Biological and Environmental Aspects of Chromium - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444804419, 9781483290188

Biological and Environmental Aspects of Chromium, Volume 5

1st Edition

Editors: S. Langård
eBook ISBN: 9781483290188
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1982
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Table of Contents


Preface

1. Introduction

2. Chromium Compounds: Production and Occupational Exposure

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Production of Chromium Metal, Alloys and Chemicals

2.3. Occupational Exposure in the Welding Industry

2.4. Occupational Exposure in the Chromate Industry

2.5. Occupational Exposure in the Chrome Plating Industry

2.6. Occupational Exposure in the Ferrochrome Industry

2.7. Occupational Exposure in the Tanning and Leather Working Industry

2.8. Occupational Exposure in the Chrome Pigment Industry

2.9. Summary and Conclusions

3. Chromium in Air, Soil and Natural Waters

3.1. Introduction

3.2. General Chemistry

3.3. Geochemistry

3.4. Soil Chromium Concentrations

3.5. Soil Chromium Chemistry

3.6. Water Chromium Concentrations

3.7. Water Chromium Chemistry

3.8. Air

3.9. Sources of Chromium

3.10. Effect of Chromium Pollution on Crops

3.11. Bioavailability of Chromium

3.12. Summary

4. Analysis of Chromium

4.1. Introduction

4.2. "Normal Levels" of Chromium in Biological Materials

4.3. Sampling and Sampling Strategy

4.4. Inter- and Intra-Laboratory Comparison

4.5. Instrumentations Used for Chromium Analysis

4.6. Conclusion

5. Applications of 51Chromium in Cell Biology and Medicine

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Labelling of Cells with 51Chromium

5.3. Use of Labelled Red Cells in Vivo

5.4. Cell Tracer Studies in Vivo

5.5. Platelet Tracer Studies in Vivo

5.6. The Assay of Cell Death

5.7. Chromium Labelling of Microorganisms

5.8. Other Applications of Chromium-Labelled Cells

5.9. Audoradiography

5.10. Applications of 51Chromium EDTA

5.11. Labelling Albumin Polysaccharides with 51Chromium

6. The Nutritional Role of Chromium

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Chromium Deficiency

6.3. Dietary Chromium

6.4. Distribution in the Body

6.5. Chromium Supplementation Studies

6.6. Function and Biological Activity

6.7. Implications of Chromium for Human Health

7. Absorption, Transport and Excretion of Chromium in Man and Animals

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Uptake of Chromium

7.3. Transport and Distribution in the Body

7.4. Excretion

7.5. Biological Monitoring of Occupationally Exposed Workers

8. Mutagenic and Cytogenetic Effects of Chromium Compounds

8.1. Introduction

8.2. DNA Damage and DNA Repair

8.3. Gene Mutations

8.4. Chromosomal Alterations

8.5. In Vitro Transformation of Mammalian Cells

8.6. Chromium metabolism and cytotoxicity in relation to its genetic activity

8.7. Summary of the Genetic Effects of Chromium

8.8. Molecular Mechanisms for Chromium Mutagenicity and their Relevance to Chromium Carcinogenicity

9. Organ Toxicity of Chromium In Animals

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Pathomorphological Changes

9.3. Biochemical Changes

9.4. General Remarks

10. Carcinogenic Effects of Chromium

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Experimental Studies in Mammals

10.3. Epidemiologic Studies in Humans

10.4. Selected Aspects of the Relationship of Chromium to Cancer

11. The Effects of Chromium on the Skin

11.1 Introduction

11.2. Prevalence of Chrome Ulcers and Allergic Contact Dermatitis

11.3. Primary Irritant Reactions

11.4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

11.5. Prognosis

11.6. Treatment and Prevention

11.7. Prophylaxis

11.8. Summary

Index

Description

Biological and Environmental Aspects of Chromium focuses on the biological and environmental aspects of chromium and its compounds, with emphasis on the most important aspects of their toxicology and physiology. Topics covered range from the production and occupational exposure of chromium compounds to the presence of chromium in air, soil, and natural waters. The applications of chromium in cell biology and medicine are also discussed.

Comprised of 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of chromium and chromium compounds, followed by a discussion on the production and occupational exposure of chromium compounds. The reader is then introduced to the more common analytical methods used in the determination of chromium in environmental and biological samples. Subsequent chapters explore the nutritional role of chromium; absorption, transport, and excretion of chromium in humans and animals; mutagenic and cytogenetic effects of chromium compounds; and organ toxicity of chromium in animals. The carcinogenic effects of chromium, including its effects on the skin, are also considered.

This monograph will be of interest to students, practitioners, and researchers in the fields of biology, physiology, and chemistry, as well as those with an objective interest in the ways in which chromium and its compounds act in biological materials and in the human environment.


Details

Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9781483290188

About the Editors

S. Langård Editor