Biology of Halophytes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127308500, 9780323151580

Biology of Halophytes

1st Edition

Authors: Yoav Waisel
eBook ISBN: 9780323151580
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 410
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Description

Biology of Halophytes is a monograph on the biological aspects of halophytes and their behavior under saline conditions. It explores the physioecological characteristics of halophytes, such as reproduction, growth, metabolism, water relations, mineral nutrition, salt transport, salt secretion, and salt resistance. It also provides ecological information on higher marine plants, particularly submerged angiosperms, mangroves, and high coast plants. Organized into 16 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of sources of salinity and the development and nature of salines and salt-affected soils. It proceeds with a discussion of the classification of halophytes, their mutual relationships, distribution, and sociology. It also summarizes autecological information on some terrestrial halophytes and introduces the reader to the formative effects of salinity, interrelationships between plants and spatial distribution within the community, ion transport and mineral nutrition, and regulation of salt content of shoots, before concluding with a short review on ecotypic differentiation in halophytes. This book will be a valuable resource for advanced students, as well as teachers of plant and environmental sciences.

Table of Contents


Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1. Sources of Salinity

Marine Sources

Lithogenic Sources

Anthropogenic Sources

Chapter 2. Formation of Salines

Salt Cycles in Nature

Water Regimes and Salt Accumulation

Marine Salines

Coastal Salines

Inland Salines

Aerogenic Salines

Anthropogenic Salines

Chapter 3. Saline and Sodic Soils

General Characteristics of Saline Soils

Soil Salinity and Water Relations

Sodium Adsorption and Profile Formation

Classification of Saline and Sodic Soils

The Ecology of Waterlogged Halomorphic Soils

Chapter 4. Classification

Text

Chapter 5. Distribution and Synecology of Halophytes

Classification of Halophytic Communities

Typical Halophytic Communities

Succession in Salt-Affected Habitats

Interrelationships between Plants and Spatial Distribution within the Community

Life Form, Distribution, and Migration of Halophytes

Chapter 6. Water Relations

General Remarks: Water in Saline Soils

Availability of Water to Plants

Salinity and Water Flow

Osmotic Adaptation

Water Transport in Stems

Transpiration

Absorption of Atmospheric Moisture

Chapter 7. Ion Transport and Mineral Nutrition

General Remarks: Nutrition in a Hostile Environment

Salt Movement toward Roots

Salt Uptake and Uptake Mechanisms

Difference in Ion Uptake along Roots

Ion Distribution throughout Plants

Localization of Ions in Subcellular Compartments

Nutritional Requirements for Sodium and Chloride

Effects of Salinity on Metabolism of the Major Nutritive Cations and Anions

Specific Problems of Plant Nutrition in Salt Marshes and Saline Springs

Chapter 8. Regulation of Salt Content of Shoots

Secretion of Salts

Salt Leaching

Guttation

Removal of Salt-Saturated Organs

Salt Retransportation

Accumulation of Salts in Salt Hairs

Ecological Significance of Salt Removal

Chapter 9. Dispersal and Propagation

Dissemination of Fruits and Seeds

Germination

Vegetative Reproduction

Chapter 10. Growth

General Remarks

Growth Inhibition and Osmotic Effects

Ionic Effects

Effects of Salinity on Growth of Various Organs

Aftereffects of Salinity

Productivity

Chapter 11. Metabolism

Salinity and Respiration

Salinity and Carbohydrate Metabolism

Effects of Salinity on Activity of Some Enzymes

Organic Acid Metabolism

Dark C02 Fixation

Effects on Assimilation

Effects of Salinity on Metabolism of Proteins and Growth Regulators

Miscellaneous Effects

Chapter 12. Salt Resistance

Definitions

Salt Resistance, Growth, and Differentiation

Ion Composition and Salt Resistance

Salt Damage and Salt Tolerance

Raising the Resistance of Plants to Salts

Resistance to Salt, Drought, and Alkalinity

Chapter 13. Formative Effects of Salinity

Classification of Succulents

Modification of Leaves

Modification of Stems

Modifications of Roots

Chapter 14. Marine Halophytes

Submerged Marine Angiosperms

Mangroves

High Coast Halophytes

Chapter 15. Ecological Notes on Some Terrestrial Halophytes

Introduction

Aeluropus litoralis (Willd.) Pari.

Armeria maritima (Mill.) Willd.

Arthrocnemum Moq.

Aster tripolium L.

Atriplex L.

Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aellen.

Halogeton C. A. Mey.

Juncus L.

Limonium Mill.

Nitraria return (Forssk.) Aschers.

Phragmites communis Trin.

Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Eig.

Salicornia L.

Spartina Schreb.

Suaeda Forssk. ex Scop.

Tamarix L.

Chapter 16. Ecotypic Differentiation

General Remarks

Morphological Adaptation

Phenological Adaptations

Anatomical Adaptations

Physiological Adaptations

References

Author index

Genus and Species Index

Subject Index






Details

No. of pages:
410
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1972
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323151580

About the Author

Yoav Waisel