Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications

Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications

1st Edition - December 5, 2013

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  • Editors: Vijai Gupta, Maria Tuohy, Christian Kubicek, Jack Saddler, Feng Xu
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595614
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595645

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Description

Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications brings biology and engineering together to address the challenges of future energy needs. The book consolidates the most recent research on current technologies, concepts, and commercial developments in various types of widely used biofuels and integrated biorefineries, across the disciplines of biochemistry, biotechnology, phytology, and microbiology. All the chapters in the book are derived from international scientific experts in their respective research areas. They provide you with clear and concise information on both standard and more recent bioenergy production methods, including hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Chapters are also designed to facilitate early stage researchers, and enables you to easily grasp the concepts, methodologies and application of bioenergy technologies. Each chapter in the book describes the merits and drawbacks of each technology as well as its usefulness. The book provides information on recent approaches to graduates, post-graduates, researchers and practitioners studying and working in field of the bioenergy. It is an invaluable information resource on biomass-based biofuels for fundamental and applied research, catering to researchers in the areas of bio-hydrogen, bioethanol, bio-methane and biorefineries, and the use of microbial  processes in the conversion of biomass into biofuels.

Key Features

  • Reviews all existing and promising technologies for production of advanced biofuels in addition to bioenergy policies and research funding
  • Cutting-edge research concepts for biofuels production using biological and biochemical routes, including microbial fuel cells
  • Includes production methods and conversion processes for all types of biofuels, including bioethanol and biohydrogen, and outlines the pros and cons of each

Readership

Chemists and Chemical Engineers, biochemical engineers, Biotechnologists, Agricultural Chemists, Environmental Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, academics and research students in these areas

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Foreword

    List of Contributors

    Chapter 1. Current Bioenergy Researches: Strengths and Future Challenges

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Biopellets

    Bioethanol

    Biodiesel

    Biogas

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 2. Bioenergy Research: An Overview on Technological Developments and Bioresources

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Current Bioenergy Practices

    Main Biofuel Technologies and Current Processes

    Technological Routes for Bioenergy Production

    Bioenergy Resources and Biofuels Development Program

    Sustainability

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3. Use of Agroindustrial Residues for Bioethanol Production

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Raw Material

    Sugar Production and Fermentation

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 4. Recent Advancements in Pretreatment Technologies of Biomass to Produce Bioenergy

    Abstract

    Lignocelullosic Biomass

    Pretreatment of Lignocelullosic Biomass for Biofuels Production

    Types of Pretreatments

    Trends in Pretreatments

    Pretreatment Modeling

    Environmental and Economical Aspects

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 5. Biofuels and Bioproducts Produced through Microbial Conversion of Biomass

    Abstract

    Lignocellulosic Biomass and its Pretreatment

    Commonly used Microorganisms for Biological Pretreatment

    Strategies of Using Microbial Pretreatment to Enhance Sugar Release for Biofuel and Bioproduct Production

    References

    Chapter 6. Databases for Bioenergy-Related Enzymes

    Abstract

    Plant Biomass

    Bioenergy-Related Enzymes and Regulation

    Databases and Web Servers

    Future Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 7. Isobutanol Production from Bioenergy Crops

    Abstract

    Background/Introduction

    Keto Acid Pathways for Higher Alcohol Production

    Biochemistry of Isobutanol Fermentation

    Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for Isobutanol Production

    Feasibility of Using Bioenergy Crops as Sustainable Feedstocks for Isobutanol Production

    Technologies That have been Developed for Simultaneous Butanol Fermentation and Recovery

    Conclusion and Future Perspective

    References

    Chapter 8. Lipase-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production: Technical Challenges

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Chemistry of Biodiesel

    Transesterification

    Disadvantages of Chemical Transesterification

    Advantages of Using Lipases in Biodiesel Production

    Historical Background of Lipase

    Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification Done in Two Approaches

    Advantages of Immobilized Lipase

    Technical Challenges

    Feedstock

    Choice of Enzyme

    Molar Ratio (Alcohol/Oil)

    Temperature

    Water Content

    Acyl Acceptors

    Solvents

    Reactor System

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 9. Bioelectrochemistry of Microbial Fuel Cells and their Potential Applications in Bioenergy

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Bioelectrochemistry of MFC

    Biofilm Electrochemistry for Enhanced MFC Performance: A Molecular Biology Perspective

    MFCs for Wastewater Treatment with Concomitant Electricity Production

    Summary and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 10. Second-Generation Biofuel from High-Efficiency Algal-Derived Biocrude

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Microalgal Biofuel History

    Microalgae Biomass/Biofuel Production—Cultivation

    Phototrophic Microalgae

    Heterotrophic Microalgae

    Nutrients

    Contamination

    Mixing

    Culture Techniques

    Open-Pond Culture

    Photobioreactors

    Processing Microalgal Biomass for Biofuels

    Microalgal Biomass to Biofuels

    Biodiesel

    Production of Biodiesel from Microalgae

    Comparison of Biodiesel to Petrodiesel

    Bioethanol

    Bioethanol Production Process

    Biomethane

    Biohydrogen

    Biocrude

    Properties of Subcritical Water

    Hydrothermal Catalytic Liquefaction

    HTL Summary and Outlook

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 11. Microalgae: The Tiny Microbes with a Big Impact

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Renewable Energy

    Petroleum Fuel Scenario in India

    Biodiesel

    Microalgae: Viable Feedstocks for Biodiesel

    Selection of Potent Strains

    Genetic Engineering Approach

    Microalgal Biodiesel Production

    Fatty Acid Methyl Esters and Fuel Properties

    Waste Utilization for Biodiesel Production: A Case Study with Scenedesmus obliquus in a Recirculatory Aquaculture System

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 12. Biobased Fats (Lipids) and Oils from Biomass as a Source of Bioenergy

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Sources of Biolipids

    Supply and Projected/Purrent Volume

    Energy Balance

    Processing of Biolipids and Properties of Biolipid-Derived Biofuels

    Properties of Pure Plant Oil

    Properties of Biodiesel

    Biomass to Liquid Fuels (Bio-oil)

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 13. Use of Volatile Solids from Biomass for Energy Production

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Biodegradability

    Addition of Macro- and Micronutrients

    Addition of Microbes

    Addition of Enzymes

    Pretreatments

    Longer Retention Times

    Energy Crops

    Food Processing Residues

    Crop Residues

    Spent Bedding

    Kitchen and Garden Waste

    Aquatic Weeds

    Digestion Systems

    Increase in Solids Content in Wet Digesters

    Loading and Unloading of Digesters

    Treatment of Digestate in Wet Digesters

    Use of Methane

    Chemical Conversion of Volatile Solids

    Thermal Conversion of Volatile Solids

    Discussion

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 14. Biorefinery Systems: An Overview

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction—Biorefinery, Concepts and Emerging Opportunities for Sustainable Economy

    Short History of Biorefineries and Bio-Based Products

    Biomass Feedstock

    Structure of Biorefinery Concept

    Biorefinery Platforms

    Biorefinery Eco-Efficiency

    Concluding Remarks and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 15. Catalytic Thermochemical Processes for Biomass Conversion to Biofuels and Chemicals

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Gasification of Biomass

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 16. Applications of Heterogeneous Catalysts in the Production of Biodiesel by Esterification and Transesterification

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Heteropolyacids

    Zeolites

    Clay Minerals

    Layered Materials

    Polymeric Catalysts

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 17. Lignocellulose-Based Chemical Products

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Occurrence and Composition of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Cellulose

    Hemicelluloses

    Lignin

    Pretreatment Technologies

    Pretreatment Technologies Still at a Laboratory/Conceptual Stage

    Lignocellulosic Biorefineries—Classification

    C6 and C6/C5 Sugar Platform

    Lignin Platform

    Importance of Furans and Aromatics as Building Blocks for Chemicals and Fuels

    Carbohydrate Dehydration

    Conversion of Technical Lignins into Monoaromatic Chemicals

    Conclusions and Further Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 18. Industrial Lignins: Analysis, Properties, and Applications

    Abstract

    The Potential of Technical Lignins as a Renewable Raw Material Feedstock

    Technical Lignins: Production, Properties, and Analysis

    Technical Lignins: Traditional and Emerging Applications

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 19. Amino-Based Products from Biomass and Microbial Amino Acid Production

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Amino Acids

    Aspartame

    Poly(Amino Acid)s

    Polyamines

    Conclusion and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 20. Production of Phytochemicals, Dyes and Pigments as Coproducts in Bioenergy Processes

    Abstract

    Industrial Phytochemicals

    Production of Industrial Phytochemicals

    Coproduction of Phytochemicals in Bioenergy Processes

    References

    Chapter 21. Recent Developments on Cyanobacteria and Green Algae for Biohydrogen Photoproduction and Its Importance in CO2 Reduction

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Mechanisms of Hydrogen Photoproduction

    Hydrogen Photoproduction by Cyanobacteria

    Hydrogen Photoproduction by Green Algae

    References

    Chapter 22. Engineered Cyanobacteria: Research and Application in Bioenergy

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Engineering Cyanobacteria

    Cyanobacteria as a Production System for Biofuels: Current Status

    Conclusion and Outlook

    References

    Chapter 23. Sustainable Farming of Bioenergy Crops

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Criteria for Sustainable Farming and Sustainable Food Systems

    What is Sustainable Bioenergy Production?

    How Much Bioenergy may be Produced Sustainably?

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 24. Bioenergy Technology and Food Industry Waste Valorization for Integrated Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Abstract

    Introduction

    PHA Structure and Properties

    PHA Production Integrated in Biorefinery Concepts

    Conclusions and Future Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 25. Advances and Innovations in Biochar Production and Utilization for Improving Environmental Quality

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Properties of Biochar

    Utilization of Biochar for Environmental Quality

    Postpyrolysis Indirect Application of Biochar

    Conclusions, Knowledge Gaps, and Research Needs

    References

    Chapter 26. Biochar Processing for Sustainable Development in Current and Future Bioenergy Research

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Theoretical Income Streams

    Agricultural Benefits

    Economic Analysis

    Conclusion

    Disclaimers

    References

    Chapter 27. Development of Thermochemical and Biochemical Technologies for Biorefineries

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Characteristics of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    An Overview on Biomass Conversion

    Pretreatment—Biomass Size Reduction by Physical or Mechanical Methods

    Hydrolysis

    Bioconversion—Converting Sugars to Products

    Thermochemical Conversion

    Conclusion

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 500
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2014
  • Published: December 5, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595614
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595645

About the Editors

Vijai Gupta

Vijai Gupta
Dr Vijai G. Gupta is an Assistant Professor of Biotechnology at MITS University of India. Currently he is working as Research Scientist at National University of Ireland in Galway. Dr. Gupta’s present work is focused on the development and optimization of novel Enzyme-based bioconversion systems for biorefining and bioenergy. He has been honored with several awards, including the prestigious Indian ICAR Senior Research Fellowship and Indian Young Scientist Award. He has submitted 33 new fungal nucleotide sequences and deposited 147 fungal strains in International databases. His work with Fusarium spp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium spp. and Trichoderma spp. is augmented by contributions to biotechnological development, molecular diversity, secondary metabolites and industrial applications Dr. Gupta is the editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Plant Pathology and a regional editorial board member of 8 other respected journals. He is the author of 40 journal articles and 27 book chapters. Gupta has also written and edited books and series from reputed publishers, including CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, USA; Springer, USA; Elsevier, USA; Nova Science Publisher, USA and LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia

Maria Tuohy

Dr. Maria G. Tuohy is the Head of the Molecular Glycobiotechnology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry, School of Natural Sciences, NUI Galway which has developed a strong track record in Glycobiotechnology and Enzyme Biotechnology. She has more than 20 years experience in the molecular biochemistry, genetics and biotechnology of fungi, with a special interest in thermophilic ascomycetes and the characterization of these fungi as cell factories for protein production, including novel thermostable enzymes/enzyme systems. Dr. Tuohy and her group have developed patented enzyme-based technologies for key bioenergy and biorefinery applications from terrestrial and marine biomass and wastes, including 3rd generation feedstocks. The group also investigates the use of enzymes for the recovery and selective modification of high-value biochemicals and plant carbohydrate-derived bioactives (‘Glycobioengineering’). Dr. Tuohy is a PI in the Energy Research Centre, NUI, Galway and the recently funded national Bioenergy and Biorefinery Competence Centre, is a member of the EU FP7 Biofuels Platform and a national research PhytoNetwork. Dr. Tuohy has been a visiting researcher in RUGhent, Belgium and BSH Institut fur Holzchemie, Hamburg. Dr. Tuohy is author of ~132 research publications, including refereed publications, book chapters, conference papers poster/short communications. She is also a reviewer for international journals and funding agencies and several books as co-editor- Springer Science Publisher, USA; CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, USA; Germany; Nova Science Publisher, USA and Elsevier Press, USA (under Progress) with Dr. V. K. Gupta

Affiliations and Expertise

Head of the Molecular Glycobiotechnology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

Christian Kubicek

Affiliations and Expertise

Vienna University of Technology, Austria

Jack Saddler

Jack Saddler
Dr. John (Jack) Saddler is the endowed Professor of Forest Products Biotechnology / Bioenergy (originally an NSERC Industry Chair) and also the former Dean, Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia.

Professor Saddler has been involved, for more than 30 years, in various national and international organizations that have advanced the global understanding of how woody biomass can be converted to useful fuels and chemicals. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Canada’s highest recognition for scientists, and he has received many other awards such as the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO’s) Scientific Achievement Award, and the Charles D. Scott award for contributions to the field of “Biotechnology for fuels and Chemicals”. Professor Saddler is also the recipient of the prestigious Leadership award, presented from Life Sciences British Columbia for demonstrated leadership in the industry and given to individuals who have assisted in the creation and advancement of the broader life sciences communities over time.

Professor Saddler has published more than 380 papers, several books, holds several patents, and is a regular reviewer/advisor for agencies such as the US Dept. of Energy, USDA, NSERC, and World Bank. He has trained more than 70 graduate students, Post Doc.s, and Research Associates, many of whom are now in senior positions in industry, government, and academia around the world

Outside of the research setting, Professor Saddler has not only advised policymakers at the highest levels provincially and nationally, but has been instrumental in the creation of long-standing initiatives to demonstrate, commercialize, and transfer promising biorefining technologies, such as the creation of the BC Bioenergy Network. Nationally, his influence extends to such bodies as the Science Directorate of the Canadian Forest Service, the Canadian Council of Forests Ministers, and the National Roundtable on Economy and Environment. Internationally, he has contributed significantly to the work of the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the US DoE, USDA, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Paris, and he has acted as the Co-Task Leader of the Liquid Biofuels network of IEA Bioenergy organization for many years.

B.Sc. (Hons) Microbiology - University of Edinburgh, 1975

Ph.D. Micobiology/Biochemistry - University of Glasgow, 1978

Former Dean, Faculty of Forestry; Professor of Forest Products Biotechnology / Bioenergy

Affiliations and Expertise

The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Feng Xu

Feng Xu
Feng Xu is a Staff Scientist in the Department of Protein Chemistry at Novozymes, Inc. (a subsidiary of Novozymes A/S) where he has been a research scientist since 1992. His research interests are in enzymology and enzyme biotechnology, particularly that related to oxidoreductases (Cu-oxidase, heme peroxidase, flavoenzymes) and carbohydrases (cellulases, amylases). In the past decade, he has focused on enzymatic conversion of biomass and led the effort discovering the function of GH61 enzyme in enzymatic cellulose degradation.

Feng Xu is the author or co-author of about 89 articles, reviews, or book chapters, and is the inventor or co-inventor of about 38 issued or pending patents. Feng Xu served at the Editorial Advisory Panel of Biochemical Journal (2005-2013) and is a member of the American Chemical Society.

Feng Xu completed his doctorate at the University of Paris VII in France (1982-1986) and his bachelor’s degree at Wuhan University in China (1978-1982). He worked as a postgraduate researcher at the University of California at San Diego (1986-1988) and a Research Investigator at the University of Michigan (1988-1992).

Affiliations and Expertise

Novozymes, Inc., CA, USA

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