Biofuels from Algae - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444595584, 9780444595829

Biofuels from Algae

1st Edition

Editors: Ashok Pandey Duu-Jong Lee Yusuf Chisti Carlos Soccol
eBook ISBN: 9780444595829
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595584
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 2nd September 2013
Page Count: 348
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This book provides in-depth information on basic and applied aspects of biofuels production from algae. It begins with an introduction to the topic, and follows with the basic scientific aspects of algal cultivation and its use for biofuels production, such as photo bioreactor engineering for microalgae production, open culture systems for biomass production and the economics of biomass production. It provides state-of-the-art information on synthetic biology approaches for algae suitable for biofuels production, followed by algal biomass harvesting, algal oils as fuels, biohydrogen production from algae, formation/production of co-products, and more. The book also covers topics such as metabolic engineering and molecular biology for algae for fuel production, life cycle assessment and scale-up and commercialization. It is highly useful and helps you to plan new research and design new economically viable processes for the production of clean fuels from algae.

Key Features

  • Covers in a comprehensive but concise way most of the algae biomass conversion technologies currently available
  • Lists all the products produced from algae, i.e. biohydrogen, fuel oils, etc., their properties and potential uses
  • Includes the economics of the various processes and the necessary steps for scaling them up


Chemists and chemical engineers, biochemical engineers, Biotechnologists, Agricultural Chemists, Environmental Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, academics and research students in these areas. The book would also be of interest to microbiologists who study this type of algae (properties, cultivation, mutations, etc.)

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. An Open Pond System for Microalgal Cultivation

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Biotechnology and Microalgae

1.3 Open Pond Systems

1.4 Main Microalgae Cultivated in Open Pond Systems

1.5 Reactor Design

1.6 Light Regime

1.7 Hydrodynamics of the Reactor

1.8 Fixation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

1.9 Temperature

1.10 pH

1.11 Sterility of Cultivation

1.12 Biomass Harvest

1.13 Drying of Biomass

1.14 Other Microalgal Culture Systems

1.15 Applications of Biomass

1.16 Conclusion


Chapter 2. Design of Photobioreactors for Algal Cultivation

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Factors Affecting Microalgae Growth and Biofuels Production

2.3 Photobioreactor Design Principles

2.4 Microalgae Cultivation in Closed and Open PBRs for Biofuel Production

2.5 Commercial Microalgae Cultivation Systems for Biofuel Production

2.6 Conclusions


Chapter 3. Metabolic Engineering and Molecular Biotechnology of Microalgae for Fuel Production


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Biodiesel

3.3 Biohydrogen

3.4 Other Strategies

3.5 Challenges and Perspectives


Chapter 4. Respirometric Balance and Carbon Fixation of Industrially Important Algae

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Microalgae

4.3 Practical Aspects of Mass Cultivation for CO2 Fixation

4.4 Carbon Market for Microalgal Technologies


Chapter 5. Algal Biomass Harvesting

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Stability and Separability of Microalgae

5.3 Methods of Algae Harvesting

5.4 Challenges and Prospects

5.5 Conclusions


Chapter 6. Heterotrophic Production of Algal Oils


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Heterotrophy of Microalgae

6.3 Potential of Heterotrophic Algal Oils

6.4 Factors Affecting Heterotrophic Production of Algal Oils

6.5 High Cell Density of Heterotrophic Algae

6.6 Chlorella as the Cell Factory for Heterotrophic Oils

6.7 Possible Improvements of Economics in Heterotrophic Algal Oils

6.8 Conclusions


Chapter 7. Production of Biofuels from Algal Biomass by Fast Pyrolysis

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Fast Pyrolysis

7.3 Yields and Characteristics of Pyrolysis of Algal Biomass

7.4 Conclusions


Chapter 8. Algae Oils as Fuels


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Cellular Biochemistry Toward Lipid Synthesis

8.3 Nutritional Mode of Microalgae

8.4 Substrates for Microalgae Growth and Lipid Production

8.5 Microalgae Cultivation

8.6 Preparation of Algal Fuel/Biodiesel

8.7 Transesterification

8.8 Algal Fuel Properties

8.9 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 9. Production of Biohydrogen from Microalgae

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Pathways of Hydrogen Production

9.3 Bioreactor Design and Operation

9.4 Economic Evaluation

9.5 Prospects and Challenges

9.6 Conclusions


Chapter 10. Applications of Spent Biomass


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Spent Biomass for Biofuel Production

10.3 Spent Biomass for Fine Chemical Production

10.4 Bioremediation

10.5 Feed

10.6 Final Considerations


Chapter 11. Hydrothermal Upgradation of Algae into Value-added Hydrocarbons


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Algal Biomass

11.3 Macroalgae

11.4 Thermochemical Conversion

11.5 Hydrothermal Upgradation

11.6 Hydrothermal Processes for Upgradation of Algae

11.7 Opportunities and Challenges


Chapter 12. Scale-Up and Commercialization of Algal Cultivation and Biofuel Production


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Life-Cycle Energy Balance of Algal Biofuels

12.3 Potential Biofuel Production from Algae

12.4 Techno-Economic Evaluation of Algal Biofuels

12.5 Conclusion


Chapter 13. Life-Cycle Assessment of Microalgal-Based Biofuels


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Assessed Functions, Associated Functional Units, and Perimeters of Microalgae Production LCAs

13.3 Modeling the Inventory Data

13.4 Microalgal Biomass Transformation into Energy

13.5 Environmental Impact Assessment

13.6 Discussion and Guidelines

13.7 Conclusion


Chapter 14. Economics of Microalgae Biomass Production

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Methodology for Cost Analysis of Microalgae Production

14.3 Case Study




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About the Editor

Ashok Pandey

Professor Ashok Pandey is currently with the Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab, India; he was the former Deputy Director for CSIR’s National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology at Trivandrum, where he head the Centre for Biofuels and Biotechnology Division. Professor Pandey’s research interests are on bio-based economy for the production of fuels and chemicals. He has over 1000 publications and communications, which include 14 patents and design copyright, 34 books, 99 book chapters, and 391 original and review papers. Professor Pandey is the recipient of many national and international awards and fellowships, including Fellow of International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability, National Academy of Science (India), Biotech Research Society, India, and the International Organization of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. He was Chairman of the International Society of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Finland (Food & Health) from 2003-2004. He is Founder President of the Biotech Research Society, India (; International Coordinator and General Secretary of International Forum on Industrial Bioprocesses, France (, and Vice-President of the International Society for Energy, Environment & Sustainability ( and All India Biotech Association ( Professor Pandey is Editor-in-chief of Bioresource Technology, Honorary Executive Advisors of Journal of Water Sustainability and Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability and editorial board member of several international and Indian journals. Prof. Pandey was also recently honoured as the Most Cited Author as per the Shanghai Ranking's Global Ranking of Academic Subjects 2016.

Affiliations and Expertise

Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab, India and Former Chief Scientist and Head, Centre for Biofuels and Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum, India

Duu-Jong Lee

Duu-Jong Lee is currently a Life-Time Specially Appointed Professor of National Taiwan University (NTU) and Chair Professor and Dean of College of Engineering of National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTUST). He obtained his Bachelor (1984) and PhD (1989) degrees both at Chemical Engineering Department, NTU. Professor Lee has strong research interest in the area of industrial wastewater treatment, biomass to energy and environmental management, especially in microscale transport/reaction process in biomass matrix. During the past 25 years of his career, he has completed several projects successfully and developed various processes with full-scale applications. The research carried out till-date has credited him with more than 1000 publications/communications. The citations in SCOPUS on Dr Lee’s work has exceeded 8000 with h=42. Professor Lee is the recipient of many national and international awards and fellowships. He is currently also the President of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers with 3500 members in Taiwan and overseas.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Yusuf Chisti

Yusuf Chisti is Professor of Biochemical Engineering in the School of Engineering, Massey University, New Zealand. Professor Chisti holds a MSc (Biochemical Engineering) degree from University of London, England, and a PhD in Chemical Engineering from University of Waterloo, Canada. He is a Chartered Engineer, CEng, and Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (FIChemE), UK. His previous appointments were with the University of Almería, Spain; Chembiomed Ltd, Edmonton, Canada; University of Waterloo, Canada; and The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria. Professor Chisti has produced nearly 200 publications including a highly cited book (Airlift Bioreactors, Elsevier, 1989). He has lectured at nearly 180 international events. His work addresses many aspects of biochemical and chemical engineering, applied biotechnology, and environmental technology. His many publications on microalgal biotechnology are highly cited. He sits is on editorial boards of numerous journals including Biotechnology Advances (Elsevier), Journal of Biotechnology (Elsevier), Journal of Applied Phycology (Springer) and Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining (Wiley). He is a senior editor of Biofuels. He received a Doctor Honoris Causa degree from Gheorghe Asachi Technical University, Iasi, Romania, in recognition of his many contributions to chemical and biological engineering.

Affiliations and Expertise

Massey University, New Zealand

Carlos Soccol

Prof Carlos Ricardo Soccol is the research group leader of Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil, with vast experience in biotechnological research and development of bioprocesses with industrial application. He graduated in Chemical Engineering (UFPR, 1979), Masters in Food Technology (UFPR, 1986) and PhD in Genie Enzymatique, Microbiologie et Bioconversion (Université de Technologie de Compiègne,- France, 1992); post-doctoral at Institut ORSTOM/IRD (Montpellier, 1994 and 1997) and at the Université de Provence et de la Méditerranée (Marseille, 2000). He is HDR Professor at Ecole d'Ingénieurs Supériure of Luminy, Marseille-France. He main research activities are in the areas of Food Science & Technology, with emphasis on agro-industrial and Agro-alimentary Biotechnology, with specific topics on bioprocess engineering and solid-state fermentation, submerged fermentation, bioseparations, industrial bioprocesses, enzyme technology, tissue culture, bio-industrial projects and bioproduction. He is currently Coordinator of Master BIODEV-UNESCO program at UFPR. He is Associate Editor of five international journals and Editor-in-Chief of Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. Professor Soccol has received several national and international awards which include Science & Technology award of the Govt. of Paraná (1996), Scopus/Elsevier award (2009), Doctorate Honoris Causa, University Blaise Pascal-France (2010), Outstanding Scientist – 5th International Conference on Industrial Bioprocesses, Taipei, Taiwan (2012). He is a technical and scientific consultant of several companies, agencies and scientific journals in Brazil and abroad. He has 946 publications/communications which include 16 books, 95 book chapters, 255 original research papers, 543 research communications in international and national conferences and has registered 37 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Federal University of Parana, Curitiba-Pr, Brazil