Biomechanics and Motor Control - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128003848, 9780128005194

Biomechanics and Motor Control

1st Edition

Defining Central Concepts

Authors: Mark Latash Vladimir Zatsiorsky
eBook ISBN: 9780128005194
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128003848
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 22nd October 2015
Page Count: 426
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Description

Biomechanics and Motor Control: Defining Central Concepts provides a thorough update to the rapidly evolving fields of biomechanics of human motion and motor control with research published in biology, psychology, physics, medicine, physical therapy, robotics, and engineering consistently breaking new ground.

This book clarifies the meaning of the most frequently used terms, and consists of four parts, with part one covering biomechanical concepts, including joint torques, stiffness and stiffness-like measures, viscosity, damping and impedance, and mechanical work and energy. Other sections deal with neurophysiological concepts used in motor control, such as muscle tone, reflex, pre-programmed reactions, efferent copy, and central pattern generator, and central motor control concepts, including redundancy and abundance, synergy, equilibrium-point hypothesis, and motor program, and posture and prehension from the field of motor behavior.

The book is organized to cover smaller concepts within the context of larger concepts. For example, internal models are covered in the chapter on motor programs. Major concepts are not only defined, but given context as to how research came to use the term in this manner.

Key Features

  • Presents a unified approach to an interdisciplinary, fragmented area
  • Defines key terms for understanding
  • Identifies key theories, concepts, and applications across theoretical perspectives
  • Provides historical context for definitions and theory evolution

Readership

Researchers in cognitive psychology (including motor control), Secondary audience in kinesthesiology, physiology, robotics.

Table of Contents

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  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part One. Biomechanical Concepts
    • 1. Joint Torque
      • 1.1. Elements of history
      • 1.2. What are the joint torques/moments?
      • 1.3. Joint moments in statics and dynamics
      • 1.4. The bottom line
    • 2. Stiffness and Stiffness-like Measures
      • 2.1. Elements of history
      • 2.2. The concept of stiffness
      • 2.3. Elastic properties of muscles and tendons
      • 2.4. Apparent stiffness of joints and kinematic chains
      • 2.5. The bottom line
    • 3. Velocity-Dependent Resistance
      • 3.1. Viscosity in physics
      • 3.2. Elements of history: muscle viscosity theory and its collapse
      • 3.3. On muscle and joint viscosity—comments on the terminology
      • 3.4. Velocity-dependent resistance of the passive objects—synovial fluid, tendons, passive muscles, and joints
      • 3.5. Velocity-dependent resistance of the active objects—muscles, joints, kinematic chains
      • 3.6. More on muscle viscosity
      • 3.7. Mechanical impedance
      • 3.8. A comment on clinical terminology
      • 3.9. The bottom line
    • 4. Mechanical Work and Energy
      • 4.1. Elements of history
      • 4.2. Definitions of work and power—work of a muscle
      • 4.3. Work and power in human movements
      • 4.4. Energy saving mechanisms
      • 4.5. The bottom line
  • Part Two. Neurophysiological Concepts
    • 5. Muscle Tone
      • 5.1. Elements of history
      • 5.2. Current definitions
      • 5.3. Relation of muscle tone to the tonic stretch reflex
      • 5.4. Muscle tone and ability to relax
      • 5.5. Factors causing “low muscle tone”
      • 5.6. Factor causing “high muscle tone”
      • 5.7. The bottom line
    • 6. Reflexes
      • 6.1. Elements of history
      • 6.2. Current definitions of reflex
      • 6.3. Preferred definition of reflex
      • 6.4. Classifications of reflexes
      • 6.5. Examples of commonly studied reflexes in humans
      • 6.6. The role of reflexes in movements
      • 6.7. Pathological reflexes
      • 6.8. The bottom line
    • 7. Preprogrammed Reactions
      • 7.1. Elements of history
      • 7.2. Current terminology
      • 7.3. Definition and origins of preprogrammed reactions
      • 7.4. Examples of commonly studied preprogrammed reactions
      • 7.5. The role of preprogrammed reactions in movements
      • 7.6. Atypical preprogrammed reactions
      • 7.7. The bottom line
    • 8. Efferent Copy
      • 8.1. Elements of history
      • 8.2. Current terminology
      • 8.3. Kinesthetic perception
      • 8.4. Efferent copy within a general scheme of motor control
      • 8.5. The bottom line
    • 9. Central Pattern Generator
      • 9.1. Elements of history
      • 9.2. Current terminology
      • 9.3. Various CPGs
      • 9.4. Cyclic versus discrete actions
      • 9.5. The role of CPGs in movements
      • 9.6. The bottom line
  • Part Three. Motor Control Concepts
    • 10. Redundancy and Abundance
      • 10.1. Elements of history
      • 10.2. Current terminology
      • 10.3. Optimization
      • 10.4. Optimal feedback control
      • 10.5. Abundance in movements
      • 10.6. Relations to everyday voluntary movements
      • 10.7. The bottom line
    • 11. Motor Synergy
      • 11.1. Elements of history
      • 11.2. Current terminology
      • 11.3. Analysis of Synergy-C
      • 11.4. Synergy-C: examples of synergies
      • 11.5. Anticipatory synergy adjustments
      • 11.6. Atypical synergies
      • 11.7. Changes in synergies with practice
      • 11.8. Origins of synergies
      • 11.9. The bottom line
    • 12. Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis
      • 12.1. Elements of history
      • 12.2. Current terminology
      • 12.3. Control with threshold elements
      • 12.4. Control of a single muscle
      • 12.5. Control of a joint
      • 12.6. Referent configuration hypothesis
      • 12.7. Equifinality and its violations
      • 12.8. Relation of the EP hypothesis to the notion of synergies
      • 12.9. The bottom line
    • 13. Motor Program
      • 13.1. Elements of history
      • 13.2. Current definitions for motor program
      • 13.3. What can be encoded by signals from the brain?
      • 13.4. Are there motor programs in the spinal cord?
      • 13.5. Do neuronal populations in the brain generate motor programs?
      • 13.6. Impaired motor programs
      • 13.7. Are new motor programs created in the process of motor learning?
      • 13.8. The bottom line
  • Part Four. Examples of Motor Behaviors
    • 14. Posture
      • 14.1. Elements of history
      • 14.2. Creating a definition for posture
      • 14.3. Posture as a steady-state process: postural sway
      • 14.4. Posture and movement: two outcomes of control with referent configurations
      • 14.5. Postural synergies
      • 14.6. Postural preparation to action
      • 14.7. Posture-stabilizing mechanisms
      • 14.8. The bottom line
    • 15. Grasping
      • 15.1. Elements of history
      • 15.2. Basic mechanics of grasps
      • 15.3. Basics of grasp control
      • 15.4. Motor control constraints in hand and digit actions
      • 15.5. Prehension synergies
      • 15.6. The bottom line
  • Glossary
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
426
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128005194
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128003848

About the Author

Mark Latash

Mark Latash is a Distinguished Professor of Kinesiology and Director of the Motor Control Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University. He received equivalents of B.S. in Physics and M.S. in Physics of Living Systems from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and a Ph.D. in Physiology from Rush University in Chicago. His research interests are focused on the control and coordination of human voluntary movements, movement disorders in neurological disorders, and effects of rehabilitation. He is the author of “Control of Human Movement” (1993) “The Neurophysiological Basis of Movement” (1998, 2008), “Synergy” (2008), and “Fundamentals of Motor Control” (2012). In addition, he edited eight books and published about 350 papers in refereed journals. Mark Latash served as the Founding Editor of the journal “Motor Control” (1996-2007) and as President of the International Society of Motor Control (2001-2005). He has served as Director of the annual Motor Control Summer School series since 2004. He is a recipient of the Bernstein Prize in motor control.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

Vladimir Zatsiorsky

Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky (b. 1932, Leningrad, USSR) is a professor at the Department of Kinesiology at Penn State University. He has authored and co-authored more than 400 scientific papers and 15 books that are published in English, Russian, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese, Polish, Bulgarian, Romanian, Czech, Hungarian and Serbo-Croatian. Among his books are Kinematics of Human Motion (1998), Kinetics of Human Motion (2002) and Biomechanics of Skeletal Muscles (2012, co-authored with B.I. Prilutsky).

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA