Biological and Behavioral Aspects of Salt Intake  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123977502, 9780323149877

Biological and Behavioral Aspects of Salt Intake

1st Edition

Editors: Morley Kare
eBook ISBN: 9780323149877
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1980
Page Count: 450
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Description

Biological and Behavioral Aspects of Salt Intake presents the developmental, social, and anthropological aspects of salt intake. This book explores the existing knowledge of those factors that influence man's appetite for salt. Organized into five parts encompassing 28 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the pathological and physiological importance attached to levels of salt intake in health and in disease. This text then examines the scientific information concerning the nature of man's appetite for salt and the variations of that appetite as an expression of biological needs, behavioral patterns, differing environmental conditions, and normal or disturbed physiology. Other chapters examine the plasma renin activity, urinary sodium excretion, and taste responses of hypertensive and normotensive individuals. The final chapter explores the relations between taste, intake, preference, and hypertension. This book is a valuable resource for nutritionists, food scientists, and researchers interested in the planning of nutritional programs in public health or therapeutic regimens.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

List of Participants

Foreword

Preface

Part I Social, Developmental, and Anthropological Aspects of Salt Intake

Chapter 1 Salt and Social Behavior

I. Introduction

II. Sodium and the Paleoratios

III. Variability of Salt Intake

IV. Salt and Social Organization

V. Salt and Political Patterns

References

Chapter 2 Saltiness in Developmental Perspective

I. Developmental Change

II. Development of the Taste System

III. Patterns of Environmental Exposure to Salt

IV. Summary

V. Prospects

References

Chapter 3 Saharan Bedouins and the Salt Water of the Sahara: A Model for Salt Intake

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Conclusions

References

Chapter 4 Salt Sources and Markets

I. Introduction

II. Salt Production

III. Uses of Salt

Part II Comparative and Psychophysical Aspects of Salt Intake

Chapter 5 On the Spontaneous Intake of NaCl Solution by Dogs

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

Chapter 6 Comparative Aspects of Salt Preference and Intake in Birds

I. Introduction

II. Method

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

Chapter 7 Sensory Analysis of the Taste of NaCl

I. Source of Saltiness: Cations

II. Sweetness of Salts

III. Adaptation

IV. Cross-Adaptation among Salts

V. Cross-Adaptation among NaCl, Citric Acid, Sucrose, Caffeine, and Urea

VI. Mixtures Containing NaCl

VII. Summary

References

Chapter 8 Contribution of the Anion to the Taste Quality of Sodium Salts

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

Chapter 9 Salivary Chloride Levels, Taste Thresholds for Salt, and Food Ingestion

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

Chapter 10 Measuring Taste Sensitivity and the Effects of Adrenalectomy in, Rats

I. Introduction

II. Method

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

Part III Factors Affecting Salt Preference

Chapter 11 Salt Intake and Equilibration

Text

References

Chapter 12 Factors Affecting Salivary Sodium Concentration, NaCl Intake, and Preference Threshold and Their Interrelationships

I. Introduction

II. Effects of Partial or Total Salivariectomy on Sodium Chloride Preference

III. Effect of Sequential Alterations in Salivary Electrolyte Concentration on Preference for NaCl

IV. Effect of Adrenalectomy and DOC or Oral Contraceptives on Salivary Sodium Concentration

V. Summary

References

Chapter 13 A Possible Role for Angiotensin in the Elicitation of Salt Appetite

I. Introduction

II. General Methods

III. Discussion

References

Chapter 14 The Physiological Basis of Sodium Appetite: A New Look at the "Depletion-Repletion" Model

I. Introduction

II. The Model

III. Evaluation of the Model

IV. Implications

V. Conclusions

References

Chapter 15 Rapid Sodium Depletion and Salt Appetite Induced by Intraperitoneal Dialysis

I. Introduction

II. The Depletion of Sodium by Transperitoneal Dialysis

III. Postdialysis NaCl Appetite—Is It Learned?

IV. Postdialysis NaCl Appetite—Is It Specific?

V. The Postrepletional Persistence of NaCl Intake

VI. The Postrepletional Renal Conservation of Sodium

VII. Summary

References

Chapter 16 Salt in Processed Foods

I. Introduction

II. Salt Intake

III. Salt Added to Enhance Flavor

IV. Salt as a Functional Ingredient

V. The Future Situation

VI. Conclusion

References

Chapter 17 The Influence of Reproductive Processes on Salt Appetite

I. Introduction

II. Satiation of Salt Deficiency in the Wild Rabbit

III. Salt Appetite in Pregnancy and Lactation

References

Chapter 18 Spontaneous NaCl Appetite Induced by Administration of an Oral Contraceptive and Its Components to Rats

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

Part IV Neurological Aspects of Salt Intake

Chapter 19 Membrane Transitions in Taste Receptor Cell Activation by Sodium Salts

I. Introduction

II. Theory

III. Application to Taste Receptor Cell Activation by Sodium Salts

IV. Materials and Methods

V. Results

VI. Discussion

References

Chapter 20 Peripheral Mechanisms in Salty Taste Reception

I. Introduction

II. Possible Involvement of Reduced Pyridine Nucleotide in Salty Reception

III. Summary

References

Chapter 21 Peripheral Neural Changes Associated with Sodium Deprivation

I. Sodium Intake, a Manifestation of Homeostasis

II. Role of Gustation in Control of Salt Intake

III. Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Sodium Deprivation

IV. Sodium Deprivation Alters Peripheral Neural Responses to Gustatory Stimuli

V. Adrenalectomy versus Sodium Deprivation

VI. Summary

References

Part V Physiological and Pathological Aspects of Salt Intake

Chapter 22 Glycinamide Hydrochloride: A Compound with Common Salt Flavor

I. Introduction

II. Synthesis of Glycinamide Hydrochloride

III. Toxicity Studies

IV. Organoleptic Evaluations: Flavor Profile and Flavor Threshold

V. Summary

References

Chapter 23 Brain Lesions and Sodium Appetite: An Approach to the Neurological Analysis of Homeostatic Behavior

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

References

Chapter 24 On the Role of Sodium in Human Hypertension

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

Chapter 25 Salt Intake and Hypertension in Rats

I. Introduction

II. Method and Results

III. Conclusions

References

Chapter 26 Salt Taste and Salt Preference in Normal and Hypertensive Rats and Humans

I. Salt Taste Studies

II. Rat Preference Studies

III. Human Preference Studies

IV. Effects of Antihypertensive Treatment

References

Chapter 27 Taste and Salt Intake in Human Hypertension

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

Chapter 28 Biological and Behavioral Aspects of Salt Intake: A Summation

Text

Index

Details

No. of pages:
450
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1980
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323149877

About the Editor

Morley Kare