Biological Effects - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124669024, 9781483259574

Biological Effects

1st Edition

Editors: Donald C. Malins
eBook ISBN: 9781483259574
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 520
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Description

Effects of Petroleum on Arctic and Subarctic Marine Environments and Organisms, Volume II: Biological Effects examines the biological effects of petroleum on marine ecosystems and organisms in Arctic and subarctic regions. The effects of petroleum on disease and disease resistance in marine fish and invertebrates are analyzed, along with the metabolism of petroleum hydrocarbons and their accumulation and biotransformation in marine organisms. The consequences of oil fouling on marine mammals are also considered.

Comprised of nine chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the acute toxic effects of petroleum on Arctic and subarctic marine organisms, together with the bioassay techniques used to conduct acute toxicity tests. The next chapter assesses the effects of petroleum on marine fish and invertebrates, with emphasis on their disease and disease resistance. Subsequent chapters explore the metabolism of petroleum hydrocarbons and their accumulation and biotransformation in marine organisms; the sublethal effects of petroleum on the physiology, behavior, growth and development, and reproduction of bacteria, algae, and invertebrates; the biological effects of petroleum on fish, birds, and marine mammals; and the effects of oil fouling and oil spills.

This book will be of interest to marine scientists and ecologists as well as environmental policymakers.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Acknowledgments

Contents of Volume I

Chapter 1 Acute Toxic Effects of Petroleum on Arctic and Subarctic Marine Organisms

I. Introduction

A. Background

B. Importance and Scope

C. Limitations

II. Acute Bioassay Techniques

A. Test Animals

B. Holding Test Fish

C. Dilution Water

D. Test Tanks

E. Test Temperatures

F. Dissolved Oxygen

G. Number of Test Animals

H. Testing Procedure

I. Analysis of Test Media

J. Reporting Test Results

III. Acute Toxicity of Petroleum

IV. Interpretation of Results

V. Conclusions

VI. Prospectus

VII. References

Chapter 2 Marine Fish and Invertebrate Diseases, Host Disease Resistance, and Pathological Effects of Petroleum

I. Introduction

II. Principal Diseases of Arctic and Subarctic Marine Environments

A. Neoplasia

B. Bacterial Diseases

C. Viral Diseases

D. Mycoses

E. Helminthiasis and Other Parasitic Infestations

F. Miscellaneous Abnormalities of Unknown Etiology

III. Disease Resistance Mechanisms of Vertebrates and Invertebrates

A. Innate Immunity

B. Acquired Immunity

C. Genetic and Environmental Influences

IV. Effects of Petroleum on Disease and Disease Resistance

A. Petroleum, Petroleum Products and Petroleum-Associated Metals Implicated in Neoplasia

B. Evidence for Tissue and Cellular Damage Resulting from Exposure to Petroleum and Associated Metals

C. Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Associated Metals on Immune Responses and Disease Resistance

V. Prospectus

VI. References

Chapter 3 Metabolism of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Accumulation and Biotransformation in Marine Organisms

I. Introduction

II. Uptake, Distribution, and Discharge of Petroleum and Constituents

A. Fractions of Petroleum

B. Select Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons

III. Enzyme Systems Governing the Metabolism of Aromatic Hydrocarbons

A. Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases in Marine Organisms

B. Induction of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases

C. Conjugating Enzymes

IV. Formation and Structure of Metabolic Products

V. Alterations in Biochemical Systems

VI. Food Web Magnification

VII. Prospectus

VIII. References

Chapter 4 Sublethal Biological Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposures: Bacteria, Algae, and Invertebrates

I. Introduction

II. Bacteria

A. Behavior

III. Algae

A. Physiology

B. Behavior

C. Growth and Reproduction

IV. Coelenterates

A. Behavior

B. Growth and Reproduction

V. Annelids

A. Physiology

B. Behavior

C. Growth and Reproduction

VI. Arthropods

A. Physiology

B. Behavior

C. Growth, Development, and Reproduction

VII. Molluscs

A. Behavior (Gastropods)

B. Physiology, Behavior, Growth, Development, and Reproduction (Bivalves)

VIII. Echinoderms

A. Physiology

B. Behavior

C. Growth, Development, and Reproduction

IX. Conclusions and Prospectus

A. Physiology

B. Behavior

C. Growth, Development, and Reproduction

D. Risk and the Paucity of Information Problem

X. References

Chapter 5 Sublethal Biological Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposures: Fish

I. Introduction

II. Behavior

A. Avoidance Reaction

B. Cough Response

III. Physiology

A. Metabolism

B. Locomotor and Activity Patterns

IV. Delayed Effects

A. Survival

B. Growth and Feeding

C. Reproduction

V. Prospectus

VI. References

Chapter 6 Effects of Petroleum on Ecosystems

I. Background

II. Habitats

A. Intertidal Zone

B. Subtidal Zone

III. Populations and Communities

A. Plankton

B. Neuston

C. Nekton

D. Benthos

E. Salt Marsh

IV. Ecosystems

V. Prospectus

VI. References

Chapter 7 Biological Effects of Petroleum on Marine Birds

I. Introduction

II. Effects of Spillage on Mortality

A. Total Mortality

B. Vulnerability of Species

C. Effect on Future Populations

D. Differential Mortalities of Species

III. Physical and Systemic Effects of Petroleum

A. Physical Effects

B. Systemic Effects

IV. Pathological Effects

V. Scientific Names of Birds Cited

VI. References

Chapter 8 Consequences of Oil Fouling on Marine Animals

I. Background

II. A Controlled Study on Seals

III. Implications

IV. References

Chapter 9 Effects of Oil Spills in Arctic and Subartic Environments

I. Introduction

A. Definition of Arctic and Subarctic Marine Environments

B. Problems in Predicting Biological Impacts of Oil Spills

II. Arctic and Subarctic Oil Spills

A. Terrestrial

B. Marine

C. Long-Term Biological Effects of Oil Spills

III. Pacific Subarctic and Arctic Ocean as Potential Oil Spill Areas

A. Pacific Subarctic

B. The Arctic Ocean

IV. Prospectus

V. References

List of Abbreviations

Geographical Name Index

Scientific Name Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
520
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1977
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483259574

About the Editor

Donald C. Malins

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