Biological Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting

Biological Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting

1st Edition - January 28, 1974

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  • Author: Yutaka Kobayashi
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323160223

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Description

Biological Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting, based on a series of lectures given at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, discusses the various biological applications of liquid scintillation counting and presents its principles in a manner that is simple, practical, and useful. This book explains the fundamentals of scintillators and the scintillation process, from sample preparation to testing and setting up a counter and the application of radiotracers. This text is organized into six chapters and begins with a historical overview of liquid scintillation counting, emphasizing two major events that stimulated its development: the discovery of organic compounds called ""scintillators"" and the introduction of photomultiplier tubes. This book considers the factors that affect the performance of photomultiplier tubes, including temperature and magnetic fields, and the use of liquid scintillation counting to measure radioactivity. The discussion then shifts to the factors that must be taken into account when choosing a method for preparing samples, including the physical and chemical characteristics of the sample, the isotope or isotopes of the sample, and the anticipated level of radioactivity. The following chapters look at the general considerations when installing a liquid scintillation counter, procedures for applying radiotracers, and practical aspects of sample preparation. This book is intended for physicists and experimental biologists.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    1 Introduction

    Text

    References

    2 Principles of Liquid Scintillation Counting

    Scintillators and the Scintillation Process

    Photomultiplier Tubes

    The Single-Tube Liquid Scintillation Counter

    The Two-Tube Liquid Scintillation Counter

    The Beta Spectrum

    Pulse Height Analysis

    Balance Point Counting

    Double-Isotope Analysis

    Quenching

    Efficiency Determination

    Lesser Pulse Height Analysis

    Figure of Merit

    Logarithmic Logic Counters

    Automation and Data Processing

    References

    3 General Considerations of Sample Preparation

    Scintillators

    Secondary Scintillators

    Solvents

    Counting Solutions

    Counting Vials

    Sources of Background Counts

    Counting in Solution

    Emulsion Counting

    Measurement of 14CO2

    Combustion Techniques

    Automated Combustion Apparatus

    Spark Combustion

    Suspension Counting

    Counting on a Support Medium

    Cerenkov Counting

    References

    4 Testing and Setting up a New Counter

    General Considerations

    Testing Counters Based on Linear Pulse Height Analysis

    Testing Counters Based on Logarithmic Pulse Height Analysis

    Plug-In Discriminators

    The Chi-Square Test and Determination of Counter Stability

    Determination of Counting Efficiency

    Efficiency Determination in Heterogeneous Counting Systems

    Curve Fitting

    Counting Statistics

    Automated Techniques for Sampling Counting Efficiency Determination

    References

    5 Basic Principles of the Application of Radiotracers

    Isotope Dilution

    Derivative Analysis Using a Radioactive Reagent

    Double-Isotope Derivative Analysis Radiochemical Saturation Analysis

    Saturation Analysis Applied to Biological Systems

    Evaluation of a Radioimmunoassay

    Counting Gamma Emitters by Liquid Scintillation Counting

    Enzyme-Isotope Dilution Analysis

    Radioenzymatic Assays

    References

    6 Practical Aspects of Sample Preparation

    Tissues

    Blood

    Urine

    Plasma

    Water

    Proteins

    Amino Acids

    Lipids

    Carbohydrates

    Steroids

    Bacteria

    Nucleic Acids

    14CO2 from a Warburg Flask

    Nonautomatic Combustion Techniques

    Polyacrylamide Gels

    Miscellaneous

    References

    Appendix

    Licensing Requirement

    Some Useful Formulas

    How to Make up a Radioactive Solution to the Desired Specific Activity

    Decontamination of Glass Counting Vials and Radioactive Glassware

    Precision of Fixed-Time versus Fixed-Count Measurement

    References

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 206
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1974
  • Published: January 28, 1974
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323160223

About the Author

Yutaka Kobayashi

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