Biological Events Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120499502, 9780323149587

Biological Events Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy

1st Edition

Editors: R. R. Alfano
eBook ISBN: 9780323149587
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1982
Page Count: 458
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Biological Events Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy summarizes the progress in the experimental and theoretical understanding of primary phenomena occurring in biology on a picoseconds and nanosecond time scale. This book includes basic principles, survey of research results, and thinking of experts in the fields of photosynthesis, vision, hemoglobin, and DNA.
This reference is organized into five parts. The primary events in the various areas of biology are reviewed in the first four parts. The last part covers the picosecond and subpicosecond laser techniques. Primary processes in photosynthesis are then discussed. This is followed by chapters on fluorescence and absorption kinetic measurements in higher plants. Subsequent chapters cover kinetic measurements in bacteria photosynthesis, theories of primary energy transfer appropriate to photosynthesis, and multiexcitation processes. Part II examines primary visual processes, including kinetic experimental work on rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin, and theoretical concepts on primary events in vision. The third part presents the introductory materials on the kinetic models of hemoglobin and myoglobin. It also discusses the interesting picosecond measurements on these proteins. Part IV focuses on the application of modern ultrafast temporal techniques to the study of DNA and its components, as well as DNA-dye complexes. The concluding part introduces the principles of design and operation of the solid state laser and picoseconds spectroscopy methods. A discussion on pulse generation methods and measurement techniques applicable for measuring primary events in biological systems is provided. This book is useful both for the newbies and experts in the field of ultrafast phenomena. It aims to attract biologists, chemists, physicists, and engineers who are interested in biological processes. It will help readers find all the necessary and relevant material in one presentation.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Part I Photosynthesis

Chapter 1 Primary Processes of Oxygen-Evolving Photosynthesis

I. Introduction

II. The Photosynthetic Apparatus

III. Fundamental Concepts of Photosynthesis

IV. The Primary Events

V. Conclusion


Chapter 2 Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

I. Introduction

II. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Techniques

III. Fluorescence Kinetic Measurements in Photosynthesis

IV. Future Directions


Chapter 3 Early Photochemical Events in Green Plant Photosynthesis: Absorption and EPR Spectroscopic Studies

I. Introduction

II. The Primary Electron Donors of the Two Photosystems

III. Early Photochemical Events in the Electron Acceptor Systems of Photosystems I and II


Chapter 4 Electron Transfer Reactions in Reaction Centers of Photosynthetic Bacteria and in Reaction Center Models

I. In Vivo Electron Transfer Reaction

II. In Vitro Electron Transfer Reactions


Chapter 5 Photoprocesses in Chlorophyll Model Systems

I. Introduction

II. Chlorophyll and the Photosynthetic Unit

III. Chlorophyll Properties Relevant to Models

IV. Covalently Linked Pairs as Photoreaction Center Models

V. Energy Transfer in Self-Assembled Systems

VI. Energy Transfer in the ChlsP Antenna Model

VII. A Model for Electron Transfer from the Primary Donor


Chapter 6 Exciton Annihilation and Other Nonlinear High-Intensity Excitation Effects

I. Introduction

II. Photophysical Phenomena

III. Laser Characteristics in Relation to the Different Photophysical Processes

IV. Single Picosecond Pulse Excitation

V. Nanosecond Pulse Excitation

VI. Microsecond Pulse Excitation

VII. Picosecond Pulse Excitation Studies on Absorption Changes in Bacterial Reaction Centers


Chapter 7 Fluorescence Decay Kinetics and Bimolecular Processes in Photosynthetic Membranes

I. Introduction

II. Fluorescence Decay Profiles: Low-Intensity Regime

III. Exciton-Exciton Annihilation: High Excitation Intensities

IV. Conclusion


Chapter 8 Statistical Theory of the Effect of Multiple Excitation in Photosynthetic Systems

I. Introduction

II. Statistics

III. Kinetics

IV. Application

V Comparison with Other Treatments

VI. Conclusions

Appendix I: Calculation of Yield with Escape at Traps

Appendix II



Chapter 9 An Introduction to Visual Pigments and Purple Membranes and Their Primary Processes

I. Introduction

II. The Free Chromophore

III. Chromophore Binding and Color

IV. Light and Dark Reactions

V. The Primary Photochemical Event


Chapter 10 Dynamics of the Primary Events in Vision

I. Rhodopsin

II. Isorhodopsin

III. Hypsorhodopsin

IV. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 11 Primary Events in Bacteriorhodopsin

I. Introduction

II. Absorption Measurements

III. Fluorescence Measurements


Chapter 12 Theoretical Aspects of Photoisomerization in Visual Pigments and Bacteriorhodopsin

I. Introduction

II. Absorption Spectra

III. The Primary Photochemical Event

IV. Excited State Processes

V. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 13 Simulation of the Primary Event in Rhodopsin Photochemistry Using Semiempirical Molecular Dynamics Theory

I. Introduction

II. Theoretical Approaches in the Simulation of Intramolecular Dynamics

III. Semiempirical Molecular Dynamics Theory and Rhodopsin Photochemistry

IV. Comments and Conclusions



Chapter 14 Introduction to Hemoproteins

I. The Importance of Hemoprotein Studies

II. Structure and States

III. Fast Elementary Processes

IV. The Individual Steps


Chapter 15 The Study of the Primary Events in the Photolysis of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin Using Picosecond Spectroscopy

I. Introduction

II. Review of Binding and Photodissociation of Molecular Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide in Heme Compounds

III. Experimental Results

IV. Picosecond Photodissociation Experiments, Related Experiments, and Results

V. Conclusions



Chapter 16 Ultrafast Techniques Applied to DNA Studies Stanley L. Shapiro

I. Introduction

II. Nonlinear Optical Effects and Selective Action—Proposed Infrared Schemes

III. Photochemical Reactions in Nucleic Acid Components Induced by Visible and Ultraviolet Pulses

IV. Selectivity in a Mixture of Bases and in More Complex Nucleic Acid Components

V. Selectivity in a RNA Component and Multiphoton Experiments with Viruses and Plasmids

VI. Theory of Selectivity on Nucleic Acid Components

VII. Selective Photodamage of Dye-Biomolecule Complexes

VIII. Picosecond Depolarization Measurements and Torsional Motions in DNA



Chapter 17 Picosecond Laser Techniques and Design

I. Introduction

II. General Principles of Operation of Picosecond Lasers

III. Laser Components and Designs

IV. Single-Pulse Selection and Amplification

V. Obtaining the Right Wavelength

VI. Time Measurements and Applications


Chapter 18 Subpicosecond Ultrafast Laser Technique—Application and Design

I. Introduction

II. Subpicosecond Pulse Generation

III. Measurement Techniques

IV. Future Directions




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© Academic Press 1982
Academic Press
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About the Editor

R. R. Alfano

Robert A. Alfano is Distinguished Professor and Fellow at The City College of City University of New York, USA. He is also an Optical Society of America; Fellow, and a Fellow of IEEE. He has been involved in developing ultrafast laser spectroscopic techniques and applications of these techniques to study ultrafast dynamical processes in physical, chemical, and biological systems. His research encompasses the study and development of supercontinuum, tunable solid-state lasers, nonlinear optical processes, application of optical spectroscopic techniques for medical diagnosis (optical biopsy), study of photon migration in turbid media, and development of optical imaging techniques for biomedical imaging (optical mammography). He has published more than 700 papers and holds 102 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Fellow, The City College of City University of New York, USA

Ratings and Reviews