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Biomaterials for Spinal Surgery - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845699864, 9780857096197

Biomaterials for Spinal Surgery

1st Edition

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Editors: Luigi Ambrosio Elizabeth Tanner
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845699864
eBook ISBN: 9780857096197
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 12th March 2012
Page Count: 640
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Table of Contents

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Chapter 1: Introduction to biomaterials for spinal surgery


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Total disc replacement

1.3 Nucleus pulposus replacement

1.4 Materials for spinal applications

1.5 Conclusions

Part I: Fundamentals of biomaterials for spinal surgery

Chapter 2: An overview of the challenges of bringing a medical device for the spine to the market


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Selection and sourcing of materials in medical device developments

2.3 Biocompatibility testing

2.4 Medical device regulation

2.5 Conclusions

2.6 Acknowledgement

Chapter 3: Introduction to spinal pathologies and clinical problems of the spine


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Degenerative spine disease

3.3 Spinal trauma

3.4 Spinal deformity

3.5 Malignancy

3.6 Infection

3.7 Conclusions

Chapter 4: Forces on the spine


4.1 Introduction

4.2 In vivo measured components of spinal loads

4.3 In vitro measured spinal load components

4.4 Analytical models for spinal load estimation

4.5 Recommendations for the simulations of loads for in vitro and numerical studies

4.6 Conclusions

Chapter 5: Finite element modelling of the spine


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Functional spine biomechanics and strength of numerical explorations

5.3 Geometrical approximations in spine finite element modelling

5.4 Numerical approximations: accuracy and computational cost

5.5 Constitutive models for the spine tissues

5.6 Simulating the mechanical loads on the spine

5.7 Model verifications and interpretations: the validation concept and quantitative validation

5.8 Future trends and conclusions: the virtual physiological spine

Chapter 6: Osteobiologic agents in spine surgery


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Bone formation and healing

6.3 Osteobiologics for spine fusion

6.4 Bone growth factors

6.5 Cellular biologics

6.6 Conclusions

Part II: Spinal fusion and intervertebral discs

Chapter 7: Spine fusion: cages, plates and bone substitutes


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Spine fusion: historical concerns and surgical skills

7.3 Bone substitutes in spine fusion

7.4 Bone growth factors

7.5 Autologous bone marrow

7.6 Future trends

Chapter 8: Artificial intervertebral discs


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Structure and function of the intervertebral disc

8.3 The artificial intervertebral disc: design and materials

8.4 Fibre-reinforced composite materials: basic principles

8.5 Composite biomimetic artificial intervertebral discs

8.6 Future trends and conclusions

Chapter 9: Biological response to artificial discs


9.1 Introduction

9.2 The healing response to intervertebral disc implants

9.3 Infection as a cause of failure of implants

9.4 Loosening and the reaction to the products of wear and corrosion

9.5 Carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of metal implants

9.6 Conclusions

Part III: Vertebroplasty and scoliosis surgery

Chapter 10: The use of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in neurosurgery


10.1 Introduction: a history of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)

10.2 Characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)

10.3 Preparation of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) for use in clinical practice

10.4 Clinical use of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in neurosurgery

10.5 Developments in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)

10.6 Conclusions

Chapter 11: Optimising the properties of injectable materials for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) based bone cements

11.3 Calcium phosphate and calcium sulfate based bone cements

11.4 Conclusions

Chapter 12: Injectable calcium phosphates for vertebral augmentation


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)

12.3 Calcium phosphate cements

12.4 Conclusions

Chapter 13: Composite injectable materials for vertebroplasty


13.1 Introduction: a background on the use of composites in vertebroplasty

13.2 Properties of composites for vertebroplasty

13.3 Further development in composite injectable materials

13.4 Conclusions

Chapter 14: Scoliosis implants: surgical requirements


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Definition of scoliosis

14.3 Management of scoliosis

14.4 General principles for spinal fusion

14.5 Outcomes in scoliosis surgery

14.6 Future development of biomechanical implants

14.7 Conclusions

14.8 Sources of further information

Chapter 15: Shape memory, superelastic and low Young’s modulus alloys


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Fundamental characteristics of shape memory and superelastic alloys

15.3 Low Young’s modulus alloys

15.4 Metals required for spinal surgery

15.5 Conclusions

15.6 Acknowledgements

Part IV: Regenerative medicine in the spine

Chapter 16: Cell-based tissue engineering approaches for disc regeneration


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Rationale behind the use of cells

16.3 Choice of cell type (not including mesenchymal stem cells)

16.4 Current issues to be addressed

16.5 Future trends and conclusions

16.6 Sources of further information

Chapter 17: Angiogenesis control in spine regeneration


17.1 Introduction

17.2 The role and the mechanisms of angiogenesis

17.3 Physiological and pathological vascularisation of different intervertebral disc (IVD) histological compartments

17.4 Strategies to promote angiogenesis in tissue regeneration

17.5 Angiogenesis inhibition in intervertebral disc (IVD) regeneration and other clinical applications

17.6 Future trends

17.7 Sources of further information

17.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 18: Stem cells for disc regeneration


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Tissue engineering solutions for intervertebral disc (IVD) disease

18.3 Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and regeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD)

18.4 Regeneration of the annulus

18.5 Use of scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for intervertebral disc (IVD) regeneration

18.6 Future trends

18.7 Conclusions

Chapter 19: Nucleus regeneration


19.1 Introduction

19.2 The intervertebral disc: anatomy, structure and function

19.3 Mechanics–biology interrelation

19.4 Annulus, nucleus and entire intervertebral disc: the tissue engineering approach

19.5 Conclusions

Chapter 20: In vivo models of regenerative medicine in the spine


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Selecting an animal model

20.3 Intervertebral spinal fusion

20.4 Degenerative disc disease

20.5 Future trends and conclusions

20.6 Acknowledgements



There have been important developments in materials and therapies for the treatment of spinal conditions. Biomaterials for spinal surgery summarises this research and how it is being applied for the benefit of patients.

After an introduction to the subject, part one reviews fundamental issues such as spinal conditions and their pathologies, spinal loads, modelling and osteobiologic agents in spinal surgery. Part two discusses the use of bone substitutes and artificial intervertebral discs whilst part three covers topics such as the use of injectable biomaterials like calcium phosphate for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty as well as scoliosis implants. The final part of the book summarises developments in regenerative therapies such as the use of stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration.

With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Biomaterials for spinal surgery is a standard reference for both those developing new biomaterials and therapies for spinal surgery and those using them in clinical practice.

Key Features

  • Summarises recent developments in materials and therapies for the treatment of spinal conditions and examines how it is being applied for the benefit of patients
  • Reviews fundamental issues such as spinal conditions and their pathologies, spinal loads, modelling and osteobiologic agents in spinal surgery
  • Discusses the use of bone substitutes and artificial intervertebral discs and covers topics such as the use of injectable biomaterials like calcium phosphate for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty


Materials scientists and engineers in industry, biologists and clinicians, biomaterials academics and orthopedic surgeons.


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2012
12th March 2012
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


This is a good reference on biomaterials. It will be of most interest to materials engineers, bioengineers and spine surgeons. It is well written and provides an extensive list of references., Doody's Book Reviews

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Luigi Ambrosio

Professor Luigi Ambrosio is a Research Director at the Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, Italy. He is a renowned scientist with expertise in biomedical composites and has published over 300 papers in international scientific journals and books, 16 patents, 150 invited lectures and over 400 presentations at international and national conferences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Adjunct Professor, Biomaterials, University of Naples "Federico II'

Elizabeth Tanner

Elizabeth Tanner is Professor of Mechanics of Materials and Structures at the University of Glasgow, UK. Both are noted for their research in bone biomaterials and therapies.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Glasgow, UK