Biology of Bryozoans

Biology of Bryozoans

1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Editors: Robert M. Woollacott, Russel L. Zimmer
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220741

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Biology of Bryozoans covers some of the unusual and even unique systems and aspects of bryozoans. The book discusses the gametogenesis of bryozoans; the brooding patterns of bryozoans; and the structure and classification of gymnolaemate larvae. The text also describes the metamorphosis, ancestrulae, and coloniality in bryozoan life cycles; the ultrastructure, mineralogy, and development of bryozoan skeletons; and polymorphism in marine bryozoans. Bryozoan feeding and culture; experimental techniques and culture methods; and the problem of the funiculi and the communications are also considered. The book further tackles the aging process in bryozoans; the bryozoan nervous system; and taxes and tropisms of bryozoans. The text also looks into the life strategies of bryozoans; the population genetics of bryozoans; and the adaptive model for the evolution of the ectoproct life cycle. Zoologists, marine biologists, and students taking related courses will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    1 Gametogenesis of Bryozoans

    I. Morphology of the Ova and Oogenesis

    II. Morphology of the Spermatozoon and Spermiogenesis


    2 Brooding Patterns of Bryozoans

    I. Introduction

    II. Gymnolaemata

    III. Stenolaemata

    IV. Phylactolaemata

    V. Summarizing Comments on Brooding

    VI. Breeding Seasons


    3 Structure and Classification of Gymnolaemate Larvae

    I. Introduction

    II. Larval Structure

    III. Larval Types

    IV Conclusions


    4 Metamorphosis, Ancestrulae, and Coloniality in Bryozoan Life Cycles

    I. Introduction

    II. Gymnolaemata

    III. Cyclostomata

    IV. Phylactolaemata

    V. Summary


    5 Ultrastructure, Mineralogy, and Development of Bryozoan Skeletons

    I. Introduction

    II. Interpretation and Application of Skeletal Ultrastructure

    III . Stenolaemate Bryozoa

    IV. Cheilostome Bryozoa


    6 Polymorphism

    I. Some Elementary Definitions

    II. Distribution of Polymorphism among Bryozoans

    III. Types of Polymorphs: Generalities

    IV. Active Defense: Avicularia and Vibracula

    V. Cleaning: Nanozooids

    VI. Passive Defense: Spinozooids

    VII. Colony Strengthening: Intercalated and Marginal Kenozooids

    VIII. Colony Support: Rhizozooids, Stylozooids, and Stolons (?)

    IX. Survival of Unfavorable Conditions: Rhizozooids and Stolons, Hibernacula, Statoblasts, and Sacculi

    X. Interzooidal Connections: Interzooids

    XI. Sexual Reproduction: Gonozooids

    XII. From Free to Sedentary Life: Ancestrulae

    XIII. Induction and Origin of Polymorphism: Generalities

    XIV. The Individual Concept

    XV. Ontogenetic Development of Polymorphs

    XVI. Substitution of Different Polymorphs

    XVII. Conditions Inducing Polymorphism

    XVIII. Origin and Evolution of Polymorphism


    7 Feeding in Marine Bryozoans

    I. Introduction

    II. Review of Functional Morphology of Feeding

    III . Variation in the Bryozoan Polypide

    IV. Bryozoan Feeding and Culture

    V. General Discussion

    VI. Suggestions for Future Research

    VII. Conclusions


    8 Experimental Techniques and Culture Methods

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Work in the Field

    III. Simple Rearing in the Laboratory

    IV. General Conditions for Laboratory Work

    V. Cultivation or Long-Term Rearing


    9 Interzooecial Communications and the Funicular System

    I. Introduction

    II. Case of the Phylactolaemates

    III. Case of Eurystome Gymnolaemates

    IV. Case of Cyclostome Gymnolaemates

    V. Conclusions


    10 The Aging Process in Bryozoans

    I. Introduction

    II. General Features

    III. Ultrastructural Features of Regression

    IV. The Fate of the Brown Body

    V. Distribution of Cyclic Regression and Regeneration

    VI. Cause and Effect of Brown Body Formation

    VII. Summary


    11 The Bryozoan Nervous System

    I. Introduction

    II. General Anatomy

    III. The Interzooidal Information Hypothesis

    IV. Discussion

    V. Summary


    12 Taxes and Tropisms of Bryozoans

    I. Introduction

    II. Orientation Responses of Free-Swimming Larvae and Motile Colonies

    III. Orientation Responses of Settling Larvae

    IV. Orientation Responses of Fixed Colonies

    V. Summary


    13 Fouling and Bioadhesion: Life Strategies of Bryozoans

    I. Introduction

    II. Reproductive Strategies

    III. Bioadhesives and Attachment

    IV. Fouling Communities

    V. Fouling Colonial Strategies


    14 Population Genetics of Bryozoans

    I. Introduction

    II. Population Size

    III. Outbreeding and Inbreeding

    IV. Linkage

    V. Geographic Variation

    VI. Genetic Variability

    VII. Implications for Speciation

    VIII. Appendix: Summary of Techniques

    IX. Addendum


    15 An Adaptive Model for the Evolution of the Ectoproct Life Cycle

    I. Introduction

    II. The Ground Plan Concept and Its Bearing on the Origin of Phyla

    III. The Position of the Ectoprocta in Lophophorate Phylogeny

    IV. General Features of the Phoronida and Ectoprocta

    V. The Adaptive Basis of Morphological Differences in the Adult Stage of Phoronids and Ectoprocts

    VI. A Model for the Origin of the Adult Features of the Ectoproct Ground Plan

    VII. Historical Evidence Bearing on the Model

    VIII. The Viability of Intermediate Modes of Life

    IX. Evolution of the Larval Stage of the Life Cycle

    X. The Actinotroch Larva of the Phoronida

    XI. Larval Development in the Ectoprocta

    XII. The Cyphonautes Larva

    XIII. Discussion and Conclusions


    16 Phylogenetic Considerations: The Protostomian Relationships

    I. Introduction

    II. The Relationship between Entoprocts and Ectoprocts

    III. Discussion of Possible Relationships with the Phoronids

    IV. The Relationships of the Bryozoans (Entoprocts + Ectoprocts)




Product details

  • No. of pages: 584
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220741

About the Editors

Robert M. Woollacott

Russel L. Zimmer

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