Biology of Halophytes

Biology of Halophytes

1st Edition - January 1, 1972

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  • Author: Yoav Waisel
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151580

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Description

Biology of Halophytes is a monograph on the biological aspects of halophytes and their behavior under saline conditions. It explores the physioecological characteristics of halophytes, such as reproduction, growth, metabolism, water relations, mineral nutrition, salt transport, salt secretion, and salt resistance. It also provides ecological information on higher marine plants, particularly submerged angiosperms, mangroves, and high coast plants. Organized into 16 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of sources of salinity and the development and nature of salines and salt-affected soils. It proceeds with a discussion of the classification of halophytes, their mutual relationships, distribution, and sociology. It also summarizes autecological information on some terrestrial halophytes and introduces the reader to the formative effects of salinity, interrelationships between plants and spatial distribution within the community, ion transport and mineral nutrition, and regulation of salt content of shoots, before concluding with a short review on ecotypic differentiation in halophytes. This book will be a valuable resource for advanced students, as well as teachers of plant and environmental sciences.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Introduction

    Chapter 1. Sources of Salinity

    Marine Sources

    Lithogenic Sources

    Anthropogenic Sources

    Chapter 2. Formation of Salines

    Salt Cycles in Nature

    Water Regimes and Salt Accumulation

    Marine Salines

    Coastal Salines

    Inland Salines

    Aerogenic Salines

    Anthropogenic Salines

    Chapter 3. Saline and Sodic Soils

    General Characteristics of Saline Soils

    Soil Salinity and Water Relations

    Sodium Adsorption and Profile Formation

    Classification of Saline and Sodic Soils

    The Ecology of Waterlogged Halomorphic Soils

    Chapter 4. Classification

    Text

    Chapter 5. Distribution and Synecology of Halophytes

    Classification of Halophytic Communities

    Typical Halophytic Communities

    Succession in Salt-Affected Habitats

    Interrelationships between Plants and Spatial Distribution within the Community

    Life Form, Distribution, and Migration of Halophytes

    Chapter 6. Water Relations

    General Remarks: Water in Saline Soils

    Availability of Water to Plants

    Salinity and Water Flow

    Osmotic Adaptation

    Water Transport in Stems

    Transpiration

    Absorption of Atmospheric Moisture

    Chapter 7. Ion Transport and Mineral Nutrition

    General Remarks: Nutrition in a Hostile Environment

    Salt Movement toward Roots

    Salt Uptake and Uptake Mechanisms

    Difference in Ion Uptake along Roots

    Ion Distribution throughout Plants

    Localization of Ions in Subcellular Compartments

    Nutritional Requirements for Sodium and Chloride

    Effects of Salinity on Metabolism of the Major Nutritive Cations and Anions

    Specific Problems of Plant Nutrition in Salt Marshes and Saline Springs

    Chapter 8. Regulation of Salt Content of Shoots

    Secretion of Salts

    Salt Leaching

    Guttation

    Removal of Salt-Saturated Organs

    Salt Retransportation

    Accumulation of Salts in Salt Hairs

    Ecological Significance of Salt Removal

    Chapter 9. Dispersal and Propagation

    Dissemination of Fruits and Seeds

    Germination

    Vegetative Reproduction

    Chapter 10. Growth

    General Remarks

    Growth Inhibition and Osmotic Effects

    Ionic Effects

    Effects of Salinity on Growth of Various Organs

    Aftereffects of Salinity

    Productivity

    Chapter 11. Metabolism

    Salinity and Respiration

    Salinity and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Effects of Salinity on Activity of Some Enzymes

    Organic Acid Metabolism

    Dark C02 Fixation

    Effects on Assimilation

    Effects of Salinity on Metabolism of Proteins and Growth Regulators

    Miscellaneous Effects

    Chapter 12. Salt Resistance

    Definitions

    Salt Resistance, Growth, and Differentiation

    Ion Composition and Salt Resistance

    Salt Damage and Salt Tolerance

    Raising the Resistance of Plants to Salts

    Resistance to Salt, Drought, and Alkalinity

    Chapter 13. Formative Effects of Salinity

    Classification of Succulents

    Modification of Leaves

    Modification of Stems

    Modifications of Roots

    Chapter 14. Marine Halophytes

    Submerged Marine Angiosperms

    Mangroves

    High Coast Halophytes

    Chapter 15. Ecological Notes on Some Terrestrial Halophytes

    Introduction

    Aeluropus litoralis (Willd.) Pari.

    Armeria maritima (Mill.) Willd.

    Arthrocnemum Moq.

    Aster tripolium L.

    Atriplex L.

    Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aellen.

    Halogeton C. A. Mey.

    Juncus L.

    Limonium Mill.

    Nitraria return (Forssk.) Aschers.

    Phragmites communis Trin.

    Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Eig.

    Salicornia L.

    Spartina Schreb.

    Suaeda Forssk. ex Scop.

    Tamarix L.

    Chapter 16. Ecotypic Differentiation

    General Remarks

    Morphological Adaptation

    Phenological Adaptations

    Anatomical Adaptations

    Physiological Adaptations

    References

    Author index

    Genus and Species Index

    Subject Index






Product details

  • No. of pages: 410
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1972
  • Published: January 1, 1972
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151580

About the Author

Yoav Waisel

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