Biological Effects of Radiations - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123041500, 9780323161879

Biological Effects of Radiations

2nd Edition

Authors: Daniel Grosch
eBook ISBN: 9780323161879
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1979
Page Count: 354
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Biological Effects of Radiation, Second Edition aims to present an organized survey of the various experiments wherein living materials have been exposed to ionizing and exciting types of radiations. However, this book focuses on the effects of radiation to lower organisms, as these have received less attention. It tells how small amount of energy can damage submicroscopic structure and ultimately alter the appearance and abilities of such organisms. Divided into five parts, this book starts off with two introductory chapters in the first part. It explains the effects of radiation. Then, other parts of the book focus on the impact of radiation from cellular to organ level. How the lower organisms response is then discussed. Lastly, the book explains the interrelations between organisms in contaminated areas. Same with the first edition, emphasis is given on the consequences of mutations, as a whole chapter is devoted to this topic. Furthermore, this book covers discoveries from experiments with cultured cells. This book is a good text-reference for students and professionals. Also, it can be of great help to scientists, researchers, and specialists involved in the biological response to radiation.

Table of Contents


Part I Introduction l

1 The Radiations: Historical Considerations and Characteristics

The Era of Discovery: Radiations and Hazards

Early Basic Research

Radiation Protection Standards

The Radiations

Dissipation of Energy in Matter

Linear Ion Density

Dosage Representation

Concluding Remarks


General References

2 Direct and Indirect Action on Living Matter

What Is Ionized?

Distinguishing between Direct and Indirect Action

The Target Theory

Concluding Remarks


General References

Part II The Cellular Level

3 Cytosomal Effects and Cell Division



Protoplasmic Viscosity

Effects on the Spindle

Relative Vulnerability of Nucleus and Cytosome

Cleavage Delay

Mitotic Activity in Tissues

Dose Rates

Analysis of Mitotic Delay in Cultured Cells

Concluding Remarks


4 From Nonlocalized toward Localized Nuclear Effects

Viscosity of DNA Systems

The Depolymerization Question

Chemical Changes in DNA

DNA Synthesis: Tissue Studies

DNA Synthesis: Cell Studies and Molecular Aspects

Photoreactivation of Ultraviolet Damage

Excision Repair

Other DNA Repair Mechanisms

Integrating the Pathways

Irrevocable Ionization Lesions

Concluding Remarks

5 Localized Effects on Chromosome Structure

Types of Aberration

Quantitative Aspects

Differences in Sensitivity between Organisms

Differences in the Sensitivity of Cells during the Division Cycle

Modifying Factors

The Oxygen Effect

Chromosome Structure and Aberration Theory

Dose Fractionation Experiments


Somatic Crossing-Over

Organisms Other Than Diptera

Concluding Remarks


6 Response of the Single Cell

In Vitro Studies of Cell Survival

In Vivo Studies

Dependence on Radiation Quality

Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE)

Oxygen Effect

Repair of Sublethal Damage

Inhibition of Sublethal Damage Repair

Low Dose Rate

Potentially Lethal Damage

Cell Cycle

Concluding Remarks


7 Localized Effects on Genetic Loci


Microorganism Techniques

Experiments with Fungi

Mammalian Cell Culture Techniques

Higher Organism Techniques

Drosophila Techniques

Results from Drosophila Experiments

Quantitative Aspects

Visible Mutations

Mouse Experiments

Female Mice and Insects

Cultured Cells

Forward and Reverse Mutations

Applications to Plant Breeding

Concluding Remarks


8 Consequences of Mutation

Doubling Dose

Genetically Significant Dose (GSD)

Data from Humans

Irradiated Natural Populations of Drosophila

Controversy among Geneticists?

Laboratory Studies with Drosophila Populations

Mammal Populations

Other Organisms

Concluding Remarks


Part III Tissues and Organs

9 Plant Morphology

Field Experiments

Specific Anomalies

Plant Hormones

Tumor Induction


Root Experiments

Absorbed Radioisotopes

Concluding Remarks


10 Animal Embryology

Relative Radiosensitivity and Development

Insect Development Abnormalities

Early Embryo

Later Stages, Period of Major Organogenesis

Fetal Period

Psychological Research

Human Abnormalities

Internal Radioisotopes


Concluding Remarks


11 Somatic Histopathology


Structures Associated with the Skin


Blood Vessels

Spleen and Lymph Nodes

Digestive Tract

Nervous Tissue

The Eye


Bone Marrow

Bone-Seeking Isotopes

Miscellaneous Internal Emitters

Routes of Entry

Concluding Remarks


12 Gonad Histopathology


Semen Analysis

Abscopal Effect


Concluding Remarks


Part IV The Organism

13 Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Damage, Protective Measures, and

Regeneration Processes

Restoration Processes

Death Defined

Cytological Vulnerability

Evidence from Cultured Cells

Interdependence of Organelle and Organism

Respiration Studies

Protective Conditions

Protective Substances

Chemical Radiosensitization


Concluding Remarks


14 Somatic Mortality: Radiation Sickness, Aging, and Carcinogenesis

Early Effects

Late Effects

Concluding Remarks


Part V Ecology: Pure and Applied

15 Radiation Effects on Life in Contaminated Areas

First Trophic Level: Lower Plants

First Trophic Level: Higher Plants

Second Trophic Level: The Primary Consumers

Second Trophic Level: Water Animals

Second Trophic Level: Land Animals

Omnivores: Birds, Lizards, and Crabs

Omnivores: Humans

Third Trophic Level

Food Chains

Biological Surveys and Environmental Programs

Strontium 90 in United States Milk

Concluding Remarks


16 Pest Control, Food Treatment, and Other Applications

Historical Notes

Basic Principle

Screw-Worm Control

Factors Considered in "Sterile" Male Release

Other Germ Line Approaches to Control

Direct Killing of Insects

Control of Trichinosis

Inhibition of Sprouting in Root Crops

Microorganism Control

Poultry, Meats, and Seafoods

Fruits and Vegetables

Acceptability of Irradiated Products



Surgical Supplies and Pharmaceuticals

Water and Sewage Treatment

Concluding Remarks


Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1979
Academic Press
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About the Author

Daniel Grosch

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