Biological Research on Addiction - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123983350, 9780123983602

Biological Research on Addiction

1st Edition

Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders, Volume 2

Editor-in-Chiefs: Peter Miller
eBook ISBN: 9780123983602
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123983350
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th February 2013
Page Count: 758
Tax/VAT will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT (GST)
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
20% off
20% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
20% off
20% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
20% off
20% off
155.00
108.50
108.50
108.50
108.50
108.50
124.00
124.00
125.00
87.50
87.50
87.50
87.50
87.50
100.00
100.00
199.95
139.97
139.97
139.97
139.97
139.97
159.96
159.96
Unavailable
Price includes VAT (GST)
DRM-Free

Easy - Download and start reading immediately. There’s no activation process to access eBooks; all eBooks are fully searchable, and enabled for copying, pasting, and printing.

Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices. Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including Kindle.

Open - Buy once, receive and download all available eBook formats, including PDF, EPUB, and Mobi (for Kindle).

Institutional Access

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.

Description

Biological Research on Addiction examines the neurobiological mechanisms of drug use and drug addiction, describing how the brain responds to addictive substances as well as how it is affected by drugs of abuse. The book's four main sections examine behavioral and molecular biology; neuroscience; genetics; and neuroimaging and neuropharmacology as they relate to the addictive process.

This volume is especially effective in presenting current knowledge on the key neurobiological and genetic elements in an individual’s susceptibility to drug dependence, as well as the processes by which some individuals proceed from casual drug use to drug dependence.

Biological Research on Addiction is one of three volumes comprising the 2,500-page series, Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders. This series provides the most complete collection of current knowledge on addictive behaviors and disorders to date. In short, it is the definitive reference work on addictions.

Key Features

  • Each article provides glossary, full references, suggested readings, and a list of web resources
  • Edited and authored by the leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available
  • Discusses the genetic basis of addiction
  • Covers basic science research from a variety of animal studies

Readership

Researchers and students in psychology, psychiatry, neuroscience and neurology

Table of Contents

Preface

Scope and Format

Volume 2: Biological Research on Addiction

Editors: Biographies

List of Contributors

Section I: Behavioral Biology, Preclinical Animal Studies of Addiction

Chapter 1. Neurobiological Mechanisms of Drug Addiction: An Introduction

Conceptual Framework for Neurobiology of Addiction

Neurobiology of the Binge/Intoxication Stage

Neurobiology of the Withdrawal/Negative Affect Stage

Neurobiology of the Preoccupation/Anticipation Stage

Molecular and Cellular Targets within the Brain Circuits Associated with Addiction

Brain Imaging Circuits Involved in Human Addiction

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 2. Mice and Alcohol

Introduction

Drinking Studies

Operant Oral Self-Administration

Conditioned Taste Aversion and Conditioned Place Preference

Motor Behavior

Alcohol Withdrawal and Dependence

Anxiety and Novelty Seeking

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 3. Alcohol and Rats

Introduction

Drinking Studies

Conditioned Place Preference

Conditioned Taste Aversion

Sensitivity to Alcohol and Tolerance/Sensitization Phenomenon

Alcohol Dependence, Withdrawal, Operant Oral Self-Administration, and Relapse

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 4. Nonhuman Primate Models of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

Introduction

Use of Nonhuman Primates in Alcohol Research

Pharmacological Models

Behavioral Models

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 5. Zebrafish and Alcohol

Alcohol-Related Human Diseases Represent a Large Unmet Medical Need

Animal Models and Their Role in Alcohol Research

Zebrafish, A Promising Laboratory Animal in Alcohol Research

Acute Behavioral Effects of Alcohol in Zebrafish

Chronic Behavioral Effects of Alcohol in Zebrafish

Neurochemical Changes Associated with Alcohol Administration in Zebrafish

Gene Expression Changes Resulting from Chronic Alcohol Exposure in Zebrafish

Strain Differences

The Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Low Alcohol Concentrations

Alcohol Preference and Avoidance in Zebrafish: An Unsolved Problem

Research Areas not Covered in this Chapter

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 6. Alcohol and Drosophila melanogaster

Introduction

Ethanol Exposure, and Measures in Flies

Alcohol-Induced Behaviors and Responses

Large-Scale Approaches to Alcohol Studies in Flies

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 7. Animal Models of Addiction other than Alcohol: Amphetamines

Amphetamine – A Historical Perspective

Mechanism of Action of Amphetamine

Transition from Amphetamine Use to Dependence

Animal Models in Substance Dependence Research

Behavioral Locomotor Sensitization

Behavioral Stereotypies

Operant Self-administration of Amphetamine

Condition Place Preference – CPP

Intracranial Self-stimulation – ICSS

Drug Discrimination Models – DD

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 8. Animal Models of Addiction: Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids in the Brain and in the Laboratory

Cannabinoid Dependence, a Widespread but Overlooked Phenomenon

The Rationale for Using Animal Models

Goals of Addiction-Related Cannabinoid Studies

Cannabinoid Self-Administration, a Direct Model of Cannabinoid Abuse

Cannabinoid Self-Administration Procedures

Indirect Behavioral Assessments of Cannabinoid Reward

Reward-Related Intracranial Techniques

Other Addiction-Related Behavioral Effects of Cannabinoids

Assessing “Gateway” Interactions Between Cannabinoids and Other Drugs

Effects of Cannabinoid-Receptor Antagonists

Development of Safer Cannabinoid-Related Medications

The Continuing Role of Animal Models

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 9. Animal Models of Drug Addiction: Cocaine

Introduction

Cocaine Addiction: Definitions

Behavioral Effects

The Future

See also

Acknowledgments

Further Reading

Chapter 10. Effects of Nicotine in Animal Models of Drug Addiction Across Species

Introduction

Experimental Procedures for Studying Nicotine’s Effects

Effects of Nicotine in Experimental Animals

Conclusions

Further Reading

Chapter 11. Preclinical Animal Studies: Alcohol

Introduction

Preclinical Procedures Used to Model Alcohol Use and Its Other Effects

Neuropharmacological Studies in Alcohol-Dependence Models

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 12. Preclinical Animal Studies: Cannabinoids

Introduction

History of Therapeutic Use of Cannabinoids

Overview of the Endocannabinoid System

Preclinical Animal Models of Disease Relevant to Cannabinoids

Energy Balance: Appetite and Metabolism

Multiple Sclerosis

Pain

Neuroprotection

Epilepsy

Psychotic Illness

Anxiety and Mood Disorders

Cannabinoids and the Reward System: Treatments for Drug Addiction

Cognition

Other Therapeutic Uses of Cannabinoid Drugs

Improved Cannabinoid Medicines

The Future for Cannabinoid Medicines

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 13. Preclinical Animal Studies: Cocaine

Introduction

The Neurobiology of Cocaine Abuse

Preclinical Models: Predictive Validity

Animal Models: Face Validity

Animal Models: Construct Validity

Conclusions and Remarks

Further Reading

Chapter 14. Preclinical Animal Studies: Nicotine

Introduction

Overview of Nicotine Pharmacology

Aspects of Nicotine Dependence

Animal Models: Definition

Neurochemical and Simple Behavioral Models

Models of Acquisition/Maintenance

Models of Nicotine Reinforcement

Models of Motivation to Consume Nicotine

Models of Neuroadaptations Occurring with the Development of Nicotine Dependence

Models of Nicotine Withdrawal

Models of Relapse and Drug Seeking

Summary

Acknowledgments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 15. Preclinical Animal Studies: Opiates

Introduction

Overview of Opiate Pharmacology

Opiates and Dependence

Vulnerability Factors

Summary

Acknowledgments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 16. Overview of Animal Models of Drug Addiction: Commonalities to Human Addiction

Introduction

Alcohol Addiction

Nicotine Addiction

Opiates

Psychostimulant Addiction

Summary/Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Section II: Neuroscience

Chapter 17. Common Mechanisms of Addiction

Introduction

Risk Factors

Relapse Vulnerability: Stress, Context, and Drug Cues

Neurocircuitry of Addiction

Decision-making and Cognitive Control

Cellular Correlates

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 18. Neuroadaptive Changes that Result from Chronic Drug Exposure

Introduction

Behavioral Adaptations

Neurochemical Adaptations

Cellular and Molecular Adaptations

Summary and the Future of New “Omics” Techniques

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 19. The Dark Side of Addiction: Dysregulated Neuroadaptation of Emotional Neurocircuits

Stages of the Addiction Cycle

Somatic versus Motivational Withdrawal

Opponent Processes Begin with the First Administration of a Drug

Dysregulated Reward and Opponent Process: Within- and Between-System Conceptual Framework

Neurobiological Bases of Within-System Neuroadaptations

Neurobiological Bases of Between-System Neuroadaptations

Implications for Addiction

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 20. Integrating Body and Brain Systems in Addiction Neuroscience

Introduction

Integrating Psychophysiology and Neuroscience

The Central Autonomic Network

The Efferent Stream: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions

The Afferent Stream: Baroreceptor-Mediated Feedback

The Baroreflex, Cardiovascular Dysfunction, and Addiction

HRV as a Window into Integrated Brain–Body Functioning

Neurocardiac System Malleability and Treatment Implications

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 21. Brain Sites and Neurotransmitter Systems Mediating the Reinforcing Effects of Alcohol

Alcohol and Its General Behavioral Effects

Animal Models and Ethanol Reinforcement

Experimental Approaches toward Identifying Brain Regions and Neurotransmitters Mediating Ethanol Reinforcement

Receptor Targets for Ethanol and Regulation of Alcohol Drinking

Brain Regions and Receptors Involved in Regulating Oral Ethanol Reinforcement

Identifying the Local Reinforcing Actions of Ethanol Using ICSA

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 22. The Mesolimbic Dopamine Reward System and Drug Addiction

Introduction

Description of Mesolimbic Dopamine Reward System

Mesolimbic Dopamine Reward System and Drug Abuse

Implications for Treatment and Prevention of Addiction

Summary

Acknowledgments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 23. Molecular and Functional Changes in Receptors: GABA and Chronic Alcohol Consumption

Introduction

Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome and the Kindling Hypothesis of Alcohol Dependence

Contribution of GABAAR plasticity to AWS

The CIE Model and Relationship to Human Alcoholism

Chronic EtOH Alters GABAAR Function and Pharmacology

Chronic EtOH Alters GABAAR Subunit Expression

Single-Dose EtOH Intoxication Induces GABAAR Plasticity

Mechanisms of EtOH-Induced GABAAR Plasticity

Phosphorylation/Dephosphorylation Mechanisms of GABAAR Function and Trafficking

Transcriptional and Epigenetic Mechanisms of EtOH-Induced GABAAR Plasticity

Endogenous Neurosteroids and CIE

Neuroimmune Mechanisms of GABAAR Plasticity

Physiological Relevance of GABAAR Plasticity in Different Brain Regions

Conclusions

Acknowledgment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 24. Serotonin and Behavioral Stimulant Effects of Addictive Drugs

Introduction

Behavioral Stimulant Effects of Drugs – A General Consideration

Neuronal Mechanisms of Basal Locomotor Activity

The Effects of Addictive Drugs on Serotonin Activity

Evidence of a Serotonin Role in Drug-Induced Locomotor Effects

Limitations of Locomotor Behavior in the Context of Drug Addiction

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 25. The Role of Glutamate Receptors in Addiction

Introduction

Psychostimulants

Opiates

Ethanol

Cannabinoids

Nicotine

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 26. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Addiction

Introduction

Synaptic Plasticity

Characterizing the Mesolimbic Dopamine System

Drug-Induced Synaptic Plasticity within the Mesolimbic Dopamine System

Drug-Induced Molecular Alterations

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 27. Common Molecular Mechanisms and Neurocircuitry in Alcohol and Nicotine Addiction

Comorbidity of Nicotine and Alcohol

Addiction Neurocircuitry

Upstream CREB Effectors in Nicotine and Alcohol Addiction

CREB and Protein Kinases in Alcohol and Nicotine Addiction

BDNF as a Downstream Target of CREB

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 28. The Role of Brain Development in Drug Effect and Drug Response

Use of Animal Models in Developmental Psychopharmacology and Toxicology

The Developing Brain as a Substrate for Drug Action

Emergence of Drug Responsiveness

Consequences of Drug Exposures during Development

Parting Comments: Early Drug Exposure as Developmental Programming, Increasing Later Vulnerability for Addiction

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 29. Molecular Targets of Ethanol in the Developing Brain

Introduction

Neurotoxicity: Apoptosis and Inhibition of Neurogenesis

Neuronal Migration

Signal Transduction Pathways

Micronutrients

Neuroinflammation

Epigenetics

Screening for Molecular Targets

Horizons

Acknowledgments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 30. Addiction, Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and Neuroplasticity in the Adult Brain

Introduction to Neuroplasticity

Addiction and the Brain: Beyond the Reward Pathway

Hippocampal Circuitry: An Introduction

Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: A Novel Aspect of Hippocampal Neuroplasticity

Stages of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Measurement of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Important Considerations of Labeling and Timing

What Is the Function of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis?

Important Considerations in Exploring the Effects of Drugs of Abuse on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

How Do Addictive Substances Influence Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis?

How Do the Results of Studies with Experimenter-Delivered Drugs Influence Our Understanding of the Role of New Neurons in the Process of Addiction?

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 31. Neurogenesis and Addictive Disorders

Introduction

Animal Models of Addiction

Animal Models of Craving

Reward and Relapse Circuitry in the Adult Brain

Medial Prefrontal Cortex

Hippocampal Formation

Source of Funding

Further Reading

Chapter 32. Neural Mechanisms of Learning: Animal Models of Cocaine Addiction

Neuroanatomy of Cocaine Addiction

Discriminative Stimuli

Conditioned Stimuli

Context

Stress

Further Reading

Chapter 33. Memory Reconsolidation and Drugs of Abuse

Introduction

Background on Reconsolidation

Reconsolidation of Drug-Associated Memories

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 34. Binge Drinking and Withdrawal: Neural Mechanisms in Humans

The Definition and Prevalence of Binge Drinking

Factors Mediating the Occurrence of Social Binge Drinking

Withdrawal from Alcohol

Cognitive and Emotional Consequences of Binge Drinking and Withdrawal

Neural Mechanisms of Binge Drinking- and Withdrawal-Induced Impairments

Binge Drinking as a Predisposing Factor for Alcoholism

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 35. The Neural Basis of Decision Making in Addiction

Statement of the Problem

A Historical Overview of the Neuroscience of Decision Making

Outline of a Neurological Model

The Impulsive System

The Reflective System

Neural Systems That Intensify Motivation and Weaken Control of Behavior: The Insula

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

Further Reading

Chapter 36. Addiction and the Human Adolescent Brain

Overview

Background

Neural Consequences of Addiction

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 37. Neuropsychological Precursors and Consequences of Addiction

Introduction

Neuropsychology: Fundamentals

Neuropsychological Precursors

Neuropsychological Consequences

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 38. Human Neurophysiology: EEG and Quantitative EEG in Addiction Research

Electroencephalography

Quantitative Electroencephalography

Event-Related Brain Potentials

EEG and ERP Findings by Addictive Substance

Treatment Implications

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 39. Incentive Salience and the Transition to Addiction

Drug Addiction, Recovery, and Relapse

The Incentive Sensitization Theory

What Is Incentive Salience?

Mesolimbic Dopamine as a Common Currency for Incentive Salience

Sensitization of Incentive Salience

Factors That Influence Sensitization

A Role for Pleasure?

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 40. The Neurobiological Basis of Personality Risk for Addiction

The Link between Personality and Drug Abuse

Focus on Impulsivity

Methodological Considerations

The Neurobiology of Behavioral Inhibition

The Neurobiology of Behavioral Activation

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 41. Neuroeconomics and Addiction: Integrating Neuroscience, Cognition, and Behavioral Economics

Introduction

Introduction to Neuroeconomics

Neural Mechanisms of Reward Valuation

Neuroeconomics and Addiction: Biased Reward Valuation

Treatment Implications

Conclusions and Future Directions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 42. Common Neural Mechanisms in Obesity and Drug Addiction

Behavioral and Psychological Similarities

Neurobiological Similarities: Structure

Neurobiological Similarities: Cue Exposure

Neurobiological Similarities: Consumption

Important Differences

Treatment and Policy Implications

Summary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Chapter 43. Brain Mechanisms of Addiction Treatment Effects

Treating Addiction

Brain Mechanisms of Behavioral Treatments for Addiction in Common Use

Brain Mechanisms of Current Pharmacological Treatments for Addiction

Possible Pharmacotherapies for Addiction Under Investigation

Other Novel Treatment Approaches Under Investigation

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 44. Genetics of Ecstasy (MDMA) Use

Background

MDMA Metabolism and Pharmacogenetics

5-HTT, COMT, and MDMA Physiological and Subjective Effects

Psychopathology and Genetics

Genetics and Neuropsychological Performance

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 45. Genetics of Nicotine Addiction

Epidemiology of Nicotine Addiction

Linkage Analysis in NA

Candidate Gene Association Studies of NA

Genome-Wide Association Study of NA

Molecular Biology of Nicotinic Receptors

Genetic Animal Models of NA

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Section III: Genetics

Chapter 46. Intermediate Phenotypes/Endophenotypes and Pathways to Addiction

Introduction

PSU Is a Complex Phenotype

Intermediate Phenotypes

Validating Endophenotypes

P3AR as an Endophenotype

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 47. Twin Studies and the Heritability of Substance Use Disorders

Introduction

Development of SUDs

Specific Drugs of Abuse

Comorbidity with Other Psychiatric Disorders

Ethnicity

Discussion

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 48. The Epigenetic Consequences of Drinking

Historical Considerations

Epigenetics

Alcohol Actions on the Epigenome

Alcohol-Mediated Epigenetic Changes in Liver

Alcohol-Mediated Epigenetic Changes in Brain

Use of High Throughput Technology to Detect Alcohol-Related Epigenomic Changes: Epigenotyping

The State of Epigenetic Pharmacotherapy

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 49. Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorders

Alcohol Dependence Is Heritable

Alcoholism Is a Complex Genetic Disease

Genes of Alcohol Metabolism

Searches for Additional Genes Influencing Risk for Alcoholism

Rare Variants

Endophenotypes and Related Traits

Effects of Genetic Variants Across the Life Cycle

Other Diseases Related to Alcohol Consumption

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 50. Genetics of Opioid Addiction

Factors Influencing Initiation and Perpetuation of Opioid Addiction

Stress as a Key Factor in Initiation of Addiction

Hypothesis-Driven Array Studies of Association with Heroin Addiction

Epigenetic Modifications and Opioid Addiction

Effects of Polymorphisms on the Optimal Pharmacological Dose Selection of Opioid Addiction Treatment

Summary

Acknowledgments

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 51. The Genetics of Cannabis Use and Cannabis Use Disorders

Background

Overview

The Measurement and Diagnosis of CUD

Basic Genetic Epidemiology

Advanced Genetic Epidemiology

Gene Finding: Genome Wide Linkage and Association

Future Directions: Joint Modeling of Genomics and Environment

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

See also

Glossary

References

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 52. The Genetics of Drugs of Abuse Metabolism

The LADME Scheme

Metabolism

Examples of Genetic Variations Influencing the Metabolism of Drugs of Abuse

Role of CYP Isoforms in the Metabolism of Drugs of Abuse

Role of Other Phase I Enzymes than CYP in the Metabolism of Drugs of Abuse

Role of UGT in the Metabolism of Drugs of Abuse

Summary

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 53. Addiction Neuroethics: Ethical and Social Implications of Genetic and Neuroscience Research on Addiction

Introduction

Theories of Addiction: Commonsense and Neurobiological Models

Policy Implications of Neuroscience Addiction Research

Practical Applications of Genetic and Neuroscience Research

Implications for Addiction Researchers and Ethicists

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Section IV: Neuropharmacology/Imaging/Genetics

Chapter 54. Multinuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods and the Study of Mechanisms of Addiction in Humans

Introduction

13C MRS

31P MRS

23Na MRS

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant website

Chapter 55. Neuropharmacology of Nicotine

Introduction

Effects of Various Neurotransmitter Systems

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 56. Neuropharmacology of Cocaine and Amphetamine

Introduction

Amphetamine

Amphetamine and the Monoamine Neurotransmitters

Amphetamine and Non-Monamine Neurotransmitter Systems

Behavioral Effects of Amphetamine

Cocaine

Cocaine and the Monoamine Neurotransmitters

Cocaine and Non-Monamine Neurotransmitter Systems

Behavioral Effects of Cocaine

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant website

Chapter 57. Neurobiology of Methamphetamine

Background and History

Medical Use

Epidemiology

Administration Routes for Methamphetamine

Patterns of Methamphetamine Use

Methamphetamine: Mechanism of Action

Methamphetamine Effects

Methamphetamine Induces Neurotoxicity

Mechanisms of Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity

Summary, Conclusions, and Future Directions for Research

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 58. Neuropharmacology of Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids and Cannabinoid Receptors

Endocannabinoids: Discovery, Biosynthesis, and Inactivation

ECB Signaling as a Mechanism of Synaptic Plasticity

Behavioral Effects of Cannabinoids

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 59. Neuropharmacology of Benzodiazepines

Clinical Use of Benzodiazepines

The GABAA Receptor

Utility of Benzodiazepines in Treatment of Addiction

Tolerance

Dependence Liability

Abuse Liability

Conclusion

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 60. Neuropharmacology of Ecstasy (MDMA) and Other Designer Drugs

Ecstasy (MDMA) and Other Amphetamine Derivatives

Animal Studies

Are the Animal Data Relevant for Humans?

Studies with Ecstasy Users

Studies with AMPH Users

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 61. Neuropharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) and Other Hallucinogens

The History of Hallucinogens

Effects of Hallucinogens

Mechanism of Action

Chemical Classes of Hallucinogens

Hallucinogen Effects on Neuronal Activity

Possible Therapeutic Effects of Hallucinogens

Summary

Acknowledgments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 62. Neuropharmacology of Inhalants

The Special Case of Inhalants

Main Classes of Inhalants

Inhalant Effects: The Clinical Experience

Behavioral Pharmacology

Mechanisms of Action

A Proposed Agenda for Inhalant Neuropharmacology Research

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 63. Alcohol Neuroimaging in Humans

Introduction

Harmful Alcohol Use: Imaging Studies of Neurotoxic Effects

Development of Alcohol Tolerance and Withdrawal: Role of Glutamatergic and GABAergic Neurotransmission

Alcohol Craving and Reduced Control of Alcohol Intake: Brain Imaging Studies of Neurobiological Correlates

Dysfunction of Reward-Related Learning in Alcoholism

Summary and Outlook

Research Fields and Scientific Approach

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 64. Neuroimaging of Nicotine and Tobacco Smoking in Humans

Nicotine and Tobacco Neuroimaging: A Young and Challenging Field

Methods of Neuroimaging Research

Structural Changes

Molecular Changes

Changes in Transmitter Systems

Functional Changes

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 65. Ecstasy (MDMA) and other designer drugs: Neuroimaging

Overview

MDMA (Ecstasy)

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 66. Opioids Neuroimaging

Introduction

PET/SPECT Studies

Pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chapter 67. Neuroimaging in Problem Gambling

Introduction

This Is Your Brain on Gambling

Reward and Punishment Sensitivity in Problem Gambling

Decision Making

Cue Reactivity in Problem Gambling

Executive Functions

Psychological Biases: Near Misses, High-Risk Gambles

Future Directions for Neuroimaging Research and Clinical Implications

Conclusions

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 68. Cocaine and Amphetamine Neuroimaging in Small Rodents

Introduction

Neuroimaging Mapping Studies

Interpretation of the phMRI Signal

Application of Novel Techniques

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 69. The Impact of Regular Cannabis Use on the Human Brain: A Review of Structural Neuroimaging Studies

Introduction

Results

Sample Characteristics

Neuroimaging Data

Discussion

Potential Mediators of Structural Brain Alterations in Regular CB Users

Methodological Limitations

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Index

Details

No. of pages:
758
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123983602
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123983350

About the Editor-in-Chief

Peter Miller

Peter M. Miller, Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist and Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in the Center for Drug and Alcohol Programs at the Medical University of South Carolina. He is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Addictive Behaviors and an experienced researcher and clinician in the field of alcohol use disorders.

Affiliations and Expertise

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA

Reviews

"The book considers the neurobiological mechanisms of drug use and drug addiction as well as the animal models developed to gain this knowledge…This volume provides an in-depth, detailed review of the wide range of literature on the key neurobiological and genetic elements involved in the development of addictions. This is an exceptional comprehensive reference." Rating: 4 Stars--Doody.com, January 24, 2014
"Miller aims to improve the lives of addicts and their families through a comprehensive and detailed understanding of the addictive process, while providing a science-based approach to the study, prevention and treatment of addictions… It targets advanced undergraduates, graduates, and postdoc students, professors, researchers, clinicians, and policymakers."--Reference & Research Book News, December 2013