Biometeorological Methods - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125102506, 9781483272412

Biometeorological Methods

1st Edition

Authors: R. E. Munn
Editors: Douglas H. K. Lee E. Wendell Hewson Daniel Okun
eBook ISBN: 9781483272412
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1970
Page Count: 346
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Description

Biometeorological Methods provides a unified look at methodologies in biometeorology. Examples of biometeorological studies have been chosen not because the results are necessarily significant but because the method is instructive.
The book begins with a brief survey of biometeorology to orient the reader approaching the subject for the first time. The remaining chapters seek to place in perspective the various experimental, empirical, analytical, and physical methods that are being used or could be used in biometeorology. Key topics discussed include space and time considerations in the sampling of the atmosphere; the design of biometeorological experiments; the use of tables, graphs, and charts in the search for biometeorological relationships; statistical and physical methods; and the synoptic approach. Also covered are studies on seasonal relationships, past climates, and climatic classification and indices.
The present volume should be of value to anyone seeking assistance in the design of experiments and analysis of environmental data.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

1. Weather and Life

1.1. Physiology, Ecology, and Biometeorology

1.2. An Example of a Biometeorological Study

1.3. Reproducible and Specific Relations

1.4. Readjustment of Living Organisms to Their Environment

1.5. Readjustment of the Environment by Living Organisms

1.6. The Multidiscipline Approach

2. Sampling of the Atmosphere: Time Considerations

2.1. Time Variability in the Atmosphere

2.2. Concentration and Dosage

2.3. Radioactivity Units

2.4. Degree Days

2.5. Concentration and Flux

2.6. Physical Time Lags

2.7. Biological Clocks and Time Lags

3. Sampling of the Atmosphere: Space Considerations

3.1. Space Variability in the Atmosphere

3.2. Micrometeorology

3.3. Mesometeorology

3.4. Macrometeorology

3.5. Network Spacing

3.6. Some Instrument Sampling Problems

4. The Design of Biometeorological Experiments

4.1. Some Preliminary Steps

4.2. Visual Observations

4.3. Questionnaires

4.4. Other Medical Statistics

4.5. Controlled Laboratory Experiments

4.6. Outdoor Quasi-Controlled Experiments

4.7. Studies Based on Climatological and Other Routine Observations

5. Tables, Graphs, and Charts

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Single-Variable Tables and Graphs

5.3. Contingency Tables

5.4. Graphical Displays

5.5. Cartography and Spatial Averaging

5.6. Vector Diagrams

5.7. Streamlines and Trajectories

6. Statistical Methods I

6.1. Uses of Statistical Methods

6.2. Statistical Normalization

6.3. Empirical Statistical Methods

6.4. Multivariate Analysis

6.5. Spatial Relations

6.6. Extreme-Value Analysis

6.7. Peak-to-Mean Ratios

7. Statistical Methods II: Time Series

7.1. Normals

7.2. Variance and Spectra

7.3. The Blackman-Tukey Method of Spectral Analysis

7.4. Computational Considerations

7.5. Other Methods of Estimating Spectra

7.6. Nonstationarity

7.7. Cross-Spectrum Analysis

78. Persistence

8. Physical Methods

8.1. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

8.2. Dimensional Analysis

8.3. Modeling

8.4. Water Budget

8.5. Metabolism

8.6. Energy Balance

8.7. Energy Chains

8.8. Diffusion and Ventilation

9. Physical Methods: Illustrative Examples

9.1. Introduction

9.2. The Effect of Humidity on Human Comfort

9.3. Wind Chill

9.4. Heat Stress

9.5. Ecosystem Competition

10. Synoptic Applications

10.1. The Synoptic Method

10.2. Stagnating Anticyclones: Pollution Potential Forecasting

10.3. Distant Transport of Gases and Particles

10.4. Distant Travel of Insect and Birds

10.5. The Effect of Contrails on Surface Temperature: a Simulation Model

10.6. Synoptic Maximization Techniques

10.7. Ecological Meteorotropisms

11. Seasonal Relationships

11.1. General Reflections

112. Evapotranspiration Estimates

11.3. Soil Moisture Budgets

11.4. Drought

11.5. Agricultural Yield Prediction

11.6. Seasonal Studies of Health

11.7. Pollution Studies

12. Studies of Past Climates

12.1. Introduction

12.2. The Instrument Era

12.3. The Historical Period

12.4. Paleoclimatology

12.5. Physical Models

12.6. Simulation of Climatic Change

12.7. Climatic Determinism

12.8. Climatic Adaptation

13. Climatic Classification and Indices

13.1. Historical Introduction

132. Air Pollution Indices

13.3. Water Budget and Soil Moisture Indices

13.4. Continentality Indices

13.5. Agricultural Indices

13.6. Human Comfort Indices

13.7. Climatonomy

14. Engineering and Economic Applications

14.1. Impact of Weather and Climate on Human Activities

14.2. Engineering Meteorology

14.3. The Cost/Loss Ratio

14.4. Weather Services and the National Economy

Appendix. Problems

References

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
346
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1970
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483272412

About the Author

R. E. Munn

Affiliations and Expertise

Atmospheric Environment Service, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

About the Editor

Douglas H. K. Lee

E. Wendell Hewson

Daniel Okun