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Biomechanics and Gait Analysis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128133729, 9780128134405

Biomechanics and Gait Analysis

1st Edition

Author: Nicholas Stergiou
eBook ISBN: 9780128134405
Paperback ISBN: 9780128133729
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 25th March 2020
Page Count: 412
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Biomechanics and Gait Analysis presents a comprehensive book on biomechanics that focuses on gait analysis. It is written primarily for biomedical engineering students, professionals and biomechanists with a strong emphasis on medical devices and assistive technology, but is also of interest to clinicians and physiologists. It allows novice readers to acquire the basics of gait analysis, while also helping expert readers update their knowledge. The book covers the most up-to-date acquisition and computational methods and advances in the field. Key topics include muscle mechanics and modeling, motor control and coordination, and measurements and assessments.

This is the go to resource for an understanding of fundamental concepts and how to collect, analyze and interpret data for research, industry, clinical and sport.

Key Features

  • Details the fundamental issues leading to the biomechanical analyses of gait and posture
  • Covers the theoretical basis and practical aspects associated with gait analysis
  • Presents methods and tools used in the field, including electromyography, signal processing and spectral analysis, amongst others


Engineers: Ergonomists, Biomedical Engineers, Biomechanists, Mechanical Engineers, Industrial Engineers, Human Factors Specialists. Clinicians: Physical Therapists, Prosthetists, Movement Disorders Specialists, Neurologists. Physiologists: Exercise Physiologists, Animal Physiologists. Psychologists: Motor Behavior Specialists. Kinesiologists: Practitioners, Exercise Scientists

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to biomechanics
Nick Stergiou
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The history of biomechanics
1.3 Areas of biomechanical inquiry: examples of diverse and unique questions in biomechanics
1.4 A quick look into the future of biomechanics

CHAPTER 2 Basic biomechanics
Aaron D. Likens and Nick Stergiou
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Analysis of movement
2.3 Basic terminology for analyzing movement
2.4 Basic bio considerations
2.5 Basic mechanics considerations
2.6 Summary and concluding remarks

CHAPTER 3 Advanced biomechanics
Barry T. Bates, Janet S. Dufek and Nick Stergiou
3.1 Injuries and biomechanics
3.2 Biomechanical statistics
3.3 Final considerations

CHAPTER 4 Why and how we move: the Stickman story
Barry T. Bates, Janet S. Dufek and Nick Stergiou
4.1 Briefly introducing Stickman
4.2 The Stickman’s evolution of movement
4.3 The Stickman’s performance of movement
4.4 The Stickman learns how to move
4.5 The Stickman’s mechanics
4.6 The Stickman’s goodbye

CHAPTER 5 Power spectrum and filtering
Andreas Skiadopoulos and Nick Stergiou
5.1 Introduction
5.2 A simple composite wave
5.3 Spectral analysis
5.4 Fourier series
5.5 Discrete Fourier analysis
5.6 Stationarity and the discrete Fourier transform
5.7 Short-time discrete Fourier transform
5.8 Noise
5.9 Data filtering
5.10 Practical implementation
5.11 Conclusion

CHAPTER 6 Revisiting a classic: Muscles, Reflexes, and Locomotion by McMahon
Douglas A. Rowen, Aaron D. Likens and Nick Stergiou
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Fundamental muscle mechanics
6.3 Muscle heat and fuel
6.4 Contractile proteins
6.5 Sliding movement: Huxley’s model revisited
6.6 Force development in the crossbridge
6.7 Reflexes and motor control
6.8 Neural control of locomotion
6.9 Mechanisms of locomotion
6.10 Effects of scale
6.11 Conclusion

CHAPTER 7 The basics of gait analysis
Luis M. Silva and Nick Stergiou
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The concept of skill
7.3 The skill of gait
7.4 Periods and phases of gait
7.5 Spatiotemporal parameters of gait
7.6 Determinants of gait
7.7 Conclusions

CHAPTER 8 Gait variability: a theoretical framework for gait analysis and biomechanics
James T. Cavanaugh and Nick Stergiou
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Conceptual approaches to gait variability
8.3 Gait analysis and biomechanical measurements for gait variability
8.4 Examples from clinical research
8.5 Future directions

CHAPTER 9 Coordination and control: a dynamical systems approach to the analysis of human gait
Aaron D. Likens and Nick Stergiou
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Hallmark properties of a dynamical system
9.3 A dynamical systems approach to gait analysis
9.4 Applications of relative phase dynamics to human gait
9.5 Summary and concluding remarks

CHAPTER 10 A tutorial on fractal analysis of human movements
Aaron D. Likens and Nick Stergiou
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Fractal theory and its connection to human movement
10.3 Fractal analysis of time series data
10.4 Applications to laboratory data
10.5 Conclusion

CHAPTER 11 Future directions in biomechanics: 3D printing
Jorge M. Zuniga and Nick Stergiou
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Lower extremity applications
11.3 Upper extremity applications
11.4 Methods for three-dimensional printing assistive devices
11.5 Anatomical modeling for surgical planning
11.6 Fracture
11.7 Upper extremity three-dimensional printed exoskeleton for stroke patients
11.8 Implementation of a three-dimensional printing research laboratory
11.9 Current Food and Drug Administration recommendations of three-dimensional printed medical devices
11.10 Limitations
11.11 Future perspectives


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© Academic Press 2020
25th March 2020
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
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About the Author

Nicholas Stergiou

Dr. Nick Stergiou is the Chair of the Department of Biomechanics and the Distinguished Community Research Chair in Biomechanics and Professor as well as the Director of the Biomechanics Research Building and the Center for Research in Human Movement Variability at the University of Nebraska at Omaha where his primary appointment is. He is also a Professor of the Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health of the College of Public Health at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. His research focuses on understanding variability inherent in human movement. Dr. Stergiou’s research spans from infant development to older adult fallers, and has impacted training techniques of surgeons and treatment and rehabilitation techniques of pathologies, such as peripheral arterial disease. He has received more 30 million dollars in personal funding from NIH, NASA, NSF, the NIDRR/US Department of Education, and many other agencies and foundations. He has also several inventions and has procured a private donation of $6 million to build the 23,000 square feet Biomechanics Research Building that has opened in August of 2013. This is the first building dedicated to biomechanics research in the world. It is also the first building on his campus exclusively dedicated to research. He is an international authority in the study of Nonlinear Dynamics and has published more than 200 peer reviewed articles. He has written 2 books already, one for CRC Press.

Affiliations and Expertise

Founding Chair, Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska Omaha


"All authors are contributors to the field and have leant their experiences to this text. Students and professionals interested in the general area of biomechanics and gait analysis, and applications thereof to areas related to rehabilitation and orthotics, will find this text of interest. Overall, this text is a well-written good overview of the current and possible applications of human biomechanics and gait analysis. Each chapter is well referenced and reflects well on the one or more authors’ work in the field. I recommend it as a good starting point for those interested in this area of endeavor." --IEEE Pulse

Ratings and Reviews