Biophysical Basis of Physiology and Calcium Signaling Mechanism in Cardiac and Smooth Muscle - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128149508, 9780128149515

Biophysical Basis of Physiology and Calcium Signaling Mechanism in Cardiac and Smooth Muscle

1st Edition

Authors: Tetsuya Watanabe
eBook ISBN: 9780128149515
Paperback ISBN: 9780128149508
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 15th February 2018
Page Count: 232
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Biophysical Basis of Physiology and Calcium Signaling Mechanism in Cardiac and Smooth Muscle acts as a bridge between physiology and physics by discussing the physiology and calcium signaling mechanism in cardiac and smooth muscle. By exploring the mechanism of the cyclic release of stored Ca^(2+) in the SR or ER, this book covers the cell communication system, including excitable cells, recognizing the most relevant mechanisms of cell communication. Serving as a bridge between physiology and physics, coverage spans the physiology and calcium signaling mechanism in cardiac and smooth muscle, offering insight to physiological scientists, pharmaceutical scientists, medical doctors, biologists and physicists.

Key Features

  • Explores the mechanism of the cyclic release of stored Ca^2+ in the SR or ER
  • Provides in-depth coverage of cell communication systems to explain the most relevant mechanisms of cell communication
  • Covers the physiology and calcium signaling mechanism in cardiac and smooth muscle


Physiological Scientists, Pharmaceutical Scientists, and Medical Doctors, Biologists, Physicists

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Mixing, dilution and Diffusion

1.2 Diffusion through Channels and Transporters

1.3 Diffusion and Flow

1.4 Diffusion and Currents

1.5 Speed of the Wave of Action Potential in Nerve and Muscle Fibers

1.6 Ca^(2+) Oscillation

1.7 Amplification and Stabilization of Signals

1.8 Second Messengers

1.9 Neuronal Communication

1.9.1 Communication between Neurons

1.9.2 Communication between Neuron and Skeletal Muscle


1.9.3 Autonomic Nervous Control on Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Fibers

1.10 Ca^(2+) Signaling in the Heart

1.11 Ca^(2+) Signaling in the Intestine

Chapter 2 Statistical Thermodynamics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Statistics of Energy Distribution over Molecules

2.3 Derivation of the Boltzmann’s Probability Distribution

2.4 Interacting System

2.5 Partition Functions and Degeneracy

2.6 Counting Microstates of Gasses

2.7 Changes in Energy and Enthalpy in Relation to Heat and Work on a System

2.7.1 Internal Energy as a State Function

2.7.2 Joule Free Expansion of Gasses

2.7.3 Enthalpy as a State Function

2.8 Conditions of Spontaneity in Relation to Entropy and Free Energy

2.8.1 Entropy as a State Function

2.8.2 Conditions of Spontaneous Process

2.9 Statistical Definition of Entropy

2.10 Introduction of Partition Function to Thermodynamic Functions

2.11 Relationship between Entropy and Microstates

2.12 Separation of Partition Function

2.13 Monatomic Gas as a Model of Ideal Gas

2.14 Calculation of Entropy and Free Energy Changes Statistically

2.14.1 Free Expansion of a Gas

2.14.2 Gas Mixing

2.14.3 Liquid Mixing

2.14.4 Dilution

2.15 Entropy Change and Diffusion

2.16 Double-stranded DNA Model

2.17 Activation Energy

2.18 Changes in Gibbs Free Energy during Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 Shielding Effect and Chemical Bonding

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Photoelectric Effect Suggesting Light as Particle

3.3 Figuring a Model of an Atom

3.4 Characteristic Properties of Multi-electron Atoms

3.5 Shielding Effect and Effective Atomic Number of He Atom

3.6 Comparison of Orbital Energy, E_2s, E_2p, E_3s, E_3p or E_3d

3.7 Electron Configurations and Valence Electrons

3.8 Discovery of X-ray and its Application to Medicine

3.9 X-ray Spectra

3.10 Photoelectron Spectroscopy

3.11 Periodic Table of Elements and Electronegativity

3.12 Chemical Bonding

3.12.1 Ionic Bond

3.12.2 Covalent Bond

3.12.3 Polar Covalent Bond and Polar Molecule

3.12.4 Hydrogen Bond

3.12.5 London Dispersion Forces

3.12.6 Van der Waals Forces

3.13 Shapes of Molecules

3.13.1 Bonding Electrons and Lone-pair Electrons

3.13.2 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

3.14 Free Radicals in Life, Oxygen Radicals and Nitric Oxide

3.15 Oxidation-reduction Reactions and Electron Transport

3.16 Derivation of Nernst Equation

3.16.1 Relationship between Negative Gibbs Free Energy and Non-expansive Work

3.16.2 Cell Potential and Gibbs Free Energy

3.16.3 Nernst Equation

3.17 Energy Available for Electron Transport and ATP Production

Chapter 4 The Cell

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Components of the Membrane

4.2.1 Lipids

4.2.2 Proteins

4.3 Molecular Structure of the Membrane

4.4 Speed of Simple vis Facilitated Diffusion

4.5 Production, Glycosylation and Transport of Proteins

4.6 Shape of Proteins

4.7 Transmembrane Proteins

4.8 Discovery of Aquaporins as Water Channel

4.9 Osmotic Pressure

4.10 Changes in Body Fluid Compartments

4.11 Action of Na^+-K^+ Pump

4.12 Enzyme and Coenzyme

4.13 Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mitochondria

4.14 Role of Adenosine Triphosphate in Cell Metabolism

4.15 Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)

4.16 Semiconservative Replication of DNA

4.17 Protein Synthesis in the Living Cell

4.17.1 Transcription

4.17.2 Translation

4.18 Restriction Enzymes

4.19 Vectors and Transfection of Foreign DNA into Host Cells

4.20 Polymerase Chain Reaction

4.21 DNA Sequencing Reaction

4.22 Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

4.23 Mutations

Chapter 5 Diffusion and Flow, and Respiratory System

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure and Henry’s Law

5.3 Gas Exchanges between Blood and Organs

5.4 Mathematical Justification of Diffusion

5.5 Determination of Cardiac Output by Indicator Dilution

5.6 Cerebral Blood Flow

5.7 Diffusion through the Membrane

5.8 Diffusion and Convection

5.9 Difusion and Flow

5.10 Airway Resistance and Gas Flow in Lungs

5.11 Pulmonary Resistance and Compliance during Inhalation of Fluorocarbon 11 and 5% Oxygen

Chapter 6 Peripheral Nervous Systems

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Application of Nernst Equation to Calculate Equilibrium Potential

6.3 Resting Memrane Potential

6.4 Goldmann Equation

6.5 Action Potential

6.6 Structure and Function of Voltage-gated Na^+ Channels

6.7 Function of Inwardly Rectifying K^+ Channels

6.8 Graded Potential

6.9 Synapse in the Peripheral Nervous System

6.10 Exctable Tissues with Voltage Gated Channels

6.10.1 Nerve Cell and Nervous Systems

6.10.2 Muscle Fibers and Receptors

6.11 Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase

6.12 Agonists and Antagonists

6.13 Relaxation of Blood Vessels

Chapter 7 Calcium Signaling in Heart and Small Intestine

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Action Potential in Myocardium and Pacemaker Cells

7.3 Cyclic Depolarization of SA Node Pacemaker Cells

7.4 Contraction of Cardiac Muscle

7.5 Action Potential in Small Intestinal Muscle

7.6 Discussion

Chapter 8 Mechanism of Cardiac Arrhythmias and Antiarrhythmic Drugs

8.1 Impulse Propagation and Electrocardiogram

8.2 Differences in Responses to Premature Stimuli between Fast- and Slow-response Cells

8.3 Mechanism of Cardiac Arrhythmias

8.3.1 Bradycardia and Tachycardia

8.3.2 Tachycardia Triggered by Afterdepolarizations

8.3.3 Tachycardia Induced by Antatomical and Pathological Extra Circuit

8.4 Premature Ventricular Extrasystole

8.5 Mechanism of Antiarrhythmic Drugs

8.6 Discussion


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About the Author

Tetsuya Watanabe

Dr. Tetsuya Watanabe is the President of Watanabe Institute of Mathematical Biology and Watanabe Clinic of Oral Surgery in Hamamatsu, Japan. He graduated from Kanagawa Dental College and holds a DDS degree in dental medicine. He received Postgraduate Training and Fellowship Appointments and successively Faculty Appointments of Associate and Assistant Professor at the Department of Pharmacology at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Watanabe Institute of Mathematical Biology and Watanabe Clinic of Oral Surgery, Japan

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