • 3.4. Biotechnological production of biocements and biogrouts
      • 3.5. Conclusions
    • 4. Life cycle assessment of biopolymers
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Biopolymers
      • 4.3. Life cycle assessment (LCA) method and models
      • 4.4. LCA of biopolymers
      • 4.5. Future research trends and conclusion
  • Section Two. Biopolymers and biotech admixtures in cement and mortars
    • 5. Biotech admixtures for enhancing portland cement hydration
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Portland cement hydration
      • 5.3. Biotech admixtures
      • 5.4. Summary and future trends
    • 6. Black liquor waste as a cement admixture or cement and concrete admixtures
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Air-entraining admixtures
      • 6.3. Plasticizers
      • 6.4. Superplasticizers
      • 6.5. Retarders
      • 6.6. Accelerators
      • 6.7. Black liquor waste
      • 6.8. Water-resisting admixtures
      • 6.9. Conclusion
      • 6.10. Future trends
      • Cement notation
    • 7. High-performance superplasticizer based on chitosan
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Structure and properties of chitosan
      • 7.3. High-performance superplasticizer based on chitosan
      • 7.4. Dispersion capacity characterization of the chitosan superplasticizer
      • 7.5. Adsorption properties of SCS on the cement surface
      • 7.6. The application results of SCS in concrete
      • 7.7. Microstructure characterization of hardened cement paste
      • 7.8. Working mechanism of SCS
      • 7.9. Conclusion and future research trends
    • 8. Microorganism-based bioplasticizer for cementitious materials
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Efficient microorganisms and their use in construction
      • 8.3. EM characterization
      • 8.4. EM as plasticizer in cement
      • 8.5. EM as plasticizer in concrete
      • 8.6. Assessment of the impact of EM on the microstructure of concrete
      • 8.7. EM as viscosity modifier in concrete
      • 8.8. Conclusions
    • 9. Fly ash-based geopolymer with kappa-carrageenan biopolymer
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. Experimental study
      • 9.3. Results
      • 9.4. Discussion
      • 9.5. Conclusions and suggestions for future work
  • Section Three. Biopolymers and biotech admixtures in concrete
    • 10. Biopolymers with superplasticizer properties for concrete
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Biopolymers with superplasticizer properties
      • 10.3. Use of biopolymers in concrete: case studies
      • 10.4. Final considerations
    • 11. Biopolymers with viscosity-enhancing properties for concrete
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. Basic concepts of rheology and viscosity-enhancing admixtures
      • 11.3. Biopolymers currently used as viscosity-enhancing admixtures
      • 11.4. Biopolymers with potential for future use as viscosity-enhancing admixtures
      • 11.5. Future trends
    • 12. Biotech solutions for concrete repair with enhanced durability
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. Biotechnological strategies for durable repair of concrete structures
      • 12.3. Bacterial production of limestone in alkaline environments
      • 12.4. Liquid bacteria-based system for durable repair of porous concrete structures
      • 12.5. Biobased mortar systems for structural repair of concrete defects
      • 12.6. Conclusions and future trends
  • Section Four. Other biopolymer applications
    • 13. Rigid biofoam composites as eco-efficient construction materials
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Rigid foams
      • 13.3. Foam processing
      • 13.4. Foam morphology and characterisation
      • 13.5. Rigid foam composites
      • 13.6. Environmental impact
      • 13.7. Application case studies
      • 13.8. Conclusions and future trends
    • 14. Biopolymers for wood preservation
      • 14.1. Introduction
      • 14.2. Wood preservation mechanisms
      • 14.3. Examples of biopolymer wood preservatives
      • 14.4. Conclusions and future trends
    • 15. Biopolymers for paints and surface coatings
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. Concept of biopolymers in paints and coatings
      • 15.3. Naturally obtained biopolymers used in paints and coatings
      • 15.4. Background and importance of biobased polymers
      • 15.5. Biobased polymers used for paintings and coatings
      • 15.6. Manufacturing of paints and coatings from biobased polymers
      • 15.7. Conclusions and future trends
    • 16. Bio-based adhesives
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. Testing bioadhesives
      • 16.3. Bioadhesive species
      • 16.4. Discussion and conclusions
    • 17. Biopolymers as biofilters and biobarriers
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Mechanism
      • 17.3. Schematic view of contaminant removal by biobarrier
      • 17.4. Monitoring the performance of a biofilter/biobarrier
      • 17.5. Characterization of biopolymers as a supporter
      • 17.6. Removal of contaminants from wastewater
      • 17.7. Future trends
    • 18. Biopolymers for superhydrophobic photocatalytic coatings
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Survey of approaches to biopolymers from renewable resources
      • 18.3. Development of biopolymer from renewable resources
      • 18.4. Service life of biopolymers
      • 18.5. Modification of biopolymers using fillers
      • 18.6. Titanium dioxide as polymer stabilization and photocatalysis agent
      • 18.7. Biopolymers as superhydrophobic photocatalytic coatings
      • 18.8. Conclusions and future trends
  • Index


Since 1930 more than 100,000 new chemical compounds have been developed and insufficient information exists on the health assessment of 95 percent of these chemicals in which a relevant percentage are used in construction products. For instance Portland cement concrete, the most used material on the Planet (10.000 million tons/year that in the next 40 years will increase around 100 %) currently used in around 15% of total concrete production contains chemicals used to modify their properties, either in the fresh or hardened state.

Biopolymers are materials that are developed from natural resources. They reduce dependence on fossil fuels and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. There is a worldwide demand to replace petroleum-based materials with renewable resources.

Currently bio-admixtures represent just a small fraction of the chemical admixtures market (around 20%) but with environmental awareness for constituents in construction materials generally growing (the Construction Products Regulation is being enforced in Europe since 2013), the trend towards bio-admixtures is expected to continue.

This book provides an updated state-of-the-art review on biopolymers and their influence and use as admixtures in the development of eco-efficient construction materials.

Key Features

  • Provides essential knowledge for researchers and producers working on the development of biopolymer-modified construction materials
  • Discusses the various types of biopolymers currently available, their different production techniques, their use as bio-admixtures in concretes and mortars and applications in other areas of civil engineering such as soil stability, wood preservation, adhesives and coatings
  • All contributions are made from leading researchers, who have intensive involvement in the design and use of biopolymers in construction materials


Civil and construction engineers, architects and materials scientists, producers of biopolymer modified cement-based materials.


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© Woodhead Publishing 2016
Woodhead Publishing
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"The book provides basic concepts, production aspects and environmental impact assessment on the use of biopolymers and biotech admixtures ... It provides new knowledge, is well structured, really up-to-date, and has an enormous number of references." --Professor Lech Czarnecki, Building Research Institute, Poland (from the foreword)

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Fernando Pacheco-Torgal Editor

Fernando Pacheco-Torgal is a Senior Researcher in the C-TAC Research Centre at the University of Minho, Portugal. He has authored almost 300 publications, including 96 in ISI Web of Science-WoS and 92 on Scopus. Having received 798 citations in WoS (h-index=15) and 1125 citations on Scopus (h-index=18). He has a SCI Platinum h=30 the highest in the field of civil engineering in Portugal. He has also been the Lead Editor of 14 international books, with more than 500 contributors from 52 countries in the five continents.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Minho, Portugal

Volodymyr Ivanov Editor

Volodymyr Ivanov is a professor at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore and his research lines encompass nanobiotechnology and microbiotechnology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Niranjan Karak Editor

Niranjan Karak is Professor of Polymer Science and Technology and Head of the Chemical Sciences Department at Tezpur University, India. He has published over 87 research papers, two books and two chapters in two edited books, and also regularly acts as a reviewer for many international polymer journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Tezpur University, India

Henk Jonkers Editor

Henk Jonkers is a leading researcher and expert on self-healing bio-concrete and the sustainability Chair Leader of the Materials and Environment section in the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Structural Engineering, Section of Materials & Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, NL