Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444595614, 9780444595645

Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications

1st Edition

Editors: Vijai Gupta Maria Tuohy Christian Kubicek Jack Saddler Feng Xu
eBook ISBN: 9780444595645
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595614
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 18th January 2014
Page Count: 500
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Description

Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications brings biology and engineering together to address the challenges of future energy needs. The book consolidates the most recent research on current technologies, concepts, and commercial developments in various types of widely used biofuels and integrated biorefineries, across the disciplines of biochemistry, biotechnology, phytology, and microbiology.

All the chapters in the book are derived from international scientific experts in their respective research areas. They provide you with clear and concise information on both standard and more recent bioenergy production methods, including hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Chapters are also designed to facilitate early stage researchers, and enables you to easily grasp the concepts, methodologies and application of bioenergy technologies. Each chapter in the book describes the merits and drawbacks of each technology as well as its usefulness.

The book provides information on recent approaches to graduates, post-graduates, researchers and practitioners studying and working in field of the bioenergy. It is an invaluable information resource on biomass-based biofuels for fundamental and applied research, catering to researchers in the areas of bio-hydrogen, bioethanol, bio-methane and biorefineries, and the use of microbial  processes in the conversion of biomass into biofuels.

Key Features

  • Reviews all existing and promising technologies for production of advanced biofuels in addition to bioenergy policies and research funding
  • Cutting-edge research concepts for biofuels production using biological and biochemical routes, including microbial fuel cells
  • Includes production methods and conversion processes for all types of biofuels, including bioethanol and biohydrogen, and outlines the pros and cons of each

Readership

Chemists and Chemical Engineers, biochemical engineers, Biotechnologists, Agricultural Chemists, Environmental Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, academics and research students in these areas

Table of Contents

Preface

Foreword

List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Current Bioenergy Researches: Strengths and Future Challenges

Abstract

Introduction

Biopellets

Bioethanol

Biodiesel

Biogas

Conclusion

References

Chapter 2. Bioenergy Research: An Overview on Technological Developments and Bioresources

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Current Bioenergy Practices

Main Biofuel Technologies and Current Processes

Technological Routes for Bioenergy Production

Bioenergy Resources and Biofuels Development Program

Sustainability

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3. Use of Agroindustrial Residues for Bioethanol Production

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Raw Material

Sugar Production and Fermentation

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 4. Recent Advancements in Pretreatment Technologies of Biomass to Produce Bioenergy

Abstract

Lignocelullosic Biomass

Pretreatment of Lignocelullosic Biomass for Biofuels Production

Types of Pretreatments

Trends in Pretreatments

Pretreatment Modeling

Environmental and Economical Aspects

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 5. Biofuels and Bioproducts Produced through Microbial Conversion of Biomass

Abstract

Lignocellulosic Biomass and its Pretreatment

Commonly used Microorganisms for Biological Pretreatment

Strategies of Using Microbial Pretreatment to Enhance Sugar Release for Biofuel and Bioproduct Production

References

Chapter 6. Databases for Bioenergy-Related Enzymes

Abstract

Plant Biomass

Bioenergy-Related Enzymes and Regulation

Databases and Web Servers

Future Perspectives

References

Chapter 7. Isobutanol Production from Bioenergy Crops

Abstract

Background/Introduction

Keto Acid Pathways for Higher Alcohol Production

Biochemistry of Isobutanol Fermentation

Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for Isobutanol Production

Feasibility of Using Bioenergy Crops as Sustainable Feedstocks for Isobutanol Production

Technologies That have been Developed for Simultaneous Butanol Fermentation and Recovery

Conclusion and Future Perspective

References

Chapter 8. Lipase-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production: Technical Challenges

Abstract

Introduction

Chemistry of Biodiesel

Transesterification

Disadvantages of Chemical Transesterification

Advantages of Using Lipases in Biodiesel Production

Historical Background of Lipase

Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification Done in Two Approaches

Advantages of Immobilized Lipase

Technical Challenges

Feedstock

Choice of Enzyme

Molar Ratio (Alcohol/Oil)

Temperature

Water Content

Acyl Acceptors

Solvents

Reactor System

Conclusions

References

Chapter 9. Bioelectrochemistry of Microbial Fuel Cells and their Potential Applications in Bioenergy

Abstract

Introduction

Bioelectrochemistry of MFC

Biofilm Electrochemistry for Enhanced MFC Performance: A Molecular Biology Perspective

MFCs for Wastewater Treatment with Concomitant Electricity Production

Summary and Perspectives

References

Chapter 10. Second-Generation Biofuel from High-Efficiency Algal-Derived Biocrude

Abstract

Introduction

Microalgal Biofuel History

Microalgae Biomass/Biofuel Production—Cultivation

Phototrophic Microalgae

Heterotrophic Microalgae

Nutrients

Contamination

Mixing

Culture Techniques

Open-Pond Culture

Photobioreactors

Processing Microalgal Biomass for Biofuels

Microalgal Biomass to Biofuels

Biodiesel

Production of Biodiesel from Microalgae

Comparison of Biodiesel to Petrodiesel

Bioethanol

Bioethanol Production Process

Biomethane

Biohydrogen

Biocrude

Properties of Subcritical Water

Hydrothermal Catalytic Liquefaction

HTL Summary and Outlook

Conclusions

References

Chapter 11. Microalgae: The Tiny Microbes with a Big Impact

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Renewable Energy

Petroleum Fuel Scenario in India

Biodiesel

Microalgae: Viable Feedstocks for Biodiesel

Selection of Potent Strains

Genetic Engineering Approach

Microalgal Biodiesel Production

Fatty Acid Methyl Esters and Fuel Properties

Waste Utilization for Biodiesel Production: A Case Study with Scenedesmus obliquus in a Recirculatory Aquaculture System

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 12. Biobased Fats (Lipids) and Oils from Biomass as a Source of Bioenergy

Abstract

Introduction

Sources of Biolipids

Supply and Projected/Purrent Volume

Energy Balance

Processing of Biolipids and Properties of Biolipid-Derived Biofuels

Properties of Pure Plant Oil

Properties of Biodiesel

Biomass to Liquid Fuels (Bio-oil)

Conclusion

References

Chapter 13. Use of Volatile Solids from Biomass for Energy Production

Abstract

Introduction

Biodegradability

Addition of Macro- and Micronutrients

Addition of Microbes

Addition of Enzymes

Pretreatments

Longer Retention Times

Energy Crops

Food Processing Residues

Crop Residues

Spent Bedding

Kitchen and Garden Waste

Aquatic Weeds

Digestion Systems

Increase in Solids Content in Wet Digesters

Loading and Unloading of Digesters

Treatment of Digestate in Wet Digesters

Use of Methane

Chemical Conversion of Volatile Solids

Thermal Conversion of Volatile Solids

Discussion

Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Biorefinery Systems: An Overview

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction—Biorefinery, Concepts and Emerging Opportunities for Sustainable Economy

Short History of Biorefineries and Bio-Based Products

Biomass Feedstock

Structure of Biorefinery Concept

Biorefinery Platforms

Biorefinery Eco-Efficiency

Concluding Remarks and Perspectives

References

Chapter 15. Catalytic Thermochemical Processes for Biomass Conversion to Biofuels and Chemicals

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Pyrolysis of Biomass

Gasification of Biomass

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

Conclusion

References

Chapter 16. Applications of Heterogeneous Catalysts in the Production of Biodiesel by Esterification and Transesterification

Abstract

Introduction

Heteropolyacids

Zeolites

Clay Minerals

Layered Materials

Polymeric Catalysts

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 17. Lignocellulose-Based Chemical Products

Abstract

Introduction

Occurrence and Composition of Lignocellulosic Biomass

Cellulose

Hemicelluloses

Lignin

Pretreatment Technologies

Pretreatment Technologies Still at a Laboratory/Conceptual Stage

Lignocellulosic Biorefineries—Classification

C6 and C6/C5 Sugar Platform

Lignin Platform

Importance of Furans and Aromatics as Building Blocks for Chemicals and Fuels

Carbohydrate Dehydration

Conversion of Technical Lignins into Monoaromatic Chemicals

Conclusions and Further Perspectives

References

Chapter 18. Industrial Lignins: Analysis, Properties, and Applications

Abstract

The Potential of Technical Lignins as a Renewable Raw Material Feedstock

Technical Lignins: Production, Properties, and Analysis

Technical Lignins: Traditional and Emerging Applications

Conclusions

References

Chapter 19. Amino-Based Products from Biomass and Microbial Amino Acid Production

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Amino Acids

Aspartame

Poly(Amino Acid)s

Polyamines

Conclusion and Perspectives

References

Chapter 20. Production of Phytochemicals, Dyes and Pigments as Coproducts in Bioenergy Processes

Abstract

Industrial Phytochemicals

Production of Industrial Phytochemicals

Coproduction of Phytochemicals in Bioenergy Processes

References

Chapter 21. Recent Developments on Cyanobacteria and Green Algae for Biohydrogen Photoproduction and Its Importance in CO2 Reduction

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Mechanisms of Hydrogen Photoproduction

Hydrogen Photoproduction by Cyanobacteria

Hydrogen Photoproduction by Green Algae

References

Chapter 22. Engineered Cyanobacteria: Research and Application in Bioenergy

Abstract

Introduction

Engineering Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria as a Production System for Biofuels: Current Status

Conclusion and Outlook

References

Chapter 23. Sustainable Farming of Bioenergy Crops

Abstract

Introduction

Criteria for Sustainable Farming and Sustainable Food Systems

What is Sustainable Bioenergy Production?

How Much Bioenergy may be Produced Sustainably?

Conclusions

References

Chapter 24. Bioenergy Technology and Food Industry Waste Valorization for Integrated Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates

Abstract

Introduction

PHA Structure and Properties

PHA Production Integrated in Biorefinery Concepts

Conclusions and Future Perspectives

References

Chapter 25. Advances and Innovations in Biochar Production and Utilization for Improving Environmental Quality

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Properties of Biochar

Utilization of Biochar for Environmental Quality

Postpyrolysis Indirect Application of Biochar

Conclusions, Knowledge Gaps, and Research Needs

References

Chapter 26. Biochar Processing for Sustainable Development in Current and Future Bioenergy Research

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Theoretical Income Streams

Agricultural Benefits

Economic Analysis

Conclusion

Disclaimers

References

Chapter 27. Development of Thermochemical and Biochemical Technologies for Biorefineries

Abstract

Introduction

Characteristics of Lignocellulosic Biomass

An Overview on Biomass Conversion

Pretreatment—Biomass Size Reduction by Physical or Mechanical Methods

Hydrolysis

Bioconversion—Converting Sugars to Products

Thermochemical Conversion

Conclusion

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
500
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444595645
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444595614

About the Editor

Vijai Gupta

Dr. Vijai Kumar Gupta is the Co-lead Inventor of EI project, Molecular Glycobiotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway city, Ireland. He is on research leave from MITS University, India. Before joining NUIG, he worked as Assistant Professor of Biotechnology, FASC, MITS University, Lakshmangarh (Sikar), India. His area of expertise includes mycological research and plant-microbial interactions, bio-fuels and bioenergy research, and microbial biotechnology.

He completed his Ph.D. in Microbiology from Dr. R.M.L. Avadh University, Faizabad, UP, India in 2009.

He is one of the experts in the area of fungal biology and biotechnology. He is the active member of International Sub-commission on Trichoderma and Hypocrea, Austria and a working group member of the International Society for Fungal Conservation, UK. His work with Fusarium spp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus spp. Penicillium spp., and Trichoderma spp. has been complemented by contributions to biotechnological development, molecular diversity, disease diagnostic, plant pathology, fungal-plant interaction, secondary metabolites, and industrial applications.

Dr. Gupta is the Fellow of Prestigious- The Linnaean Society, London, UK; Fellow of Hind Agri Society, India; Fellow of Society of Applied Biotechnologist India; and Fellow of International Society of Contemporary Biologist, India. He has been honored with several awards in his career including the prestigious Indian ICAR Senior Research Fellowship and Indian Young Scientist Award 2009, 2011 & Gold Medal Award-2009 for his advanced research achievements in the field of fungal genetics and biology. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Plant Pathology, USA; Senior Editor of Fungal Biology & Biotechnology, BioMed Central; Series Editor of a book series on fungal biology, Springer; and regional editor (Asia)/editorial board member of several International and national journals with many research/review publication/book chapter publications. He has edited about 16 books for publishers of international renown such as CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, USA; Springer, USA; Elsevier Press, The Netherlands; Nova Science Publisher, USA; LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany; and CABI, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Biochemistry School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

Maria Tuohy

Dr. Maria G. Tuohy is the Head of the Molecular Glycobiotechnology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry, School of Natural Sciences, NUI Galway which has developed a strong track record in Glycobiotechnology and Enzyme Biotechnology. She has more than 20 years experience in the molecular biochemistry, genetics and biotechnology of fungi, with a special interest in thermophilic ascomycetes and the characterization of these fungi as cell factories for protein production, including novel thermostable enzymes/enzyme systems. Dr. Tuohy and her group have developed patented enzyme-based technologies for key bioenergy and biorefinery applications from terrestrial and marine biomass and wastes, including 3rd generation feedstocks. The group also investigates the use of enzymes for the recovery and selective modification of high-value biochemicals and plant carbohydrate-derived bioactives (‘Glycobioengineering’). Dr. Tuohy is a PI in the Energy Research Centre, NUI, Galway and the recently funded national Bioenergy and Biorefinery Competence Centre, is a member of the EU FP7 Biofuels Platform and a national research PhytoNetwork. Dr. Tuohy has been a visiting researcher in RUGhent, Belgium and BSH Institut fur Holzchemie, Hamburg. Dr. Tuohy is author of ~132 research publications, including refereed publications, book chapters, conference papers poster/short communications. She is also a reviewer for international journals and funding agencies and several books as co-editor- Springer Science Publisher, USA; CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, USA; Germany; Nova Science Publisher, USA and Elsevier Press, USA (under Progress) with Dr. V. K. Gupta

Affiliations and Expertise

National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

Christian Kubicek

Affiliations and Expertise

Vienna University of Technology, Austria

Jack Saddler

Dr. John (Jack) Saddler is the endowed Professor of Forest Products Biotechnology / Bioenergy (originally an NSERC Industry Chair) and also the former Dean, Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia.

Professor Saddler has been involved, for more than 30 years, in various national and international organizations that have advanced the global understanding of how woody biomass can be converted to useful fuels and chemicals. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Canada’s highest recognition for scientists, and he has received many other awards such as the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO’s) Scientific Achievement Award, and the Charles D. Scott award for contributions to the field of “Biotechnology for fuels and Chemicals”. Professor Saddler is also the recipient of the prestigious Leadership award, presented from Life Sciences British Columbia for demonstrated leadership in the industry and given to individuals who have assisted in the creation and advancement of the broader life sciences communities over time.

Professor Saddler has published more than 380 papers, several books, holds several patents, and is a regular reviewer/advisor for agencies such as the US Dept. of Energy, USDA, NSERC, and World Bank. He has trained more than 70 graduate students, Post Doc.s, and Research Associates, many of whom are now in senior positions in industry, government, and academia around the world

Outside of the research setting, Professor Saddler has not only advised policymakers at the highest levels provincially and nationally, but has been instrumental in the creation of long-standing initiatives to demonstrate, commercialize, and transfer promising biorefining technologies, such as the creation of the BC Bioenergy Network. Nationally, his influence extends to such bodies as the Science Directorate of the Canadian Forest Service, the Canadian Council of Forests Ministers, and the National Roundtable on Economy and Environment. Internationally, he has contributed significantly to the work of the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the US DoE, USDA, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Paris, and he has acted as the Co-Task Leader of the Liquid Biofuels network of IEA Bioenergy organization for many years.

B.Sc. (Hons) Microbiology - University of Edinburgh, 1975

Ph.D. Micobiology/Biochemistry - University of Glasgow, 1978

Former Dean, Faculty of Forestry; Professor of Forest Products Biotechnology / Bioenergy

Affiliations and Expertise

The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Feng Xu

Feng Xu is a Staff Scientist in the Department of Protein Chemistry at Novozymes, Inc. (a subsidiary of Novozymes A/S) where he has been a research scientist since 1992. His research interests are in enzymology and enzyme biotechnology, particularly that related to oxidoreductases (Cu-oxidase, heme peroxidase, flavoenzymes) and carbohydrases (cellulases, amylases). In the past decade, he has focused on enzymatic conversion of biomass and led the effort discovering the function of GH61 enzyme in enzymatic cellulose degradation.

Feng Xu is the author or co-author of about 89 articles, reviews, or book chapters, and is the inventor or co-inventor of about 38 issued or pending patents. Feng Xu served at the Editorial Advisory Panel of Biochemical Journal (2005-2013) and is a member of the American Chemical Society.

Feng Xu completed his doctorate at the University of Paris VII in France (1982-1986) and his bachelor’s degree at Wuhan University in China (1978-1982). He worked as a postgraduate researcher at the University of California at San Diego (1986-1988) and a Research Investigator at the University of Michigan (1988-1992).

Affiliations and Expertise

Novozymes, Inc., CA, USA