Biometeorological Methods

Biometeorological Methods

1st Edition - January 28, 1970

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  • Author: R. E. Munn
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272412

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Biometeorological Methods provides a unified look at methodologies in biometeorology. Examples of biometeorological studies have been chosen not because the results are necessarily significant but because the method is instructive. The book begins with a brief survey of biometeorology to orient the reader approaching the subject for the first time. The remaining chapters seek to place in perspective the various experimental, empirical, analytical, and physical methods that are being used or could be used in biometeorology. Key topics discussed include space and time considerations in the sampling of the atmosphere; the design of biometeorological experiments; the use of tables, graphs, and charts in the search for biometeorological relationships; statistical and physical methods; and the synoptic approach. Also covered are studies on seasonal relationships, past climates, and climatic classification and indices. The present volume should be of value to anyone seeking assistance in the design of experiments and analysis of environmental data.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    1. Weather and Life

    1.1. Physiology, Ecology, and Biometeorology

    1.2. An Example of a Biometeorological Study

    1.3. Reproducible and Specific Relations

    1.4. Readjustment of Living Organisms to Their Environment

    1.5. Readjustment of the Environment by Living Organisms

    1.6. The Multidiscipline Approach

    2. Sampling of the Atmosphere: Time Considerations

    2.1. Time Variability in the Atmosphere

    2.2. Concentration and Dosage

    2.3. Radioactivity Units

    2.4. Degree Days

    2.5. Concentration and Flux

    2.6. Physical Time Lags

    2.7. Biological Clocks and Time Lags

    3. Sampling of the Atmosphere: Space Considerations

    3.1. Space Variability in the Atmosphere

    3.2. Micrometeorology

    3.3. Mesometeorology

    3.4. Macrometeorology

    3.5. Network Spacing

    3.6. Some Instrument Sampling Problems

    4. The Design of Biometeorological Experiments

    4.1. Some Preliminary Steps

    4.2. Visual Observations

    4.3. Questionnaires

    4.4. Other Medical Statistics

    4.5. Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    4.6. Outdoor Quasi-Controlled Experiments

    4.7. Studies Based on Climatological and Other Routine Observations

    5. Tables, Graphs, and Charts

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. Single-Variable Tables and Graphs

    5.3. Contingency Tables

    5.4. Graphical Displays

    5.5. Cartography and Spatial Averaging

    5.6. Vector Diagrams

    5.7. Streamlines and Trajectories

    6. Statistical Methods I

    6.1. Uses of Statistical Methods

    6.2. Statistical Normalization

    6.3. Empirical Statistical Methods

    6.4. Multivariate Analysis

    6.5. Spatial Relations

    6.6. Extreme-Value Analysis

    6.7. Peak-to-Mean Ratios

    7. Statistical Methods II: Time Series

    7.1. Normals

    7.2. Variance and Spectra

    7.3. The Blackman-Tukey Method of Spectral Analysis

    7.4. Computational Considerations

    7.5. Other Methods of Estimating Spectra

    7.6. Nonstationarity

    7.7. Cross-Spectrum Analysis

    78. Persistence

    8. Physical Methods

    8.1. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

    8.2. Dimensional Analysis

    8.3. Modeling

    8.4. Water Budget

    8.5. Metabolism

    8.6. Energy Balance

    8.7. Energy Chains

    8.8. Diffusion and Ventilation

    9. Physical Methods: Illustrative Examples

    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. The Effect of Humidity on Human Comfort

    9.3. Wind Chill

    9.4. Heat Stress

    9.5. Ecosystem Competition

    10. Synoptic Applications

    10.1. The Synoptic Method

    10.2. Stagnating Anticyclones: Pollution Potential Forecasting

    10.3. Distant Transport of Gases and Particles

    10.4. Distant Travel of Insect and Birds

    10.5. The Effect of Contrails on Surface Temperature: a Simulation Model

    10.6. Synoptic Maximization Techniques

    10.7. Ecological Meteorotropisms

    11. Seasonal Relationships

    11.1. General Reflections

    112. Evapotranspiration Estimates

    11.3. Soil Moisture Budgets

    11.4. Drought

    11.5. Agricultural Yield Prediction

    11.6. Seasonal Studies of Health

    11.7. Pollution Studies

    12. Studies of Past Climates

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. The Instrument Era

    12.3. The Historical Period

    12.4. Paleoclimatology

    12.5. Physical Models

    12.6. Simulation of Climatic Change

    12.7. Climatic Determinism

    12.8. Climatic Adaptation

    13. Climatic Classification and Indices

    13.1. Historical Introduction

    132. Air Pollution Indices

    13.3. Water Budget and Soil Moisture Indices

    13.4. Continentality Indices

    13.5. Agricultural Indices

    13.6. Human Comfort Indices

    13.7. Climatonomy

    14. Engineering and Economic Applications

    14.1. Impact of Weather and Climate on Human Activities

    14.2. Engineering Meteorology

    14.3. The Cost/Loss Ratio

    14.4. Weather Services and the National Economy

    Appendix. Problems


    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 346
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1970
  • Published: January 28, 1970
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272412

About the Author

R. E. Munn

Affiliations and Expertise

Atmospheric Environment Service, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

About the Editors

Douglas H. K. Lee

E. Wendell Hewson

Daniel Okun

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