Biological and Environmental Aspects of Chromium focuses on the biological and environmental aspects of chromium and its compounds, with emphasis on the most important aspects of their toxicology and physiology. Topics covered range from the production and occupational exposure of chromium compounds to the presence of chromium in air, soil, and natural waters. The applications of chromium in cell biology and medicine are also discussed. Comprised of 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of chromium and chromium compounds, followed by a discussion on the production and occupational exposure of chromium compounds. The reader is then introduced to the more common analytical methods used in the determination of chromium in environmental and biological samples. Subsequent chapters explore the nutritional role of chromium; absorption, transport, and excretion of chromium in humans and animals; mutagenic and cytogenetic effects of chromium compounds; and organ toxicity of chromium in animals. The carcinogenic effects of chromium, including its effects on the skin, are also considered. This monograph will be of interest to students, practitioners, and researchers in the fields of biology, physiology, and chemistry, as well as those with an objective interest in the ways in which chromium and its compounds act in biological materials and in the human environment.

Table of Contents


1. Introduction

2. Chromium Compounds: Production and Occupational Exposure

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Production of Chromium Metal, Alloys and Chemicals

2.3. Occupational Exposure in the Welding Industry

2.4. Occupational Exposure in the Chromate Industry

2.5. Occupational Exposure in the Chrome Plating Industry

2.6. Occupational Exposure in the Ferrochrome Industry

2.7. Occupational Exposure in the Tanning and Leather Working Industry

2.8. Occupational Exposure in the Chrome Pigment Industry

2.9. Summary and Conclusions

3. Chromium in Air, Soil and Natural Waters

3.1. Introduction

3.2. General Chemistry

3.3. Geochemistry

3.4. Soil Chromium Concentrations

3.5. Soil Chromium Chemistry

3.6. Water Chromium Concentrations

3.7. Water Chromium Chemistry

3.8. Air

3.9. Sources of Chromium

3.10. Effect of Chromium Pollution on Crops

3.11. Bioavailability of Chromium

3.12. Summary

4. Analysis of Chromium

4.1. Introduction

4.2. "Normal Levels" of Chromium in Biological Materials

4.3. Sampling and Sampling Strategy

4.4. Inter- and Intra-Laboratory Comparison

4.5. Instrumentations Used for Chromium Analysis

4.6. Conclusion

5. Applications of 51Chromium in Cell Biology and Medicine

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Labelling of Cells with 51Chromium

5.3. Use of Labelled Red Cells in Vivo

5.4. Cell Tracer Studies in Vivo

5.5. Platelet Tracer Studies in Vivo

5.6. The Assay of Cell Death

5.7. Chromium Labelling of Microorganisms

5.8. Other Applications of Chr


© 1982
Elsevier Science
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