Biology of the Lymphokines - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121782504, 9781483271422

Biology of the Lymphokines

1st Edition

Editors: Stanley Cohen Edgar Pick Joost J. Oppenheim
eBook ISBN: 9781483271422
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1979
Page Count: 644
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Description

Biology of the Lymphokines discusses the scope and diversity of lymphokine research. This book focuses on the studies on lymphokines, such as those involving cellular source, chemical nature, purification strategies, and bioassay limitations. The mechanism of lymphokine action, lymphokines in vivo, and value of lymphokine quantitations are also covered. This text describes the repertoire of lymphokines produced by various lymphoblastoid cell lines and its significance for coping with the problem of large scale lymphokine production. The anti-viral and general immunoregulatory properties of interferons and rationale developed for integrating interferons with the family of lymphokines are likewise deliberated. This publication is a good source for students and researchers conducting work on lymphokines.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

1. The Lymphokine Concept

I. Historical Perspective

II. What Lymphokines Are

III. Where Lymphokines Originate

IV. Biological Relevance

References

2. Lymphokines as Inflammatory Mediators

I. Introduction

II. Delayed Hypersensitivity

III. The Lymphokines

IV. The Role of Lymphokines In Vivo

V. Concluding Remarks

References

3. Mechanism of Action of Migration Inhibitory Lymphokines

I. Introduction

II. The Mechanism of Macrophage and PMN Motility

III. Manifestations of MIF Action

IV. Interaction of MIFs with the Cell Membrane

V. Intracellular Events in MIF Action

VI. Modulation of MIF Action

VII. Conclusion

References

4. The Activation of Macrophages by Lymphokines

I. Introduction

II. Characterization of the Lymphocyte Mediator That Activates Macrophages

III. Changes in Macrophages Induced by Lymphocyte Mediators

IV. Other Means of Activating Macrophages

V. Some Effector Mechanisms of Activated Macrophages

VI. The Appearance of New Antigen Determinants on Activated Macrophages

References

5. Cytotoxic and Growth Inhibitory Lymphokines

I. Introduction

II. Molecular Dimensions

III. Biokinetics

IV. Regulatory Mechanisms

V. Mechanism of Action

VI. The Role of LT in Cell-Mediated Immune (CMI) Reactions In Vitro

References

6. The Relationship between Lymphokines and Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

I. Introduction

II. T-Cell-Mediated Cytolysis

III. Lymphotoxin-Mediated Cell Destruction

IV. Relation of LT to Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

References

7. Quantification of Lymphokine Production in Human Disease

I. Introduction

II. Description of Assay Systems

III. Lymphokine Production in Human Disease

IV. Summary

References

8. Cellular Sources of Lymphokines

I. Introduction—General Mechanisms of Cell Activation

II. T-Cell-Derived Lymphokines

III. Macrophage Dependency of T-Cell Lymphokine Production

IV. B-Cell-Derived Lymphokines

V. Physicochemical Comparisons of B- and T-Cell-Produced Lymphokines

VI. Macrophage-Derived Factors

VII. Production of Lymphokines by Lymphoid Cell Lines

VIII. Summary and Conclusions

References

9. Cytokines: Lymphokine-like Mediators Produced by Nonlymphoid Cells

I. Introduction

II. Production of MIF by Nonlymphoid Cells

III. Production of Cytokines by Virus-Infected Nonlymphoid Cells

IV. Comparison between Lymphokines and Cytokines

V. Interferons and Cytokines

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

10. Purification and Characterization of Lymphokines

I. Introduction

II. General Physicochemical Properties of Lymphokines

III. Chemical Identities of and Differences among Various Lymphokines

IV. Promising New Approaches for Characterization and Purification of Lymphokines

V. Conclusion

References

11. Biological Effects of Lymphocyte and Macrophage-Derived Mitogenic "Amplification" Factors

I. Introduction

II. Historical Perspective

III. Mitogenic Factor (MF)

IV. Lymphocyte Activating Factor (LAF)

V. Abnormalities of Mediator Production

VI. Conclusions

References

12. Characterization of Mitogenic Factors and Their Effect on the Antibody Response In Vitro

I. Introduction

II. Biochemistry of Lymphoproliferative Factors

III. Possible Role of Lymphoproliferative Factors in the Regulation of Antibody Synthesis In Vitro

IV. Summary

References

13. Immunoregulatory Products of Macrophages

I. Introduction

II. Suppression of Lymphocyte Activities by Macrophages

III. Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Suppression by Macrophages

IV. Macrophage Products That Inhibit Lymphocyte Reactions

V. Selectivity of Macrophage-Mediated Suppression Toward Lymphocyte Subpopulations

VI. The Macrophage as an Intermediary Cell for Lymphocyte-Induced Suppression

VII. Summary

References

14. Lymphokines in Nonspecific T Cell-B Cell Cooperation

I. Introduction

II. Production of T-Cell-Replacing Factors

III. Biochemical Characterization

IV. Biological Properties

V. Regulation of TRF Activity

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

15. Antigen-Specific Regulatory Factors in the Immune Response

I. Introduction

II. The Helper Pathway

III. Antigen-Specific Helper Factors

IV. Antigen-Specific Suppression

V. Antigen-Specific Suppressor Factors

VI. Conclusions

References

16. Specific and Nonspecific Suppressor T-Cell Factors

I. Introduction

II. Nonspecific Suppressor Factors

III. Antigen-Specific Suppressor Factors

References

17. The Comparative Biology of Immune and Classical Interferons

I. Introduction

II. Production of Interferon

III. Characterization and Assay of Interferon

IV. Mechanism of Action of Interferon

V. Role as an Antiviral Agent

VI. Effects of Interferon on the Immune Response

VII. Other Nonantiviral Effects

VIII. Clinical Studies on Production

IX. Classical Interferon as a Therapeutic Agent

X. Conclusions

References

18. Production of Colony Stimulating Factors by Lymphoid Tissues

I. Some Cautionary Comments

II. Hemopoietic Colony Formation In Vitro and Colony Stimulating Factors

III. Production of GM-CSF by Lymphoid Populations

IV. Stimulation of Lymphoid Populations by Pokeweed Mitogen

V. Stimulation of Lymphoid Populations by Other Mitogens and Specific Antigens

VI. The Role of Mitogens in the Production of CSF in Active Conditioned Media by Lymphoid Populations

VII. Relation Between CSF and Other Lymphokines

VIII. Possible Production in Vivo of Hemopoietic Factors by Lymphoid Populations

IX. Summary

References

19. The Role of Intracellular Mediators in the Immune Response

I. Introduction: General Concepts

II. Cyclic AMP

III. Calcium

IV. Cyclic GMP

V. Role of Cytoskeletal Elements

VI. Noncyclic Nucleotides and Nucleosides

VII. Lipids

VIII. Concluding Remarks

References

20. Overview: Biology of the Lymphokines

I. Introduction and Historical Background

II. Evolutionary Origin of Lymphokines

III. Biological Role and Classification of Lymphokines

IV. Lymphokine Action on Target Cell Functions

V. General Comments

Appendix

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
644
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1979
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483271422

About the Editor

Stanley Cohen

Edgar Pick

Joost J. Oppenheim