Biological Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124172500, 9780323160223

Biological Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting

1st Edition

Authors: Yutaka Kobayashi
eBook ISBN: 9780323160223
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1974
Page Count: 206
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Description

Biological Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting, based on a series of lectures given at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, discusses the various biological applications of liquid scintillation counting and presents its principles in a manner that is simple, practical, and useful. This book explains the fundamentals of scintillators and the scintillation process, from sample preparation to testing and setting up a counter and the application of radiotracers.
This text is organized into six chapters and begins with a historical overview of liquid scintillation counting, emphasizing two major events that stimulated its development: the discovery of organic compounds called ""scintillators"" and the introduction of photomultiplier tubes. This book considers the factors that affect the performance of photomultiplier tubes, including temperature and magnetic fields, and the use of liquid scintillation counting to measure radioactivity. The discussion then shifts to the factors that must be taken into account when choosing a method for preparing samples, including the physical and chemical characteristics of the sample, the isotope or isotopes of the sample, and the anticipated level of radioactivity. The following chapters look at the general considerations when installing a liquid scintillation counter, procedures for applying radiotracers, and practical aspects of sample preparation. This book is intended for physicists and experimental biologists.

Table of Contents


Preface

1 Introduction

Text

References

2 Principles of Liquid Scintillation Counting

Scintillators and the Scintillation Process

Photomultiplier Tubes

The Single-Tube Liquid Scintillation Counter

The Two-Tube Liquid Scintillation Counter

The Beta Spectrum

Pulse Height Analysis

Balance Point Counting

Double-Isotope Analysis

Quenching

Efficiency Determination

Lesser Pulse Height Analysis

Figure of Merit

Logarithmic Logic Counters

Automation and Data Processing

References

3 General Considerations of Sample Preparation

Scintillators

Secondary Scintillators

Solvents

Counting Solutions

Counting Vials

Sources of Background Counts

Counting in Solution

Emulsion Counting

Measurement of 14CO2

Combustion Techniques

Automated Combustion Apparatus

Spark Combustion

Suspension Counting

Counting on a Support Medium

Cerenkov Counting

References

4 Testing and Setting up a New Counter

General Considerations

Testing Counters Based on Linear Pulse Height Analysis

Testing Counters Based on Logarithmic Pulse Height Analysis

Plug-In Discriminators

The Chi-Square Test and Determination of Counter Stability

Determination of Counting Efficiency

Efficiency Determination in Heterogeneous Counting Systems

Curve Fitting

Counting Statistics

Automated Techniques for Sampling Counting Efficiency Determination

References

5 Basic Principles of the Application of Radiotracers

Isotope Dilution

Derivative Analysis Using a Radioactive Reagent

Double-Isotope Derivative Analysis Radiochemical Saturation Analysis

Saturation Analysis Applied to Biological Systems

Evaluation of a Radioimmunoassay

Counting Gamma Emitters by Liquid Scintillation Counting

Enzyme-Isotope Dilution Analysis

Radioenzymatic Assays

References

6 Practical Aspects of Sample Preparation

Tissues

Blood

Urine

Plasma

Water

Proteins

Amino Acids

Lipids

Carbohydrates

Steroids

Bacteria

Nucleic Acids

14CO2 from a Warburg Flask

Nonautomatic Combustion Techniques

Polyacrylamide Gels

Miscellaneous

References

Appendix

Licensing Requirement

Some Useful Formulas

How to Make up a Radioactive Solution to the Desired Specific Activity

Decontamination of Glass Counting Vials and Radioactive Glassware

Precision of Fixed-Time versus Fixed-Count Measurement

References

Index


Details

No. of pages:
206
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1974
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323160223

About the Author

Yutaka Kobayashi

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