Biological Events Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy

Biological Events Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy

1st Edition - January 28, 1982

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  • Editor: R. R. Alfano
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149587

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Biological Events Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy summarizes the progress in the experimental and theoretical understanding of primary phenomena occurring in biology on a picoseconds and nanosecond time scale. This book includes basic principles, survey of research results, and thinking of experts in the fields of photosynthesis, vision, hemoglobin, and DNA. This reference is organized into five parts. The primary events in the various areas of biology are reviewed in the first four parts. The last part covers the picosecond and subpicosecond laser techniques. Primary processes in photosynthesis are then discussed. This is followed by chapters on fluorescence and absorption kinetic measurements in higher plants. Subsequent chapters cover kinetic measurements in bacteria photosynthesis, theories of primary energy transfer appropriate to photosynthesis, and multiexcitation processes. Part II examines primary visual processes, including kinetic experimental work on rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin, and theoretical concepts on primary events in vision. The third part presents the introductory materials on the kinetic models of hemoglobin and myoglobin. It also discusses the interesting picosecond measurements on these proteins. Part IV focuses on the application of modern ultrafast temporal techniques to the study of DNA and its components, as well as DNA-dye complexes. The concluding part introduces the principles of design and operation of the solid state laser and picoseconds spectroscopy methods. A discussion on pulse generation methods and measurement techniques applicable for measuring primary events in biological systems is provided. This book is useful both for the newbies and experts in the field of ultrafast phenomena. It aims to attract biologists, chemists, physicists, and engineers who are interested in biological processes. It will help readers find all the necessary and relevant material in one presentation.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Part I Photosynthesis

    Chapter 1 Primary Processes of Oxygen-Evolving Photosynthesis

    I. Introduction

    II. The Photosynthetic Apparatus

    III. Fundamental Concepts of Photosynthesis

    IV. The Primary Events

    V. Conclusion


    Chapter 2 Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    I. Introduction

    II. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Techniques

    III. Fluorescence Kinetic Measurements in Photosynthesis

    IV. Future Directions


    Chapter 3 Early Photochemical Events in Green Plant Photosynthesis: Absorption and EPR Spectroscopic Studies

    I. Introduction

    II. The Primary Electron Donors of the Two Photosystems

    III. Early Photochemical Events in the Electron Acceptor Systems of Photosystems I and II


    Chapter 4 Electron Transfer Reactions in Reaction Centers of Photosynthetic Bacteria and in Reaction Center Models

    I. In Vivo Electron Transfer Reaction

    II. In Vitro Electron Transfer Reactions


    Chapter 5 Photoprocesses in Chlorophyll Model Systems

    I. Introduction

    II. Chlorophyll and the Photosynthetic Unit

    III. Chlorophyll Properties Relevant to Models

    IV. Covalently Linked Pairs as Photoreaction Center Models

    V. Energy Transfer in Self-Assembled Systems

    VI. Energy Transfer in the ChlsP Antenna Model

    VII. A Model for Electron Transfer from the Primary Donor


    Chapter 6 Exciton Annihilation and Other Nonlinear High-Intensity Excitation Effects

    I. Introduction

    II. Photophysical Phenomena

    III. Laser Characteristics in Relation to the Different Photophysical Processes

    IV. Single Picosecond Pulse Excitation

    V. Nanosecond Pulse Excitation

    VI. Microsecond Pulse Excitation

    VII. Picosecond Pulse Excitation Studies on Absorption Changes in Bacterial Reaction Centers


    Chapter 7 Fluorescence Decay Kinetics and Bimolecular Processes in Photosynthetic Membranes

    I. Introduction

    II. Fluorescence Decay Profiles: Low-Intensity Regime

    III. Exciton-Exciton Annihilation: High Excitation Intensities

    IV. Conclusion


    Chapter 8 Statistical Theory of the Effect of Multiple Excitation in Photosynthetic Systems

    I. Introduction

    II. Statistics

    III. Kinetics

    IV. Application

    V Comparison with Other Treatments

    VI. Conclusions

    Appendix I: Calculation of Yield with Escape at Traps

    Appendix II


    Part II VISION

    Chapter 9 An Introduction to Visual Pigments and Purple Membranes and Their Primary Processes

    I. Introduction

    II. The Free Chromophore

    III. Chromophore Binding and Color

    IV. Light and Dark Reactions

    V. The Primary Photochemical Event


    Chapter 10 Dynamics of the Primary Events in Vision

    I. Rhodopsin

    II. Isorhodopsin

    III. Hypsorhodopsin

    IV. Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 11 Primary Events in Bacteriorhodopsin

    I. Introduction

    II. Absorption Measurements

    III. Fluorescence Measurements


    Chapter 12 Theoretical Aspects of Photoisomerization in Visual Pigments and Bacteriorhodopsin

    I. Introduction

    II. Absorption Spectra

    III. The Primary Photochemical Event

    IV. Excited State Processes

    V. Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 13 Simulation of the Primary Event in Rhodopsin Photochemistry Using Semiempirical Molecular Dynamics Theory

    I. Introduction

    II. Theoretical Approaches in the Simulation of Intramolecular Dynamics

    III. Semiempirical Molecular Dynamics Theory and Rhodopsin Photochemistry

    IV. Comments and Conclusions



    Chapter 14 Introduction to Hemoproteins

    I. The Importance of Hemoprotein Studies

    II. Structure and States

    III. Fast Elementary Processes

    IV. The Individual Steps


    Chapter 15 The Study of the Primary Events in the Photolysis of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin Using Picosecond Spectroscopy

    I. Introduction

    II. Review of Binding and Photodissociation of Molecular Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide in Heme Compounds

    III. Experimental Results

    IV. Picosecond Photodissociation Experiments, Related Experiments, and Results

    V. Conclusions


    Part IV DNA

    Chapter 16 Ultrafast Techniques Applied to DNA Studies Stanley L. Shapiro

    I. Introduction

    II. Nonlinear Optical Effects and Selective Action—Proposed Infrared Schemes

    III. Photochemical Reactions in Nucleic Acid Components Induced by Visible and Ultraviolet Pulses

    IV. Selectivity in a Mixture of Bases and in More Complex Nucleic Acid Components

    V. Selectivity in a RNA Component and Multiphoton Experiments with Viruses and Plasmids

    VI. Theory of Selectivity on Nucleic Acid Components

    VII. Selective Photodamage of Dye-Biomolecule Complexes

    VIII. Picosecond Depolarization Measurements and Torsional Motions in DNA



    Chapter 17 Picosecond Laser Techniques and Design

    I. Introduction

    II. General Principles of Operation of Picosecond Lasers

    III. Laser Components and Designs

    IV. Single-Pulse Selection and Amplification

    V. Obtaining the Right Wavelength

    VI. Time Measurements and Applications


    Chapter 18 Subpicosecond Ultrafast Laser Technique—Application and Design

    I. Introduction

    II. Subpicosecond Pulse Generation

    III. Measurement Techniques

    IV. Future Directions



Product details

  • No. of pages: 458
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: January 28, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149587

About the Editor

R. R. Alfano

Robert A. Alfano is Distinguished Professor and Fellow at The City College of City University of New York, USA. He is also an Optical Society of America; Fellow, and a Fellow of IEEE. He has been involved in developing ultrafast laser spectroscopic techniques and applications of these techniques to study ultrafast dynamical processes in physical, chemical, and biological systems. His research encompasses the study and development of supercontinuum, tunable solid-state lasers, nonlinear optical processes, application of optical spectroscopic techniques for medical diagnosis (optical biopsy), study of photon migration in turbid media, and development of optical imaging techniques for biomedical imaging (optical mammography). He has published more than 700 papers and holds 102 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Fellow, The City College of City University of New York, USA

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