Biological Oxidants: Generation and Injurious Consequences - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121504045, 9781483191546

Biological Oxidants: Generation and Injurious Consequences

1st Edition

Volume 4

Editors: Charles G. Cochrane Michael A. Gimbrone
eBook ISBN: 9781483191546
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd November 1992
Page Count: 264
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Description

Biological Oxidants: Generation and Injurious Consequences is a collection of papers that describes research work done concerning molecules of the intracellular and plasma membrane generating system in leukocytes; the intracellular interactions in oxidant-induced cellular injury; malignant transformation; and intracellular mechanism of oxidant formation.
One paper reviews biological oxidants and the molecular basis of chronic granulomatous disease, particularly on compositions found within the plasma membrane. One such composition concerns the discovery of a flavocytochrome b as the central electron-transporting molecule in this system. Another paper examines the early injury of cells caused by external oxidants and the consequences of DNA damage. Other papers review the metabolism of vascular endothelial-derived reactive species, the calcium-modulated cellular effects of oxidants, as well as, the mechanism of inflammatory oxidant damage in tissues.
This book is suitable for biochemists, microbiologists, and academicians whose works involve research of cell membranes.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1 Composition and Function of the NADPH Oxidase of Phagocytic Cells with Particular Reference to Redox Components Located within the Plasma Membrane 1

I. Introduction 1

II. Early Attempts to Identify the Oxidase System in Cells, Organelles, and Extracts

III. Identification of Cytochrome b-245 and Recognition of the Oxidase asan Electron Transport

IV. Biochemical Properties

V. Purification and Identification of Cytochrome b-245

VI. Molecular Biology of Genes Coding for Cytochrome b-245 and Their Abnormality in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

VII. Flavocytochrome Component of the Oxidase

VIII. Terminology

IX. Cytosolic Factors

X. Model of the Oxidase Electron Transport System

References

Chapter 2 Early Injury of Cells by External Oxidants and the Consequences of DNA Damage

I. Introduction

IL Biochemical Pathways Affected by Oxidants

References

Chapter 3 Cytosolic Components of NADPH Oxidase: Identity,Function, and Role in Regulation of Oxidase Activity

I. Introduction

II. Concept of Multiple NADPH Oxidase Components

III. Primary Structure and Properties of the Cytosolic Components

IV. Phosphorylation of p47-phox

V. Translocation of p47-phox and p67-phox

VI. Cytosolic Oxidase Components Exist as Complexes in the Unstimulated Cell

VII. Cytoskeletal Involvement in NADPH Oxidase

VIII. GTP-Binding Proteins Involved in NADPH Oxidase

IX. Other Potential NADPH Oxidase Components

References

Chapter 4 Generation of Reactive Species by Vascular Endothelium

I. Introduction

II. Identification of Sources and Quantities of Reactive Oxygen Species in Endothelium

III. Xanthine Oxidase in Vascular Endothelium

IV. Circulating Xanthine Oxidase and Interactions with Vascular Endothelium

V. Nitric Oxide in Vascular Endothelium

VI. Future Directions

References

Chapter 5 Composition of NADPH Oxidase of Phagocytes and Other Cell Types: Role of Flavoprotein in Proton Translocation and Oxidase Activity

1. Flavin and Cytochrome b Interactions in NADPH Oxidase

II. Presence of "Phagocyte-Typic" NADPH Oxidase in Other Cell Types

References

Chapter 6 Calcium-Modulated Cellular Effects of Oxidants

I. Introduction

II. Cellular Calcium Sequestration Processes

III. Control of Cellular Calcium Homeostasis

IV. Modulation of Calcium Homeostasis during Cell Signaling

V. Disruption of Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis by Toxic Agents

VI. Mechanisms of Calcium-Mediated Cell Killing

VII. Summary and Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 7 Mechanisms of Inflammatory Oxidant Damage in Tissues

I. Introduction

II. Acute Lung Injury Developing after Systemic Activation of Complement

III. Acute Lung Injury Following Deposition of Immunoglobulin G Immune Complexes

IV. Acute Lung Injury Following Deposition of Immunoglobulin A Immune Complexes

V. Mechanism of in Vitro Injury of Endothelial Cells

VI. Summary

References

Chapter 8 Contributions of Oxidants and Granulocytes to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

I. Introduction

II. Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Granulocyte Infiltration: Role of Oxidants

III. Endothelial Cell Monolayer Dysfunction Induced by Anoxia-Reoxygenation

IV. Inflammatory Mediators and Ischemia-Reperfusion

V. Neutrophil-Mediated Injury

VI. Other Models of Intestinal Inflammation

References

Chapter 9 Macrophage-Derived Nitric Oxide: Generation and Consequences

I. Introduction

II. Discovery That Macrophages Release Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates, and Their Identification

III. Biosynthetic Path for Formation of Nitric Oxide from L-Arginine

IV. Purification of Nitric Oxide Synthase and Its Characterization as an FAD- and FMN-Containing Flavoprotein

V. Immunologic Induction of Nitric Oxide Synthase

VI. Bioactivities and Molecular Targets of Macrophage-Derived Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates

VII. The Puzzle of the Human Macrophage

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
264
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1992
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483191546

About the Editor

Charles G. Cochrane

Michael A. Gimbrone