Biofuels - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123850997, 9780123851000


1st Edition

Alternative Feedstocks and Conversion Processes

Editors: Ashok Pandey Christian Larroche Steven Ricke Claude-Gilles Dussap Edgard Gnansounou
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123850997
eBook ISBN: 9780123851000
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 18th July 2011
Page Count: 642
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Global concern for energy security and environmental protection has put great emphasis on the search for alternative energy sources, particularly for the transport sector. Biofuels have emerged as a highly promising source of alternative energy, and have drawn global R&D for their production using biomass.

With the increasing worldwide demand of energy along with the depletion of conventional fossil fuel reserves, there has been growing global interest in developing alternative sources of energy. There has also been concern in growing economies regarding energy security. Biofuels offer much promise on these frontiers. In addition to the above, they also have a reduced environmental impact in comparison to fossil fuels. Biofuels provides state-of-the-art information on the status of biofuel production and related aspects.

Key Features

  • Detailed overview of the alternative energy field and the role of biofuels as new energy sources
  • Gives a detailed account of the production of biodiesel from non conventional bio-feedstocks such as algae and vegetable oils
  • Includes production of biohydrogen: the fourth generation biofuel


Chemical Engineers, Biotechnologists, microbiologists/biologists, Agricultural Chemists, Environmental Engineers, Petroleum Engineers and graduate and postgraduate students in these areas: The main interest of this group is research and development of new processes and they are located in research labs in A&G and industry

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Principles of Biorefining

1. Introduction

2. From fossil to biomass raw materials

3. Biomass processing in biorefinery

4. Lignocellulosic molecular components and their derivatives

5. Biorefinery to replace existing fossil bulk chemicals

6. Biorefinery to produce alternative products

7. Next research outlook

Chapter 2. Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels

1. Introduction

2. The concept of LCA and its application to biofuels

3. Methodology and assumptions

4. Case study: bioethanol from wheat

5. Results

6. Conclusions

Chapter 3. Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels

1. Introduction

2. Feedstocks for biofuels

3. Composition of lignocellulosic biomass

4. Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment techniques

5. Biotechnological conversion

6. Thermochemical conversion

7. Bio-refineries and biofuels

8. Typical issues for life-cycle analysis

9. Perspectives and challenges

Chapter 4. Biomass-derived Syngas Fermentation into Biofuels

1. Background

2. Fundamental aspects of syngas fermentation

3. Microbiology of syngas fermentation

4. Syngas characteristics

5. Current developments in syngas fermentation

6. Factors affecting syngas fermentation

7. Industrial-scale syngas fermentation

8. Challenges and future research directions

9. Summary

Chapter 5. Lignocellulosic Bioethanol

1. Introduction

2. First-generation fuel ethanol production: the feedstock and the process and their constraints

3. Second-generation ethanol production

4. Feasibility of lignocellulosic ethanol production

5. Concluding remarks

Chapter 6. Technoeconomic Analysis of Lignocellulosic Ethanol

1. Introduction

2. State of the art

3. Key drivers of the lignocellulosic ethanol production cost

4. Cost management system

5. Current economic evaluation of lignocellulosic bioethanol: some limitations

6. Conclusion

Chapter 7. Pretreatment Technologies for Lignocellulose-to-Bioethanol Conversion

1. Introduction

2. Toxic Compounds Generated During Pretreatment

3. Pretreatment processes

4. Biological pretreatments

5. Concluding remarks

Chapter 8. Production of Celluloytic Enzymes for the Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

1. Introduction

2. Cellulase: mode of action

3. Cellulase systems and the control of cellulase gene expression

4. Cellulase producers

5. Pretreatment

6. Bioprocesses for cellulase production

7. Applications of cellulases

8. Cellulase market scenario

9. Engineered/artificial cellulases

10. Future perspectives

11. Challenges

12. Conclusion

Chapter 9. Production of Hemicellulolytic Enzymes for Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

1. Introduction

2. Structure of hemicellulose

3. Hemicellulases

4. Endoxylanases

5. β-d-xylosidases

6. α-Arabinofuranosidases

7. Acetylxylan esterases

8. α-d-Glucuronidases

9. Mannanases

10. Methods for assay of hemicellulolytic activity

11. Domain organization of hemicellulases

12. Multiplicity of hemicellulases

13. Functional genomics approach for studying hemicellulases

14. Enzyme production

15. Applications of hemicellulases

Chapter 10. Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

1. Introduction

2. Chemical hydrolysis

3. Enzymatic hydrolysis

4. Separate and simultaneous hydrolysis

5. Factors affecting enzymatic hydrolysis

6. Recycling of enzymes

7. Methods for improving enzymatic hydrolysis

8. Kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses

9. Conclusions

Chapter 11. Production of Bioethanol from Agroindustrial Residues as Feedstocks

1. Introduction

2. Lignocellulosic biomass

3. Pretreatment

4. Saccharification

5. Fermentation

6. Energy production using agroindustrial residues

7. Case studies

8. Conclusions

Chapter 12. Fermentation Inhibitors in Ethanol Processes and Different Strategies to Reduce Their Effects

1. Introduction

2. Common inhibitors for ethanol production

3. Formation of inhibitors in lignocelluloses hydrolyzates

4. Strategies for minimizing the effects of inhibitors

5. Conclusion

Chapter 13. Biotechnological Methods to Produce Biodiesel

List of Abbreviations

1. Introduction

2. Enzymatic transesterification

3. Enzymatic esterification

4. Hydroesterification

5. Reactor configurations

6. Economic evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production

7. Conclusions

Chapter 14. Biodiesel Production in Supercritical Fluids

1. Introduction

2. Supercritical fluid reaction

3. Biodiesel production in non-catalytic supercritical fluid reaction

4. Conclusion

Chapter 15. Production of Biodiesel Using Palm Oil

1. Introduction

2. Palm biodiesel conversion technology

3. Conclusions

Chapter 16. Biodiesel Production from Waste Oils

1. Introduction

2. Biodiesel

3. Waste oils

4. Technical aspect of bd production from waste oils

5. Feasibility and economic analyses on bd production from waste oils

6. Concluding remarks and future prospects

Chapter 17. Production of Biodiesel from Algal Biomass

1. Introduction

2. Two approaches leading to lipid accumulation in microalgae

3. Efforts to further reduce costs of mass culture of heterotrophic microalgae in search for cheap substitutes of glucose

4. The scaleup of heterotrophic microalgal biomass production

5. Progresses in lipid analysis

6. The conversion of algal biomass to biodiesel

7. The quality and economic analysis of algal biodiesel

8. Concluding remark and future perspectives

Chapter 18. Overview and Assessment of Algal Biofuels Production Technologies

1. Introduction

2. Autotrophic production technologies

3. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic production

4. Harvesting and processing of algal biomass

5. Challenges in large-scale cultivation of algae

6. Resource constraints for mass production of microalgae

7. Energy analysis

8. Life-cycle assessment

9. Future perspectives: challenges and opportunities

Chapter 19. Cultivation of Algae in Photobioreactors for Biodiesel Production

1. Introduction

2. Basic concepts of photobioreactor engineering

3. Modeling of microalgae cultivation systems

4. Productivity of microalgal cultivation systems

5. Engineering parameters governing photobioreactor productivity

6. Existing technology

Chapter 20. Production of Biohydrogen

1. Introduction

2. Feedstock

3. Economics of biohydrogen production

4. Future prospects and challenge

5. Conclusions

Chapter 21. Biohydrogen Production from Bio-oil

1. Introduction

2. Reforming of bio-oil

3. Water-gas shift reaction of syngas

4. Purification of biohydrogen and storage

5. Steam requirement for biohydrogen production

6. Harvesting and processing of forest biomass

7. Capital cost of bio-oil production plant

8. Operating cost of bio-oil plant

9. Production cost of bio-oil

10. Cost of bio-oil reforming

12. Bio-oil-based biohydrogen cost

Chapter 22. Biohydrogen Production from Industrial Effluents

1. Introduction

2. Biological routes of H2 production

3. Biocatalyst

4. Renewable wastewater

5. Factors influencing H2 production

6. Combined process efficiency

7. Process limitations

8. Strategies to enhance process efficiency

9. Future outlook

Chapter 23. Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production

1. Background

2. Thermodynamic aspects

3. Biochemical pathways and microbiology

4. effect of process conditions

5. Practical applications

6. Challenges, possibilities, and future perspectives

Chapter 24. Biohydrogen Production with High-Rate Bioreactors

1. Introduction

2. Integrated Continuously stirred tank reactors

3. Anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor

4. Packed-bed REACTORS

5. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors

6. Photobioreactors

7. Microbial electrolysis cells

8. Comparison of various biohydrogen reactor systems

9. Challenges and future implications

10. Conclusions

Chapter 25. Butanol Fuel from Biomass

1. Introduction

2. Butanol production by clostridia: the abe fermentation

3. Sporulation and solventogenesis: the scope for decoupling

4. Metabolic engineering approaches to improve abe fermentation

5. Fermentation technologies and downstream processing for abe fermentation

6. Conclusions

Chapter 26. Production of Green Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels

1. Introduction

2. Desired characteristics of green liquid hydrocarbon fuels (GLHF)

3. Technologies for production of GLHF

4. Feedstock considerations for GLHF

5. Conclusion



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About the Editor

Ashok Pandey

Professor Ashok Pandey is currenlty with the Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab, India; he was the former Deputy Director for CSIR’s National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology at Trivandrum, where he head the Centre for Biofuels and Biotechnology Division. Professor Pandey’s research interests are on bio-based economy for the production of fuels and chemicals. He has over 1000 publications and communications, which include 14 patents and design copyright, 34 books, 99 book chapters, and 391 original and review papers. Professor Pandey is the recipient of many national and international awards and fellowships, including Fellow of International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability, National Academy of Science (India), Biotech Research Society, India, and the International Organization of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. He was Chairman of the International Society of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Finland (Food & Health) from 2003-2004. He is Founder President of the Biotech Research Society, India (; International Coordinator and General Secretary of International Forum on Industrial Bioprocesses, France (, and Vice-President of the International Society for Energy, Environment & Sustainability ( and All India Biotech Association ( Professor Pandey is Editor-in-chief of Bioresource Technology, Honorary Executive Advisors of Journal of Water Sustainability and Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability and editorial board member of several international and Indian journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali (Punjab, India) and Former Chief Scientist and Head, Centre for Biofuels & Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science & Technology (Trivandrum, India)

Christian Larroche

Professor Christian Larroche Professor Christian Larroche is graduate in Biochemical Engineering from INSA, Toulouse, (1979), Docteur-Ingénieur in Organic Chemistry from Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3 University (1982), and Docteur ès Sciences (Ph D) in Biochemical Engineering from Blaise Pascal University (1990). He has strong research interest in the area of applied microbiology and biochemical engineering. His skills are related to the study and development of special processes for the use of microorganisms. This includes fungal spores production by solid state cultivation and their use as protein (enzyme) reservoir in biotransformations. A special interest in phase transfer phenomena coupled to metabolic engineering has to be noticed. It is applied to the design and optimisation of biotransformations involving hydrophobic compounds and carried out in biphasic liquid-liquid media. These processes are related both to the food and environment (bioremediation) areas. His interests have recently be extended to bioenergy, and he is presently co-ordinator of two French research programs on biohydrogen production by anaerobic microorganisms grown on complex media. He is author of about 150 documents including 70 research papers, two patents and 12 book chapters. He has supervised 10 PhD students and 20 MSc lab works. He is member of SFGP (French Society for Process Engineering) and Chief International Coordinator of ICBF Forum, an international network entitled "Food Bioprocessing - A global approach for advancing sustainable production of value added food". He is head of the department of "Study and Development of Processes involving Microorganisms" of the platform for technological development Biotechnology – Material Engineering of Blaise Pascal University and has in charge the team "Solid state fermentations – Biotransformations" of the Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Laboratory in the same university. He has been head of the Biological Engineering department of Polytech Clermont-Ferrand, a School of Engineering of Blaise Pascal University, from 2001 to 2011. He is director of Polytech since January 2012 and, since 2008, vice-president of the university in charge of research valorization and technology transfer. The books published by him during last ten years are listed below:

Affiliations and Expertise

Blaise Pascal University, Aubiére Cedex, France

Steven Ricke

Dr. Ricke received his B.S. degree in Animal Science (1979) an M.S. degree in Ruminant Nutrition (1982) from the Univ. of Illinois and his Ph.D. degree (1989) from the Univ. of Wisconsin with a co-major in Animal Science and Bacteriology. From 1989 to 1992 Dr. Ricke was a USDA-ARS postdoctorate in the Microbiology Department at North Carolina State Univ. He was at Texas A&M Univ. for 13 years and was a professor in the Poultry Science Dept. with joint appointments on the Food Science and Technology, Molecular and Environmental Plant Sciences, and Nutrition Faculties and the Veterinary Pathobiology Dept. He has been honored in 2002 as a Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Faculty Fellow. In 2005, he became the first holder of the new Wray Endowed Chair in Food Safety and Director of the Center for Food Safety at the University of Arkansas. He is also a faculty member of the Dept. of Food Science and the Cellular and Molecular Graduate program.

Affiliations and Expertise

Food Science Department, Division of Agriculture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA

Claude-Gilles Dussap

Affiliations and Expertise

Polytech Clermont-Ferrand, Blaise Pascal University, Aubiére Cedex, France

Edgard Gnansounou

Edgard GNANSOUNOU is Professor of modelling and planning of Energy Systems at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) where he is Director of the Bioenergy and Energy Planning Research Group. His current research works comprise techno-economic and environmental assessment of bio-refinery schemes based on conversion of agricultural residues. He is leading research projects in that field in several countries including Brazil, Colombia and South Africa. Edgard Gnansounou is credited with numerous papers in high impact scientific journals. He is member of the editorial board of Bioresource Technology. He graduated with a M.S. in Civil Engineering and Ph.D. in Energy Systems at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne. He was a visiting researcher at the Thayer College, Dartmouth School of Engineering with Professor Charles Wyman (USA), at Polytech of Clermont-Ferrand, University Blaise Pascal (France) and at the Center of Biofuels, the National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum (India). He was also a visiting Professor of the African University of Science of Technology (Abuja, Nigeria). He is a citizen of Benin (Africa) and Switzerland. Professor Ashok Pandey is Deputy Director at CSIR’s National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology at Trivandrum and heading the Centre for Biofuels and Biotechnology Division there. Professor Pandey’s research interests are on bio-based economy development (biomass-based biorefinery) for the production of fuels and chemicals. He has >1000 publications/communications, which include 14 patents & design copyright, 34 books, 100 book chapters, 380 original and review papers, etc with h index of 62 and >16,800 citation (Goggle scholar).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of modelling and planning of Energy Systems, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland


"Intended for post-graduate students and researchers in applied biology, biotechnology and chemical engineering, this guide to state of the art of biofuel processes and techniques showcases current scholarship and real world implementations of this important and emerging alternative energy technology. The volume is divided into sections covering general principles of biorefining, production of bioethanol from feedstocks, production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, production of biofuels from algae, biohydrogen and biobutanol and other green fuels and individual chapters address specific aspects of the production process, raw materials, and assessments of the efficiency and practicality of each technology."--SciTech Book News