Biological Effects of Radiations

Biological Effects of Radiations

2nd Edition - December 28, 1979

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  • Author: Daniel Grosch
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323161879

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Biological Effects of Radiation, Second Edition aims to present an organized survey of the various experiments wherein living materials have been exposed to ionizing and exciting types of radiations. However, this book focuses on the effects of radiation to lower organisms, as these have received less attention. It tells how small amount of energy can damage submicroscopic structure and ultimately alter the appearance and abilities of such organisms. Divided into five parts, this book starts off with two introductory chapters in the first part. It explains the effects of radiation. Then, other parts of the book focus on the impact of radiation from cellular to organ level. How the lower organisms response is then discussed. Lastly, the book explains the interrelations between organisms in contaminated areas. Same with the first edition, emphasis is given on the consequences of mutations, as a whole chapter is devoted to this topic. Furthermore, this book covers discoveries from experiments with cultured cells. This book is a good text-reference for students and professionals. Also, it can be of great help to scientists, researchers, and specialists involved in the biological response to radiation.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Part I Introduction l

    1 The Radiations: Historical Considerations and Characteristics

    The Era of Discovery: Radiations and Hazards

    Early Basic Research

    Radiation Protection Standards

    The Radiations

    Dissipation of Energy in Matter

    Linear Ion Density

    Dosage Representation

    Concluding Remarks


    General References

    2 Direct and Indirect Action on Living Matter

    What Is Ionized?

    Distinguishing between Direct and Indirect Action

    The Target Theory

    Concluding Remarks


    General References

    Part II The Cellular Level

    3 Cytosomal Effects and Cell Division



    Protoplasmic Viscosity

    Effects on the Spindle

    Relative Vulnerability of Nucleus and Cytosome

    Cleavage Delay

    Mitotic Activity in Tissues

    Dose Rates

    Analysis of Mitotic Delay in Cultured Cells

    Concluding Remarks


    4 From Nonlocalized toward Localized Nuclear Effects

    Viscosity of DNA Systems

    The Depolymerization Question

    Chemical Changes in DNA

    DNA Synthesis: Tissue Studies

    DNA Synthesis: Cell Studies and Molecular Aspects

    Photoreactivation of Ultraviolet Damage

    Excision Repair

    Other DNA Repair Mechanisms

    Integrating the Pathways

    Irrevocable Ionization Lesions

    Concluding Remarks

    5 Localized Effects on Chromosome Structure

    Types of Aberration

    Quantitative Aspects

    Differences in Sensitivity between Organisms

    Differences in the Sensitivity of Cells during the Division Cycle

    Modifying Factors

    The Oxygen Effect

    Chromosome Structure and Aberration Theory

    Dose Fractionation Experiments


    Somatic Crossing-Over

    Organisms Other Than Diptera

    Concluding Remarks


    6 Response of the Single Cell

    In Vitro Studies of Cell Survival

    In Vivo Studies

    Dependence on Radiation Quality

    Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE)

    Oxygen Effect

    Repair of Sublethal Damage

    Inhibition of Sublethal Damage Repair

    Low Dose Rate

    Potentially Lethal Damage

    Cell Cycle

    Concluding Remarks


    7 Localized Effects on Genetic Loci


    Microorganism Techniques

    Experiments with Fungi

    Mammalian Cell Culture Techniques

    Higher Organism Techniques

    Drosophila Techniques

    Results from Drosophila Experiments

    Quantitative Aspects

    Visible Mutations

    Mouse Experiments

    Female Mice and Insects

    Cultured Cells

    Forward and Reverse Mutations

    Applications to Plant Breeding

    Concluding Remarks


    8 Consequences of Mutation

    Doubling Dose

    Genetically Significant Dose (GSD)

    Data from Humans

    Irradiated Natural Populations of Drosophila

    Controversy among Geneticists?

    Laboratory Studies with Drosophila Populations

    Mammal Populations

    Other Organisms

    Concluding Remarks


    Part III Tissues and Organs

    9 Plant Morphology

    Field Experiments

    Specific Anomalies

    Plant Hormones

    Tumor Induction


    Root Experiments

    Absorbed Radioisotopes

    Concluding Remarks


    10 Animal Embryology

    Relative Radiosensitivity and Development

    Insect Development Abnormalities

    Early Embryo

    Later Stages, Period of Major Organogenesis

    Fetal Period

    Psychological Research

    Human Abnormalities

    Internal Radioisotopes


    Concluding Remarks


    11 Somatic Histopathology


    Structures Associated with the Skin


    Blood Vessels

    Spleen and Lymph Nodes

    Digestive Tract

    Nervous Tissue

    The Eye


    Bone Marrow

    Bone-Seeking Isotopes

    Miscellaneous Internal Emitters

    Routes of Entry

    Concluding Remarks


    12 Gonad Histopathology


    Semen Analysis

    Abscopal Effect


    Concluding Remarks


    Part IV The Organism

    13 Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Damage, Protective Measures, and

    Regeneration Processes

    Restoration Processes

    Death Defined

    Cytological Vulnerability

    Evidence from Cultured Cells

    Interdependence of Organelle and Organism

    Respiration Studies

    Protective Conditions

    Protective Substances

    Chemical Radiosensitization


    Concluding Remarks


    14 Somatic Mortality: Radiation Sickness, Aging, and Carcinogenesis

    Early Effects

    Late Effects

    Concluding Remarks


    Part V Ecology: Pure and Applied

    15 Radiation Effects on Life in Contaminated Areas

    First Trophic Level: Lower Plants

    First Trophic Level: Higher Plants

    Second Trophic Level: The Primary Consumers

    Second Trophic Level: Water Animals

    Second Trophic Level: Land Animals

    Omnivores: Birds, Lizards, and Crabs

    Omnivores: Humans

    Third Trophic Level

    Food Chains

    Biological Surveys and Environmental Programs

    Strontium 90 in United States Milk

    Concluding Remarks


    16 Pest Control, Food Treatment, and Other Applications

    Historical Notes

    Basic Principle

    Screw-Worm Control

    Factors Considered in "Sterile" Male Release

    Other Germ Line Approaches to Control

    Direct Killing of Insects

    Control of Trichinosis

    Inhibition of Sprouting in Root Crops

    Microorganism Control

    Poultry, Meats, and Seafoods

    Fruits and Vegetables

    Acceptability of Irradiated Products



    Surgical Supplies and Pharmaceuticals

    Water and Sewage Treatment

    Concluding Remarks


    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 354
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1979
  • Published: December 28, 1979
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323161879

About the Author

Daniel Grosch

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