Biochemical Correlates of Brain Structure and Function - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122066504, 9780323154253

Biochemical Correlates of Brain Structure and Function

1st Edition

Editors: A.N. Davison
eBook ISBN: 9780323154253
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 360
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Description

Biochemical Correlates of Brain Structure and Function deals with the biochemical correlates of brain structure and function, providing some examples of contemporary work interrelating structure with function of the nervous system. The developing brain provides a system for this kind of study, but broad correlates are also drawn between changing biochemistry and increasing physiological activity. This book is organized into nine chapters and begins with an overview of biochemical, morphological, and functional changes in the developing brain, as well as the underlying molecular basis of nerve differentiation and growth of the developing brain. An account of the concept of the cell cycle and its control is also given. The reader is methodically introduced to the properties of the developing retina and its functional biochemistry, with specific reference to the cyclic nucleotides; the use of selective lesioning to delineate GABA-ergic and cholinergic tracts as well as the catecholamine pathways; and cerebral blood flow alteration in concert with mental activity. The remaining chapters explore regions of the brain with altered glucose utilization in response to changes in local functional activity; the physiologically important factors regulating the supply of oxygen and glucose and the relation of metabolic rate to the metabolic state of the brain; and varying aspects of behavioral neurochemistry. This book is intended for chemists and biologists as well as students of biochemistry.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Chapter 1 Biochemical, morphological and functional changes in the developing brain

I. Introduction

A. "The growth spurt"

B. The developing brain

References

Chapter 2 Regulation of ribonucleic acid metabolism in the developing brain

I. Introduction

II. Genera l scheme of the synthesis of messenger RNA and ribosomal RNA in animals

III. Developmental changes in the metabolism of high molecular weight RNA in rat forebrain

A. Nucleocytoplasmic relationships: synthesis and transport of RNA

B. Processing of ribosomal RNA

C. Characterization of brain polyadenylated RNA

D. Progressive decrease in the synthesis of poly deny lated RNA

E. Molecular weight distribution of polyadenylated RNA

F. Content of poly (A)

G. Interactions of ribosomal subunits and of mRNA on polyribosomes

IV. Summary of changes in the nucleocytoplasmic relationship of high molecular RNA during development of rat forebrain

V. The effects of amino acid imbalance on polyribosomes during the vulnerable period of their development

VI. Concluding remarks including an hypothesis for the regulation of mRNA synthesis

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 3 Metabolic influences on cell proliferation in the brain

I. Introduction

II. Brief outline of the histogenesis and morphogenesis of the vertebrate nervous system

A. Early development

B. Primary germinal sites

C. Secondary germinal sites

III. Influence of metabolic factors on cell proliferation

A. Thyroid deficiency

B. Effect of excess of thyroid hormone during infancy

C. Effect of growth hormone

D. Undernutrition

IV. Drugs and cell proliferation in the brain

A. Effect of reserpine

B. Cyclic nucleotides, drugs affecting neurohumor receptors and cell proliferation

References

Chapter 4 Cyclic nucleotides and neuronal function: cyclic-GMP-dependent photoreceptor degeneration in inherited retinal diseases

I. Introduction

II. Cyclic nucleotides in the central nervous system (CNS)

A. Cyclic AMP

B. Cyclic GMP

C. Yin-Yang hypothesis

III. Cyclic nucleotides and photoreceptor degeneration in the retina of C3H mice

IV. Cyclic nucleotide metabolism and photoreceptor degeneration in the retina of RCS rats

V. Cyclic AMP metabolism in the inner layers of the retina

VI. Cyclic nucleotides and neurological disorders

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 5 Neurotransmitter-related pathways: the structure and function of central monoamine neurones

I. Introduction

II. Monoamine pathways: histochemical techniques

III. Catecholamine-containing neurones

A. The dopamine systems

B. The noradrenaline systems

C. Adrenaline systems

IV. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-containing neurones

V. Monoamine systems in human brain

VI. The ontogeny of monoamine systems

VII. Functions of monoamine neurones

A. Catecholamine systems

B. Serotonergic systems

VIII. Functions of monoamine neurones at the cellular level

IX. Summary

References

Chapter 6 Physiological aspects of brain energy metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Methods for blood flow and metabolism

A. Blood flow and oxygen consumption

B. Glucose consumption

C. High energy phosphate utilization

D. Fixation of tissue for metabolite analyses

E. Species differences

III. General coupling of function, metabolism and blood flow in neuronal systems

IV. Conditions with a primary decrease in functional activity

A. Barbiturate anesthesia

B. Hypothermia

V. Conditions with a primary increase in functional activity

A. Epileptic seizures

B. Hyperthermia

C. Amphetamine intoxication

D. Anxiety and stress

VI. Conditions with a primary decrease in oxygen or glucose supply

A. Hypoxia

B. Hypoglycemia

VII. Coupling mechanisms

A. Coupling or functional activity and metabolic rate

B. Coupling of metabolism and blood flow

C. Relationship between metabolic rate and metabolic state

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 7 The physiology of the neurohypophysial system and its relation to memory processes

I. Introduction

A. Synthesis, storage and release of vasopressin

B. Structure and phylogeny of vasopressin and vasopressin-like peptides

II. Peripheral actions of vasopressin

A. Physiological effects of vasopressin

B. Mode of action of vasopressin

C. Regulation of the secretion of vasopressin

III. Adenohypophysiotropic actions of vasopressin

IV. Central actions of vasopressin; its role in memory processes

A. Vasopressin, vasopressin analogues and avoidance and approach behavior of intact rats

B. Behavioral profile of rats which lack vasopressin due to a genetic failure

C. CNS site of action of vasopressin in relation to avoidance behavior

D. The role of the cerebrospinal fluid as a route of transport for the behavioral effect of vasopressin

E. Intraventricular administration of vasopressin antiserum inhibits retention of passive avoidance behavior

V. Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 8 Experience, learning and brain metabolism

I. Specificity and plasticity : learning and memory

II. Behavioral methods and problems

III. Biochemical methods and problems

IV. Correlation studies

A. Background

B. Correlates of broad sense plasticity

C. Correlates of learning

V. Pharmacological studies

A. Background

B. Inhibition of RNA synthesis

C. Inhibition of protein synthesis

D. Other inhibitory effects

VI. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 9 The biochemistry of sleep

I. Introduction

II. The sleep states

III. Possible functions of sleep

IV. Sleep-inducing factors

V. Intermediary metabolism

VI. Macromolecules

A. The phosphoprotein story

B. Proteins

C. Cytochemical analyses

D. RNA

VII. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
360
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1977
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323154253

About the Editor

A.N. Davison