Biological Ultrastructure

Biological Ultrastructure

1st Edition - January 1, 1958

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  • Authors: Arne Engström, J. B. Finean
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272771

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Biological Ultrastructure focuses on the ultrastructure of biological systems, including microscopy and the roles of amino acids, lipoproteins, and carbohydrates. The manuscript first offers information on the methods in ultrastructural research and the principles of molecular structure. Topics include application of electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, electronic theory of valency, spatial arrangement, and aggregation of molecules and interaction with water. The book then examines the role of proteins and lipids, including amino acids, polypeptide chains, natural lipoproteins, and structure and properties of isolated lipid molecules. The publication underscores the role of carbohydrates and nucleic acids, as well as monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, structure of nucleic acids, viruses, and cell nucleus chromosomes and genes. The text also takes a look at the role of ultrastructure in biology and medicine and the role of mineral salts. The manuscript is a valuable source of data for readers interested in biological ultrastructure.

Table of Contents

  • Contents


    I. From Microscopic Morphology to Molecular Structure

    Histological and Cytological Approach

    Chemical Approach

    Biological Ultrastructure

    II. Methods in Ultrastructural Research

    A. Microscopy

    1. Phase Contrast Microscopy

    2. Interference Microscopy

    3. Dark Field Microscopy and Microincineration

    4. Polarizing Microscopy

    5. X-Ray Microscopy

    B. The Application of Electron Microscopy

    1. The Electron Microscope

    2. Specimen Preparation

    C. Spectroscopic Methods

    1. Ultraviolet

    2. Infrared

    3. Dichroism

    D. The Application of X-Ray Diffraction

    1. Crystal Analysis

    2. Powder Diagrams

    3. Fiber Diagrams

    4. Disperse Systems

    5. Micromethods

    III. The Principles of Molecular Structure

    A. The Electronic Theory of Valence

    1. The Ionic Bond

    2. The Covalent Bond

    3. The Concept of Resonance

    4. The Hydrogen Bond

    5. Van der Waals' Forces

    B. Spatial Arrangement

    1. Ionic Radii

    2. Covalent Radii

    3. Influence of Resonance on Interatomic Distances

    4. The Hydrogen Bond

    C. Important Atomic Groupings

    D. Aggregation of Molecules and Interaction with Water

    1. The Structure of Water

    2. Liquid Crystals

    3. Crystal Structure

    4. From Water of Crystallization to True Solution

    5. Colloidal Solutions

    6. Gel Structure

    7. Boundary Layers

    8. Insoluble Monolayers

    IV. The Role of Proteins

    A. The Amino Acids

    B. Polypeptide Chains

    C. The Fibrous Proteins

    1. The Keratins and Basic Chain Configurations

    2. Epidermis and the Structure of Skin

    3. Myosin and Muscle

    4. Flagella

    5. Fibrinogen and Fibrin

    6. Silk Fibroin

    7. Collagen

    8. Elastin

    D. The Corpuscular Proteins

    1. Denaturation

    2. Studies on Crystalline Proteins

    3. Swelling and Shrinking

    4. Proteins in Solution and Their Biological Activities

    V. The Role of Lipids

    A. Structure and Properties of Isolated Lipid Molecules

    1. The Hydrocarbon Chain

    2. Polymorphism of Lipids

    3. Alternations of Physical Properties in Long-Chain Compounds

    4. Phospholipids

    5. Carbohydrate-Containing Lipids

    6. Sterols

    B. Mixed Lipid Systems and Interaction with Proteins

    1. Myelin Forms

    2. Interaction with Proteins

    C. Natural Lipoproteins

    1. The Ultrastructure of Nerve

    2. The Structure of Retinal Rods and Cones

    3. The Ultrastructure of the Erythrocyte

    4. Membrane Structures

    5. Mitochondria, Microsomes, and the Golgi Apparatus

    VI. The Role of Carbohydrates

    A. Monosaccharides

    B. Disaccharides

    C. Polysaccharides

    1. Cellulose

    2. Starch and Glycogen

    3. Mucopolysaccharides

    4. Polysaccharide-Protein Systems

    VII. Role of Nucleic Acids

    A. The Structure of Nucleic Acids

    1. The Sugar Component

    2. The Heterocyclic Bases, Purines, and Pyrimidines

    3. The Nucleosides

    4. The Mononucleotides

    5. Polynucleotides

    6. Nucleoproteins

    B. Viruses

    1. Bacteriophage

    2. Plant Viruses

    3. Animal Viruses

    C. Cell Nucleus Chromosomes and Genes

    1. Cell Nucleus

    2. Chromosomes

    3. Genes

    VIII. Role of Mineral Salts

    A. Structure of Calcium Carbonates

    B. Structure of Calcium Phosphates

    1. The Structure of Apatite

    2. Tricalcium Phosphate Hydrate and Hydroxyapatite

    C. Bone and Teeth

    1. Overall Chemical Composition

    2. Distribution of Mineral Salts

    3. Nature of the Mineral Phase in Bone and Teeth

    4. Particle Size in Bone and Teeth

    5. Surface Chemistry of the Bone Salt

    6. The Relationship Between the Organic and the Inorganic Constituents of Bone

    D. Extraskeletal Tissue Calcifications

    1. Urinary Concretions

    2. Statoconia

    E. Exoskeleton of Invertebrates

    IX. The Role of Ultrastructure in Biology and Medicine

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 336
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1958
  • Published: January 1, 1958
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272771

About the Authors

Arne Engström

J. B. Finean

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