Biomaterials in Endodontics

Biomaterials in Endodontics

1st Edition - October 26, 2021

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  • Editors: Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad Sohail Zafar, Shariq Najeeb, Jithendra Ratnayake
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128217450
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128217467

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Biomaterials in Endodontics offers an up-to-date overview of endodontic biomaterials and their applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This book details the key biomaterials used in clinical endodontics and the benefits and challenges of using these materials, from root canal obturation materials to alloys for endodontic files and hand instruments. Chapters also offer a unique insight into the regenerative applications of endodontic biomaterials, such as the use of stem cells and growth factors for bone regeneration. Biomaterials in Endodontics is a useful resource for researchers working in biomedical engineering, regenerative medicine, and materials science with an interest in dentistry and bone regeneration. This book is also a helpful guide for endodontists, dentists, dental scientists, and clinicians with an interest in biomaterials for endodontics.

Key Features

  • Details the latest innovations in materials used for endodontic procedures
  • Offers a unique insight into regenerative applications of endodontic biomaterials
  • Appeals to an interdisciplinary readership, combining materials science, regenerative medicine, and biomedical engineering approaches


Researchers working in biomedical engineering, regenerative medicine, and materials science, with an interest in dentistry and bone regeneration. Also, endodontists, dentists, dental scientists, and clinicians with an interest in biomaterials for endodontics.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • About the editors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • 1: What are biomaterials in endodontics?
  • Abstract
  • References
  • 2: Intracanal medicaments
  • Abstract
  • 2.1: Introduction
  • 2.2: Uses of intracanal medicaments
  • 2.3: Ideal properties of intracanal medicament
  • 2.4: Indications of intracanal medicament usage
  • 2.5: Importance of E. faecalis in research related to intracanal medicaments
  • 2.6: Types of intracanal medicaments
  • 2.7: Intracanal medicament placement
  • 2.8: Intracanal medicament removal
  • 2.9: Conclusion
  • References
  • 3: Root canal obturation materials
  • Abstract
  • 3.1: Obturation and popular techniques
  • 3.2: Obturation materials
  • 3.3: Different types of sealers
  • 3.4: Conclusion
  • References
  • 4: Restorative materials used in endodontics
  • Abstract
  • 4.1: Introduction
  • 4.2: Success rate related to restorative materials
  • 4.3: Interrelationship between adhesive restorations and endodontics materials used during endodontic treatment
  • 4.4: Restorative protocols for endodontically treated teeth
  • 4.5: Conclusion
  • References
  • 5: Materials for teeth bleaching
  • Abstract
  • 5.1: Introduction
  • 5.2: Tooth discoloration and tooth bleaching
  • 5.3: Tooth bleaching agents and their composition
  • 5.4: Tooth bleaching techniques
  • 5.5: Nanomaterials for tooth bleaching
  • 5.6: Mechanism of tooth bleaching
  • 5.7: Clinical measurements of tooth bleaching
  • 5.8: Factors affecting tooth bleaching
  • 5.9: Side effects of tooth bleaching
  • 5.10: Regulations and recommendations of tooth bleaching agents
  • 5.11: Conclusion
  • References
  • 6: Alloys for endodontic files and hand instruments
  • Abstract
  • 6.1: Introduction
  • 6.2: Materials for endodontic instruments
  • 6.3: Endodontic instruments classification
  • 6.4: Cutting efficiency of endodontic instruments
  • 6.5: Sterilization on properties of the instruments
  • 6.6: Endodontic irrigation on properties of the instruments
  • 6.7: Defects of endodontic instruments after clinical use
  • 6.8: Fracture of the endodontic instruments
  • 6.9: Surface treatment of the endodontic instruments
  • References
  • 7: Conventional to advanced endodontics: Use of bioactive materials
  • Abstract
  • 7.1: Bioceramic materials
  • 7.2: Bioactive materials
  • 7.3: Materials in endodontics
  • 7.4: Application of bioactive materials in endodontics
  • 7.5: Conclusion
  • References
  • 8: Nanoparticles in endodontics
  • Abstract
  • 8.1: Introduction
  • 8.2: Classification of nanoparticles
  • 8.3: Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles
  • 8.4: Nanomaterials for disinfection
  • 8.5: Nanoparticles-inducted sealers
  • 8.6: Nanoparticles-inducted root filling materials
  • 8.7: Nanoparticles-inducted temporary restorative materials
  • 8.8: Nanoparticles and pulp regeneration
  • 8.9: Limitations/cytotoxicity of nanoparticles
  • 8.10: Future directions
  • 8.11: Conclusion
  • References
  • 9: Regenerative approaches for endodontics
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 9.1: A brief introduction to dental pulp regeneration
  • 9.2: Cell-based and cell-free methods for dental pulp regeneration
  • 9.3: Role of angiogenesis in dental pulp regeneration
  • 9.4: Dental pulp revascularization treatment and outcomes
  • 9.5: Summary
  • References
  • 10: Portland cement-based formulations: Advances and modifications
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgement
  • 10.1: Introduction
  • 10.2: White mineral trioxide aggregate: Chemical and biological properties
  • 10.3: Drawbacks of white mineral trioxide aggregate
  • 10.4: Different formulations of WMTA
  • 10.5: Physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of NWMTA
  • 10.6: Drawbacks of white Portland cement
  • 10.7: Conclusions
  • References
  • 11: Biomolecules and growth factors for endodontic regeneration
  • Abstract
  • 11.1: Introduction
  • 11.2: Challenges of regenerative endodontics
  • 11.3: Tissue engineering
  • 11.4: Growth factors: What they are and their functions
  • 11.5: Clinical use of growth factors
  • References
  • 12: Stem cells for endodontic regeneration
  • Abstract
  • 12.1: Introduction
  • 12.2: Stem cells: Definition, classification, and types
  • 12.3: Dental stem cells
  • 12.4: Dental stem cells-based pulp tissue engineering
  • 12.5: Future challenges
  • References
  • 13: Root-end filling materials
  • Abstract
  • 13.1: Introduction of root-end filling materials
  • 13.2: Challenges encountered with the root-end filling procedure
  • 13.3: Rationale for the use of root-end filling materials
  • 13.4: Contemporary root-end filling materials
  • 13.5: Characterization of root-end filling materials
  • References
  • 14: Disinfection in endodontics
  • Abstract
  • 14.1: Introduction
  • 14.2: Role of irrigation in the root canal disinfection
  • 14.3: Limitations of irrigation
  • 14.4: Antibacterial irrigation solutions
  • 14.5: Interaction with other chemicals
  • 14.6: Irrigation techniques
  • 14.7: Advance technologies
  • 14.8: Conclusion
  • References
  • 15: Fiber post: Physics, chemistry, adhesive properties, and its implications on root canal retreatment
  • Abstract
  • 15.1: Introduction
  • 15.2: Types of fiber posts
  • 15.3: Chemistry of fiber posts and its implications on root canal retreatment
  • 15.4: Physics of fiber posts and its implications on root canal retreatment
  • 15.5: Effect of surface treatments on retention of fiber posts
  • 15.6: Clinical considerations
  • 15.7: Summary and additional facts
  • 15.8: Conclusion
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 412
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2021
  • Published: October 26, 2021
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128217450
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128217467

About the Editors

Zohaib Khurshid

Dr. Zohaib Khurshid (Scopus h-index: 23) is a lecturer and course coordinator at the Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology Department, School of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. His research interests include biomaterials, dental bone grafts, salivary diagnostics, dental education, dental biomaterial characterization, and dental caries remineralization. He has authored more than 100 publications available in Scopus, including review papers, research papers, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, book chapters, editorials, news magazine reports, and scoping studies. He participates in editorial activities with the 'European Journal of Dentistry' (EJD); 'Journal of Oral Research' (JOralRes); 'Journal of Dentistry'; 'Materials'; 'Molecules'; 'Current Issues in Molecular Biology'; 'Polymer'; 'International Journal of Molecular Sciences' (IJMS); and the 'European Journal of Dental Research and Biomaterials'. He has edited two other books with Elsevier: 'Advanced Dental Biomaterials' and 'Dental Implants: Materials, Coatings, Surface Modifications and Interfaces with Oral Tissues'. He is also a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (FHEA) and a Member of The Faculty of Dental Trainers (MDTFEd) of the Faculty of Dental Surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. He was also honored with the Membership of the Faculty of Dental Surgery from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow (MFDS RCPS).

Affiliations and Expertise

Lecturer and Course Coordinator, Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

Muhammad Sohail Zafar

Prof. Muhammad Sohail Zafar completed his PhD at Nottingham Trent University (2011) after obtaining a master’s degree in dental materials from Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom (distinction-level research project; 2007). Currently, he is working as a professor at the Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia, where he has been a faculty member since 2012. Before that (2011–12), he worked as an associate researcher at Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom. He was awarded the prestigious title of FICD (Fellow, International College of Dentists), United States. Being a research-led academician, Prof. Zafar has considerable exposure to teaching, research and clinical management, and successful implementation of operating procedures in both academic and clinical activities. He has contributed substantially (more than 200 peer-reviewed publications since 2013) to the field of dental materials, tissue engineering, and clinical dentistry (Scopus h-index: 28; Google Scholar h-index: 38; i10-index: 103). Prof. Zafar is an editorial board member for the journal 'Fluoride' (official publication of the International Society for Fluoride Research, New Zealand), a topics board member for the journals 'Polymers' and 'Prosthesis', and a section editor for the 'European Dental Journal'. His research interests include advances in biomaterials, tissue regeneration, nanomaterials, and polymeric biomaterials for dental applications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Taibah University, Al Madina Al Munawara, Saudi Arabia

Shariq Najeeb

Dr. Shariq Najeeb completed his clinical dentistry training at the University of Karachi, Pakistan, in 2010 and his master’s in dental materials from the University of Sheffield in 2013. During his master’s, he worked on developing a novel electrospun guided tissue regeneration membrane for periodontal applications. In addition, he has published more than 40 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters. His research has focused on novel approaches in treating periodontitis, endodontics, dental implants, biomaterials for tissue regeneration, and data synthesis and quality assessment of dental literature. He has served as the director of the course in dental materials at Al-Farabi Colleges (Saudi Arabia). At present, he is the director of the Institute of Collaborative Dental Education and Research and an adjunct professor of dentistry at Western University, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Adjunct Clinical Instructor, Department of Endodontics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Jithendra Ratnayake

Dr. Ratnayake obtained a bachelor of engineering (Hons) degree from the University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, and a PhD in biomaterials from the University of Otago, New Zealand. Currently, he is a lecturer at the Department of Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago. He has published more than 20 scientific papers in high-impact factor journals and holds one international patent. His research focuses mainly on developing novel biomaterials from waste resources for biomedical applications. He became particularly interested in adding value to waste products from New Zealand’s annual $NZ6 billion red meat export industry. He has significant expertise in characterizing biomaterials using various analytical techniques and evaluating their biocompatibility using 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' techniques. Dr. Ratnayake’s secondary research interests lie in developing medical devices, dental materials, management of temporomandibular disorders, endodontic applications and treatments, restorative dentistry, and dental education. Furthermore, he has commercial collaborations with Colgate Palmolive Ltd, ANZCO Foods, and Intuitive 8 Healthcare LLC (India) as well as universities in the United Kingdom, Australia, Saudi Arabia, China, Sri Lanka, and the United States.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lecturer, Department of Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand

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