Biofilms in Infection Prevention and Control

Biofilms in Infection Prevention and Control

A Healthcare Handbook

1st Edition - January 30, 2014

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  • Editors: Steven Percival, David Williams, Tracey Cooper, Jacqueline Randle
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123977519
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123970435

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Description

Biofilms in Infection and Disease Control: A Healthcare Handbook outlines the scientific evidence and rationale for the prevention of infection, the role biofilms play in infection control, and the issues concerning their resistance to antimicrobials. This book provides practical guidance for healthcare and infection control professionals, as well as students, for preventing and controlling infection. Biofilms are the most common mode of bacterial growth in nature. Highly resistant to antibiotics and antimicrobials, biofilms are the source of more than 65 percent of health care associated infections (HCAI), which, according to the WHO, affect 1.4 million people annually. Biofilms are involved in 80 percent of all microbial infections in the body, including those associated with medical devices such as catheters, endotracheal tubes, joint prostheses, and heart valves. Biofilms are also the principle causes of infections of the middle-ear, dental caries, gingivitis, prostatitis and cystic fibrosis. Importantly, biofilms also significantly delay wound healing and reduce antimicrobial efficiency in at-risk or infected skin wounds.

Key Features

  • Provides specific procedures for controlling and preventing infection
  • Includes case studies of HCAI, and identifies appropriate treatments
  • Presents national government standards for infection prevention and control
  • Includes extensive references and links to websites for further information

Readership

Infections control professionals, healthcare professionals, and postgraduate students in medicine, biology, health, and microbiology

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface

    List of Contributors

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    List of Exhibits

    Part 1: Fundamentals of Infection Control

    Chapter One. Introduction to Infection and Infection Prevention

    Introduction

    The Impact of Infection

    ICUS and Healthcare-Associated Infections

    The Law and Healthcare-Associated Infection

    Working with Patients and Their Families and/or Caregivers

    Training, Education and Roles

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Two. Infection Prevention: Principles of Safe Practice in Healthcare

    Introduction

    Standard Precautions

    Maintaining Asepsis Using an Aseptic Technique

    Safe Collection of Specimens

    Transmission-Based Precautions

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Three. Hand Hygiene

    Introduction

    Issues Associated with Healthcare Workers’ Compliance

    Factors Affecting Hand Hygiene Compliance

    Recommendations for Effective Hand Hygiene

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Four. Decontamination

    Introduction

    Useful Definitions

    Choosing the Appropriate Process

    Decontamination of Medical Devices

    Decontamination of the Environment

    Decontamination of Blood Spillage

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Five. Challenges to Healthcare Providers

    Introduction

    Clostridium Difficile

    Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    Norovirus

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Six. Changing Practice

    Introduction

    The Code of Practice

    Commissioning Infection Prevention and Control Services

    The Francis Report

    Empowerment and Power

    Whistleblowing

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Seven. Invasive Devices

    Introduction

    Short- and Long-Term Urinary Catheters

    Faecal Management Systems

    Intravenous Access Devices

    Nutrition

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Eight. Wounds and Infection

    Introduction

    Wounds and the Healing Process

    Wounds and Micro-organisms

    Recognising and Preventing Wound Infection

    Surgical Site Infections

    Categories of Surgical Wounds and Infection Risk

    Conclusion

    References

    Part 2: Biofilms and Infection Control

    Chapter Nine. Biofilms: From Concept to Reality

    Introduction

    Prevalence of Biofilms

    Models to Study Biofilms

    Formation of Biofilms

    Detachment and Dissemination of Biofilms

    Biofilm Structure

    The Biofilm Community

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Ten. Healthcare-Associated Infections and Biofilms

    Introduction

    Biofilm Formation: A Strategy for Survival

    Host Responses to Biofilms

    Biofilm Detection

    The Micro-Organisms

    Biofilm Prevention

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Eleven. Biofilms’ Role in Intravascular Catheter Infections

    Introduction

    Complications of Intravascular Catheters

    Routes of Intravascular Catheter Infection

    Diagnosis of Infection

    Evidence and Impact of Biofilm Formation

    Prevention and Treatment of Infections

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Twelve. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia, Endotracheal Tubes and Biofilms

    Introduction

    Diagnosis and Complications

    Biofilms and Endotracheal Tubes

    VAP and Biofilm Control

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Thirteen. Antimicrobial Chemotherapy: Significance to Healthcare

    Introduction

    Development of Antimicrobial Therapy

    Principles of Antibiotic Therapy

    Classes of Antibiotics

    Microbiological Examination

    Indication and Selection of Antibiotics

    Drug Interactions and Adverse Effects

    Antibiotic Resistance

    Antifungals

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Fourteen. An Introduction to the Biology of Biofilm Recalcitrance

    Introduction

    Evidence for Clinical Recalcitrance

    Contributions of the Biofilm Matrix to Recalcitrance

    Bacterial Persistence as a Biofilm-Specific Phenotype

    The clinical significance of bacterial persistence

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Fifteen. Microbial Resistance and Superbugs

    Introduction

    Definitions of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Genetics of Resistance

    Superbugs

    Prevention and Control of MDR Organisms

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter Sixteen. Preventing Infection Associated with Urethral Catheter Biofilms

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Biofilm on the Urinary Catheter

    Diagnosis

    CA-UTI Prevention Guidelines and Recommendations

    Future Directions

    References

    Chapter Seventeen. Presence and Control of Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms in Hospital Water Systems

    Introduction

    Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Legionella Pneumophila

    Legislation and Guidance for Control of Micro-Organisms

    Point-of-Use Water Filtration

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter Eighteen. Wound Infection and Biofilms

    Introduction

    Biology of Wound Healing

    Microbial Communities

    The Potential Significance of Biofilms in Wounds

    Biofilm Formation

    Conclusion

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 394
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: January 30, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123977519
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123970435

About the Editors

Steven Percival

Steven Percival
Professor Steven L. Percival holds a PhD in medical microbiology and biofilms, a BSc in Applied Biological Sciences, Postgraduate

Certificate in Education, diploma in Business Administration, an MSc in Public Health and an MSc in Medical and Molecular

Microbiology. He is also a fellow of the Institute of Biomedical Science and Institute of Biology. Early in his career, Steven held R&D positions for over 3 years at The British Textile Technology Group Plc, followed then by 6 years as a senior university lecturer in medical microbiology and later the positions of Chief Scientific Officer and Director of R and D at Aseptica, Inc., and senior clinical fellowships at the Centers for Disease Control,

Atlanta, and Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust, Leeds, United Kingdom. More recently, Steven held senior R&D manager positions at Bristol Myers Squibb, ConvaTec, Advanced Medical Solutions PLC and also held an honorary Professorship of Microbiology at West Virginia University. In

2011, Steven joined ScapaHealthcare PLC as Vice President of Global Healthcare R&D and was awarded an honorary Professorship at The University of Liverpool, UK. He has written over 260 scientific publications and conference abstracts on water microbiology, biofilms, antimicrobials, and infection control and has authored or edited six textbooks on biofilms and microbiology and provided over 100 presentations on biofilms and public health worldwide.

Affiliations and Expertise

Leeds Teaching Hospitals, UK

David Williams

David Williams
Dr. Williams currently leads the Oral Microbiology Group based at the School of Dentistry, at Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Since Dr. Williams’ first degree (Cardiff University), he has worked in the pharmaceutical industry, food microbiology and as an academic researcher. Having completed a PhD at the School of Dentistry in Cardiff on the immunopathogenesis of oral candidosis, Dr. Williams’ research has continued within Cardiff University and primarily focuses within the field of Clinical Microbiology with an emphasis on studies involving microbial biofilms. Dr. Williams’ research encompasses investigating biofilm susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, expression of virulence factors such as hydrolytic enzyme production, adhesion, and microbial modulation of innate immune responses. Of particular interest has been research into the development of biomaterials (e.g. silicone rubber, acrylic, titanium) to inhibit biofilm formation on medical devices. Dr. Williams is a previous recipient of the Senior Colgate Award (British Society for Oral and Dental Research) and the International Hatton Award (The International Association for Dental Research).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Oral Microbiology, School of Dentistry, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, Wales, UK

Tracey Cooper

Tracey Cooper
Tracey Cooper works as Assistant Director of Nursing - Infection Prevention for Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board in Wales. Prior to this she worked as a Director of Infection Prevention and Control in London for four years, having first ‘got the bug’ for infection prevention and control in 1996. She has also previously worked in infection prevention in Devon, on the Isle of Wight, and in Southampton, covering both acute and community issues. Her background includes work in intensive and coronary care, as well as acute hospital ward experience.

Tracey has experience as both an author and peer reviewer and was the Infection Prevention Society (IPS) Editor from 2004-2008. She subsequently served as IPS Vice-President, and then President until 2012. She continues to participate in national and professional society initiatives and projects, and is particularly interested in professional development, change management and patient safety initiatives.

Outside work she enjoys running, loves the outdoors and participates in several Mountain Marathons each year.

Affiliations and Expertise

South London Healthcare NHS Trust, UK

Jacqueline Randle

Until recently Jacqueline Randle was working as an Associate Professor at the University of Nottingham where she was involved with a range of funded research projects in the area of infection prevention and control. She worked as the Research Lead for Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and also worked as a national Research Mentor. She was also Visiting Professor in Infection Control at Belo Horizonte University, Brazil and has published widely in the area of infection prevention and healthcare practice. Currently she is working as a freelance Medical Investigator.

Affiliations and Expertise

Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, UK

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