Biomass Fractionation Technologies for a Lignocellulosic Feedstock Based Biorefinery - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128023235, 9780128025611

Biomass Fractionation Technologies for a Lignocellulosic Feedstock Based Biorefinery

1st Edition

Editors: S.I. Mussatto
eBook ISBN: 9780128025611
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128023235
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 16th February 2016
Page Count: 674
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Biomass Fractionation Technologies for a Lignocellulosic Feedstock-based Biorefinery reviews the extensive research and tremendous scientific and technological developments that have occurred in the area of biorefinering, including industrial processes and product development using ‘green technologies’, often referred as white biotechnology.

As there is a huge need for new design concepts for modern biorefineries as an alternative and amendment to industrial crude oil and gas refineries, this book presents the most important topics related to biomass fractionation, including advances, challenges, and perspectives, all with references to current literature for further study.

Presented in 26 chapters by international field specialists, each chapter consists of review text that comprises the most recent advances, challenges, and perspectives for each fractionation technique. The book is an indispensable reference for all professionals, students, and workers involved in biomass biorefinery, assisting them in establishing efficient and economically viable process technologies for biomass fractionation.

Key Features

  • Provides information on the most advanced and innovative pretreatment processes and technologies for biomass
  • Reviews numerous valuable products from lignocellulose
  • Discusses integration of processes for complete biomass conversion with minimum waste generation
  • Identifies the research gaps in scale-up
  • Presents an indispensable reference for all professionals, students, and workers involved in biomass biorefinery, assisting them in establishing efficient and economically viable process technologies for biomass fractionation


Chemical Engineers, biotechnologists, microbiologists, biologists, agricultural chemists, environmental engineers

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Editor Biography
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Biomass Pretreatment, Biorefineries, and Potential Products for a Bioeconomy Development
    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. Biomass: Types and Composition
    • 1.3. Biomass Pretreatment: The Key for Establishing Profitable Conversion Processes
    • 1.4. Biorefinery and Potential Strategies
    • 1.5. Toward a Bioeconomy
    • 1.6. Conclusion
  • Chapter 2. Mechanical Pretreatment
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Mechanochemical Methods of the Action on Substances and Materials
    • 2.3. Mechanical Pretreatment of Lignocellulose Feedstock
    • 2.4. Devices for Grinding and Mechanochemical Processing of Plant Raw Material
  • Chapter 3. Extrusion Processing: Opportunities and Challenges Toward Biofuel
    • 3.1. Introduction: Biomass Pretreatment
    • 3.2. Advantages of Extrusion as a Pretreatment Method
    • 3.3. Extrusion Pretreatment of Various Feedstocks
    • 3.4. Factors Influencing Extrusion Pretreatments
    • 3.5. Mechanisms Involved in Extrusion Pretreatments
    • 3.6. Mass Balance Comparison of Feedstocks Subjected to Extrusion Pretreatments
    • 3.7. Other Opportunities of Extrusion in Biorefineries
    • 3.8. Conclusion and Future Prospects
  • Chapter 4. Fractionation of Lignocellulosic Material With Pyrolysis Processing
    • 4.1. Introduction to Pyrolysis Technology
    • 4.2. First Fractionation Stage: The Pyrolysis Reactor
    • 4.3. Second Fractionation Stage Through Downstream Heterogeneous Separation Systems
    • 4.4. Lignocellulose Biorefinery Concepts, Challenges, and Perspectives
  • Chapter 5. Microwave-Induced Biomass Fractionation
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Fundamentals of Microwave-Induced Chemical Reactions
    • 5.3. Effects of Microwave Irradiation on Hydrothermal Reaction of Model Biomass Compounds
    • 5.4. Practical Application of Hydrothermal Treatment of Lignocellulose Under Microwave Irradiation
    • 5.5. Recent Advances and Future Perspectives of Biomass Fractionation Induced by Microwave Irradiation
  • Chapter 6. Use of Ultrasound for Pretreatment of Biomass and Subsequent Hydrolysis and Fermentation
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Role of Ultrasound in Various Pretreatment Techniques
    • 6.3. Ultrasound-Assisted Hydrolysis of Lignocelluloses
    • 6.4. Ultrasound-Assisted Fermentation for Bioethanol Production
    • 6.5. Design Aspects of Sonochemical Reactors
    • 6.6. Conclusions and Future Prospects
  • Chapter 7. Applications of Pulsed Electric Energy for Biomass Pretreatment in Biorefinery
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Impact of Pulsed Electric Energy on Biomaterials
    • 7.3. Examples of Pulsed Electric Energy-Assisted Applications for Biomass Pretreatment in Biorefinery
    • 7.4. Conclusion and Future Perspectives
  • Chapter 8. Biomass Pretreatment With Acids
    • 8.1. Introduction: The Role of Pretreatment on Lignocellulosic Biomass
    • 8.2. Acid Pretreatment: General Considerations
    • 8.3. Dilute Acid Pretreatment
    • 8.4. Concentrated Acid Pretreatment
    • 8.5. Combined Use of Acids With Other Pretreatments
    • 8.6. Advances and Commercial Applications
    • 8.7. Conclusion and Future Perspectives
  • Chapter 9. Biomass Pretreatment With Oxalic Acid for Value-Added Products
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Pretreatment With Oxalic Acid: Typical Conditions and Performance for Different Raw Materials
    • 9.3. Physical, Structural, Morphological, and Compositional Modifications: Liquid and Solid Fractions
    • 9.4. Utilization of Hemicellulose and Cellulose Fractions of Oxalic Acid-Pretreated Biomass
    • 9.5. Future Perspectives and Conclusions
  • Chapter 10. Pretreatment With Metal Salts
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Role of Metal Salts in the Biomass Conversion Process
    • 10.3. Metal Salt-Assisted Pretreatment of Biomass
    • 10.4. Conclusions and Future Trends
  • Chapter 11. Integration of Organosolv Process for Biomass Pretreatment in a Biorefinery
    • 11.1. Background of Organosolv Pretreatment
    • 11.2. Adaptation and Revamp of Bagasse Fractionation Steps in a Diversified Sugarcane Mill
    • 11.3. Opportunities for Reanimation and Revamping Plants
    • 11.4. Reanimation and Revamping Plants in a Study Case
    • 11.5. Optimal Design of 2G-Ethanol Technology Using Sugarcane Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolyzate Integrated to 1G-Ethanol Production
    • 11.6. Analysis of the Kinetics of Each Step of Pretreatment for the Global Design of Technology
    • 11.7. Kinetics of Enzymatic Hydrolysis
    • 11.8. Global Design of an Ethanol Plant Combining First- and Second-Generation Technologies
    • 11.9. Conclusions and Future Prospects
  • Chapter 12. Pretreatment of Lignocelluloses With Solvent N-Methylmorpholine N-oxide
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Effects of N-methylmorpholine N-oxide Pretreatment on Lignocellulosic Biomass
    • 12.3. Effective Parameters in N-methylmorpholine N-oxide Pretreatment
    • 12.4. Effects of N-methylmorpholine N-oxide Pretreatment on the Improvement of Biofuel Production
    • 12.5. Challenges and Perspective
    • 12.6. Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives
  • Chapter 13. A Novel Green Biomass Fractionation Technology: Hydrotropic Pretreatment
    • 13.1. Background of Hydrotropic Pretreatment
    • 13.2. Fractionation Lignin From Lignocellulosic Materials by Hydrotropic Method
    • 13.3. Enhancement of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Efficiency of Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Hydrotropic Technology
    • 13.4. Conclusion and Perspectives
  • Chapter 14. Hydrothermal/Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment (Autohydrolysis): A Multipurpose Process for Biomass Upgrading
    • 14.1. Introduction
    • 14.2. Definition and Fundamentals/Mechanism
    • 14.3. Operational Conditions Used in Liquid Hot Water Biomass Pretreatment
    • 14.4. Modeling
    • 14.5. Process Monitoring and Control
    • 14.6. Liquid Hot Water Combined Processes
    • 14.7. Conclusions and Future Trends
  • Chapter 15. Steam Explosion as Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment
    • 15.1. Introduction
    • 15.2. Steam Explosion Fundamentals
    • 15.3. Variables Affecting Steam Explosion Pretreatment
    • 15.4. Different Approaches for Steam Explosion Pretreatment
    • 15.5. Conclusion and Future Trends
  • Chapter 16. Fractionation of Lignocellulosic Biomass Materials With Wet Explosion Pretreatment
    • 16.1. Introduction
    • 16.2. Lignocellulosic Biomass: Why Pretreatment Is the Key?
    • 16.3. Wet Explosion Pretreatment Process
    • 16.4. Tailoring Wet Explosion Pretreatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis
    • 16.5. Comparison of Wet Explosion With Other Pretreatment Methods
    • 16.6. Conclusion and Perspectives
  • Chapter 17. Biomass Pretreatment With Carbon Dioxide
    • 17.1. Introduction
    • 17.2. Pretreatment With Carbon Dioxide
  • Chapter 18. Chemical Oxidation With Ozone as an Efficient Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Materials
    • 18.1. Introduction
    • 18.2. Ozone Reaction Mechanisms
    • 18.3. Ozonolysis of Lignocellulosic Materials
    • 18.4. Conclusions and Perspectives
  • Chapter 19. Recent Advances in Alkaline Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass
    • 19.1. Introduction
    • 19.2. Deconstruction Effects of Lignocellulosic Biomass in an Alkaline System
    • 19.3. Integrated Biorefinery for Biomass Fractionation: A Partnership for Alkaline Pretreatment
    • 19.4. Practical Considerations and Prospects
    • 19.5. Summary
  • Chapter 20. Pretreatment With Ammonia
    • 20.1. Introduction
    • 20.2. Effect/Impact of Ammonia Treatment on the Composition of Plant Cell Walls
    • 20.3. Ammonia Pretreatment Methods
    • 20.4. Utilization of Ammonia Pretreated Biomass
    • 20.5. Economic Aspects of Ammonia Pretreatment and Final Remarks
  • Chapter 21. Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment for an Effective Biomass Degradation
    • 21.1. Introduction
    • 21.2. Pretreatment Conditions
    • 21.3. Influence of Pretreatment on Biomass Structure Decomposition
    • 21.4. Examples of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Use for Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment
    • 21.5. Process Kinetics
    • 21.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
  • Chapter 22. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses for Bioconversion of Woody Biomass
    • 22.1. Introduction
    • 22.2. The SPORL Process
    • 22.3. Reaction Kinetics for Process Optimization and Scale-Up
    • 22.4. Process Optimization and Scale-Up Design Using Combined Hydrolysis Factor
    • 22.5. Lignin Sulfonation on Nonproductive Cellulase Binding
    • 22.6. SPORL Process Performance and Integration for Biofuel and Lignin Coproducts Productions
    • 22.7. Conclusions and Future Trends
  • Chapter 23. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Residues
    • 23.1. Introduction
    • 23.2. Desirable Attributes of Cellulase for the Hydrolysis of Cellulose
    • 23.3. Stabilization of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes
    • 23.4. Nonproductive Binding and/or Inhibition of Cellulolytic Enzymes
    • 23.5. Process Strategies for Cellulose Hydrolysis and Final Remarks
  • Chapter 24. Biological Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass
    • 24.1. Introduction
    • 24.2. Microbial Depolymerization of Lignin
    • 24.3. Ligninolytic Enzyme System
    • 24.4. Fungal Pretreatment
    • 24.5. Bacterial Pretreatment
    • 24.6. Enzymatic Pretreatment
    • 24.7. Challenges and Perspectives
  • Chapter 25. Technoeconomic Considerations for Biomass Fractionation in a Biorefinery Context
    • 25.1. Introduction
    • 25.2. Technoeconomic Assessment of Biorefineries
    • 25.3. Biomass and Logistics Costs
    • 25.4. Optimization Techniques
    • 25.5. Conclusions
  • Chapter 26. Socioeconomic and Environmental Considerations for Sustainable Supply and Fractionation of Lignocellulosic Biomass in a Biorefinery Context
    • 26.1. Introduction
    • 26.2. The Lignocellulosic Biorefinery
    • 26.3. Sustainability in Biorefineries
    • 26.4. Considerations on the Biomass Supply Side
    • 26.5. Considerations on the Biomass Fractionation Side
    • 26.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
  • Index


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About the Editor

S.I. Mussatto

Dr. Solange I. Mussatto is Invited Assistant Professor at the Department of Biotechnology at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in The Netherlands. She has a background in Chemical Industrial Engineer, and MSc and PhD degrees in Industrial Biotechnology (Area: Biomass Conversion) from University of São Paulo (Brazil). Dr. Mussatto has over 17 years of experience in the areas of Biomass Pretreatment and Fermentation Technology with focus on the development of biorefinery strategies for total conversion and valorization of biomass. During her entire research career (started in 1998), she has been actively involved in activities related to the conversion of biomass (lignocellulosic materials, macroalgae and plants) into valuable biobased products. Her research interests include the use of chemical, biochemical, biological and thermal processes for biomass pretreatment, and conversion of such materials by chemical or fermentation routes into valuable compounds such as ethanol, xylitol, organic acids, fructooligosaccharides, bioactive compounds, alcoholic beverages, and enzymes, among others. Due to the wide experience on biomass and biorefinery areas, Dr. Mussatto is frequently invited for oral presentations in scientific conferences, and has already established a great network with researchers from different countries including Europe, South America and Asia. One of the studies coordinated by Dr. Mussatto was recently recognized by the Time magazine (US) as one of the best inventions of the year 2013. Dr. Mussatto has participated in numerous research projects and has published more than 115 full papers in peer-reviewed journals, 13 book chapters, 3 patents and more than 230 papers in scientific conferences. The impact of her published works is reflected in more than 3000 citations and h-index: 28 (Scopus). She is Associate Editor of the Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, Editorial Board Member of the Biofuel Research Journal, and has been on the advisory board of several leading international scientific journals and international funding agencies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biotechnology Delft University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands

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