Biological Effects of Radiations - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123041500, 9780323161879

Biological Effects of Radiations

2nd Edition

Authors: Daniel Grosch
eBook ISBN: 9780323161879
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1979
Page Count: 354
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Description

Biological Effects of Radiation, Second Edition aims to present an organized survey of the various experiments wherein living materials have been exposed to ionizing and exciting types of radiations. However, this book focuses on the effects of radiation to lower organisms, as these have received less attention. It tells how small amount of energy can damage submicroscopic structure and ultimately alter the appearance and abilities of such organisms. Divided into five parts, this book starts off with two introductory chapters in the first part. It explains the effects of radiation. Then, other parts of the book focus on the impact of radiation from cellular to organ level. How the lower organisms response is then discussed. Lastly, the book explains the interrelations between organisms in contaminated areas. Same with the first edition, emphasis is given on the consequences of mutations, as a whole chapter is devoted to this topic. Furthermore, this book covers discoveries from experiments with cultured cells. This book is a good text-reference for students and professionals. Also, it can be of great help to scientists, researchers, and specialists involved in the biological response to radiation.

Table of Contents


Preface

Part I Introduction l

1 The Radiations: Historical Considerations and Characteristics

The Era of Discovery: Radiations and Hazards

Early Basic Research

Radiation Protection Standards

The Radiations

Dissipation of Energy in Matter

Linear Ion Density

Dosage Representation

Concluding Remarks

References

General References

2 Direct and Indirect Action on Living Matter

What Is Ionized?

Distinguishing between Direct and Indirect Action

The Target Theory

Concluding Remarks

References

General References

Part II The Cellular Level

3 Cytosomal Effects and Cell Division

Permeability

Organelles

Protoplasmic Viscosity

Effects on the Spindle

Relative Vulnerability of Nucleus and Cytosome

Cleavage Delay

Mitotic Activity in Tissues

Dose Rates

Analysis of Mitotic Delay in Cultured Cells

Concluding Remarks

References

4 From Nonlocalized toward Localized Nuclear Effects

Viscosity of DNA Systems

The Depolymerization Question

Chemical Changes in DNA

DNA Synthesis: Tissue Studies

DNA Synthesis: Cell Studies and Molecular Aspects

Photoreactivation of Ultraviolet Damage

Excision Repair

Other DNA Repair Mechanisms

Integrating the Pathways

Irrevocable Ionization Lesions

Concluding Remarks

5 Localized Effects on Chromosome Structure

Types of Aberration

Quantitative Aspects

Differences in Sensitivity between Organisms

Differences in the Sensitivity of Cells during the Division Cycle

Modifying Factors

The Oxygen Effect

Chromosome Structure and Aberration Theory

Dose Fractionation Experiments

Crossing-Over

Somatic Crossing-Over

Organisms Other Than Diptera

Concluding Remarks

References

6 Response of the Single Cell

In Vitro Studies of Cell Survival

In Vivo Studies

Dependence on Radiation Quality

Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE)

Oxygen Effect

Repair of Sublethal Damage

Inhibition of Sublethal Damage Repair

Low Dose Rate

Potentially Lethal Damage

Cell Cycle

Concluding Remarks

References

7 Localized Effects on Genetic Loci

Historical

Microorganism Techniques

Experiments with Fungi

Mammalian Cell Culture Techniques

Higher Organism Techniques

Drosophila Techniques

Results from Drosophila Experiments

Quantitative Aspects

Visible Mutations

Mouse Experiments

Female Mice and Insects

Cultured Cells

Forward and Reverse Mutations

Applications to Plant Breeding

Concluding Remarks

References

8 Consequences of Mutation

Doubling Dose

Genetically Significant Dose (GSD)

Data from Humans

Irradiated Natural Populations of Drosophila

Controversy among Geneticists?

Laboratory Studies with Drosophila Populations

Mammal Populations

Other Organisms

Concluding Remarks

References

Part III Tissues and Organs

9 Plant Morphology

Field Experiments

Specific Anomalies

Plant Hormones

Tumor Induction

Mosaicism

Root Experiments

Absorbed Radioisotopes

Concluding Remarks

References

10 Animal Embryology

Relative Radiosensitivity and Development

Insect Development Abnormalities

Early Embryo

Later Stages, Period of Major Organogenesis

Fetal Period

Psychological Research

Human Abnormalities

Internal Radioisotopes

Mechanism

Concluding Remarks

References

11 Somatic Histopathology

Skin

Structures Associated with the Skin

Hematology

Blood Vessels

Spleen and Lymph Nodes

Digestive Tract

Nervous Tissue

The Eye

Bone

Bone Marrow

Bone-Seeking Isotopes

Miscellaneous Internal Emitters

Routes of Entry

Concluding Remarks

References

12 Gonad Histopathology

Testes

Semen Analysis

Abscopal Effect

Ovaries

Concluding Remarks

References

Part IV The Organism

13 Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Damage, Protective Measures, and

Regeneration Processes

Restoration Processes

Death Defined

Cytological Vulnerability

Evidence from Cultured Cells

Interdependence of Organelle and Organism

Respiration Studies

Protective Conditions

Protective Substances

Chemical Radiosensitization

Regeneration

Concluding Remarks

References

14 Somatic Mortality: Radiation Sickness, Aging, and Carcinogenesis

Early Effects

Late Effects

Concluding Remarks

References

Part V Ecology: Pure and Applied

15 Radiation Effects on Life in Contaminated Areas

First Trophic Level: Lower Plants

First Trophic Level: Higher Plants

Second Trophic Level: The Primary Consumers

Second Trophic Level: Water Animals

Second Trophic Level: Land Animals

Omnivores: Birds, Lizards, and Crabs

Omnivores: Humans

Third Trophic Level

Food Chains

Biological Surveys and Environmental Programs

Strontium 90 in United States Milk

Concluding Remarks

References

16 Pest Control, Food Treatment, and Other Applications

Historical Notes

Basic Principle

Screw-Worm Control

Factors Considered in "Sterile" Male Release

Other Germ Line Approaches to Control

Direct Killing of Insects

Control of Trichinosis

Inhibition of Sprouting in Root Crops

Microorganism Control

Poultry, Meats, and Seafoods

Fruits and Vegetables

Acceptability of Irradiated Products

Wholesomeness

Carcinogenesis

Surgical Supplies and Pharmaceuticals

Water and Sewage Treatment

Concluding Remarks

References

Subject Index




Details

No. of pages:
354
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1979
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323161879

About the Author

Daniel Grosch