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Biolubricants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857092632, 9780857096326


1st Edition

Science and Technology

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Authors: Jan C.J. Bart Emanuele Gucciardi Stefano Cavallaro
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857092632
eBook ISBN: 9780857096326
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 18th December 2012
Page Count: 944
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Table of Contents

Author contact details

About the authors

Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy


Chapter 1: Renewable lubricants


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Scope

1.3 Chapter overview

Chapter 2: Principles of lubrication


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Purpose of lubrication

2.3 Friction and lubrication conditions

Chapter 3: Lubricants: properties and characteristics


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Lubricant base stocks

3.3 Classifications for oils and lubricating greases

3.4 Eco designations for lubricants

3.5 Environmentally acceptable lubricants

3.6 Physicochemical properties of lubricants

Chapter 4: The transition from reliance on fossil resources to biomass valorisation


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Biomass

4.3 Transformation of biomass to bioproducts

4.4 Biomass potentials and limitations

Chapter 5: Renewable feedstocks for lubricant production


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Natural vegetable oils and animal fats in lubrication

5.3 Industrial oil-crop engineering

5.4 Bio-based wax esters

5.5 Plant polymeric carbohydrates

Chapter 6: Chemical transformations of renewable lubricant feedstocks


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Chemically modified fatty compounds in lubrication

6.3 Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in lubrication

6.4 Modified starch-based lubricants

Chapter 7: Formulating lubricating oils


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Lubricant additive technology

7.3 Additive design for renewable lubricants

7.4 Biolubricant formulations

Chapter 8: Quality assurance of biolubricants


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Biolubricant quality requirements

8.3 Biolubricant quality management

8.4 Quality control of biolubricant feedstocks

8.5 Standardised methods for testing lubricating fluids and greases

8.6 Biolubricant process and product quality control

8.7 Biolubricant analytical methodology

8.8 Quality of in-service lubricants

Chapter 9: Legislation of relevance to lubricants


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Chemicals policy initiatives

9.3 (Bio)lubricant regulations

9.4 Ecolabels and international standards

Chapter 10: Biolubricant product development


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specifications for lubricants

10.3 Biolubricant standardisation

10.4 Performance tests for lubricants and lubricating greases

10.5 Biolubricant research and technology development (RTD)

Chapter 11: Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) of lubricants


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Life-cycle assessment (LCA)

11.3 Sustainable product design

Chapter 12: Biolubricant product groups and technological applications


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Automotive lubricants

12.3 Hydraulic oils

12.4 Biodegradable loss lubricants

12.5 Marine lubricants

12.6 Gear lubrication oils

12.7 Compressor oils

12.8 Turbine oils

12.9 Metalworking fluids (MWFs) and metal-forming lubricants

12.10 Lubricants in the food-processing industry

12.11 Biodegradable lubricating greases

12.12 Specialty lubricants

12.13 Solid biodegradable lubricants

12.14 Process oils

Chapter 13: Markets for biolubricants


13.1 Introduction

13.2 European biolubricant markets

13.3 Biolubricant markets in the United States

13.4 Market opportunities for bio-based lubricants

Chapter 14: Lubricant use and disposal


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Selection of (renewable) oil lubricants and greases

14.3 Lubricant consolidation

14.4 Degradation of lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids

14.5 Operational maintenance

14.6 Essential properties of used oil

14.7 Disposal of spent lubricants

Chapter 15: Advanced lubricant fluids


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Ionic liquids (ILs)

Chapter 16: Epilogue: the outlook for biolubricant science and technology


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Biodegradable lubricants for a sustainable life

16.3 Technology advances

16.4 Biolubricants: drivers and barriers

16.5 Current and future potential for biolubricants




Lubricants are essential in engineering, however more sustainable formulations are needed to avoid adverse effects on the ecosystem. Bio-based lubricant formulations present a promising solution. Biolubricants: Science and technology is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary and timely review of this important subject.

Initial chapters address the principles of lubrication, before systematically reviewing fossil and bio-based feedstock resources for biodegradable lubricants. Further chapters describe catalytic, (bio) chemical functionalisation processes for transformation of feedstocks into commercial products, product development, relevant legislation, life cycle assessment, major product groups and specific performance criteria in all major applications. Final chapters consider markets for biolubricants, issues to consider when selecting and using a lubricant, lubricant disposal and future trends.

With its distinguished authors, Biolubricants: Science and technology is a comprehensive reference for an industrial audience of oil formulators and lubrication engineers, as well as researchers and academics with an interest in the subject. It provides an essential overview of scientific and technological developments enabling the cost-effective improvement of biolubricants, something that is crucial for the green future of the lubricant industry.

Key Features

  • A comprehensive, interdisciplinary and timely review of bio-based lubricant formulations
  • Addresses the principles of lubrication
  • Reviews fossil and bio-based feedstock resources for biodegradable lubricants


Process engineers and manufacturers; Chemists and industrial biochemists; Scientists, researchers and academics in this field


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2013
18th December 2012
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

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About the Authors

Jan C.J. Bart

Jan C. J. Bart is a Full Professor of Industrial Chemistry at the University of Messina, Italy.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Messina

Emanuele Gucciardi

Emanuele Gucciardi is a Post-doctor researcher at the ZSW (Zentrum für Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung) of Ulm, Germany.

Affiliations and Expertise

ZSW, Germany

Stefano Cavallaro

Stefano Cavallaro is an Associate Professor of Industrial Chemistry at the University of Messina, Italy.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Messina, Italy