Biochemical Correlates of Brain Structure and Function

Biochemical Correlates of Brain Structure and Function

1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Editor: A.N. Davison
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323154253

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Biochemical Correlates of Brain Structure and Function deals with the biochemical correlates of brain structure and function, providing some examples of contemporary work interrelating structure with function of the nervous system. The developing brain provides a system for this kind of study, but broad correlates are also drawn between changing biochemistry and increasing physiological activity. This book is organized into nine chapters and begins with an overview of biochemical, morphological, and functional changes in the developing brain, as well as the underlying molecular basis of nerve differentiation and growth of the developing brain. An account of the concept of the cell cycle and its control is also given. The reader is methodically introduced to the properties of the developing retina and its functional biochemistry, with specific reference to the cyclic nucleotides; the use of selective lesioning to delineate GABA-ergic and cholinergic tracts as well as the catecholamine pathways; and cerebral blood flow alteration in concert with mental activity. The remaining chapters explore regions of the brain with altered glucose utilization in response to changes in local functional activity; the physiologically important factors regulating the supply of oxygen and glucose and the relation of metabolic rate to the metabolic state of the brain; and varying aspects of behavioral neurochemistry. This book is intended for chemists and biologists as well as students of biochemistry.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1 Biochemical, morphological and functional changes in the developing brain

    I. Introduction

    A. "The growth spurt"

    B. The developing brain


    Chapter 2 Regulation of ribonucleic acid metabolism in the developing brain

    I. Introduction

    II. Genera l scheme of the synthesis of messenger RNA and ribosomal RNA in animals

    III. Developmental changes in the metabolism of high molecular weight RNA in rat forebrain

    A. Nucleocytoplasmic relationships: synthesis and transport of RNA

    B. Processing of ribosomal RNA

    C. Characterization of brain polyadenylated RNA

    D. Progressive decrease in the synthesis of poly deny lated RNA

    E. Molecular weight distribution of polyadenylated RNA

    F. Content of poly (A)

    G. Interactions of ribosomal subunits and of mRNA on polyribosomes

    IV. Summary of changes in the nucleocytoplasmic relationship of high molecular RNA during development of rat forebrain

    V. The effects of amino acid imbalance on polyribosomes during the vulnerable period of their development

    VI. Concluding remarks including an hypothesis for the regulation of mRNA synthesis



    Chapter 3 Metabolic influences on cell proliferation in the brain

    I. Introduction

    II. Brief outline of the histogenesis and morphogenesis of the vertebrate nervous system

    A. Early development

    B. Primary germinal sites

    C. Secondary germinal sites

    III. Influence of metabolic factors on cell proliferation

    A. Thyroid deficiency

    B. Effect of excess of thyroid hormone during infancy

    C. Effect of growth hormone

    D. Undernutrition

    IV. Drugs and cell proliferation in the brain

    A. Effect of reserpine

    B. Cyclic nucleotides, drugs affecting neurohumor receptors and cell proliferation


    Chapter 4 Cyclic nucleotides and neuronal function: cyclic-GMP-dependent photoreceptor degeneration in inherited retinal diseases

    I. Introduction

    II. Cyclic nucleotides in the central nervous system (CNS)

    A. Cyclic AMP

    B. Cyclic GMP

    C. Yin-Yang hypothesis

    III. Cyclic nucleotides and photoreceptor degeneration in the retina of C3H mice

    IV. Cyclic nucleotide metabolism and photoreceptor degeneration in the retina of RCS rats

    V. Cyclic AMP metabolism in the inner layers of the retina

    VI. Cyclic nucleotides and neurological disorders



    Chapter 5 Neurotransmitter-related pathways: the structure and function of central monoamine neurones

    I. Introduction

    II. Monoamine pathways: histochemical techniques

    III. Catecholamine-containing neurones

    A. The dopamine systems

    B. The noradrenaline systems

    C. Adrenaline systems

    IV. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-containing neurones

    V. Monoamine systems in human brain

    VI. The ontogeny of monoamine systems

    VII. Functions of monoamine neurones

    A. Catecholamine systems

    B. Serotonergic systems

    VIII. Functions of monoamine neurones at the cellular level

    IX. Summary


    Chapter 6 Physiological aspects of brain energy metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods for blood flow and metabolism

    A. Blood flow and oxygen consumption

    B. Glucose consumption

    C. High energy phosphate utilization

    D. Fixation of tissue for metabolite analyses

    E. Species differences

    III. General coupling of function, metabolism and blood flow in neuronal systems

    IV. Conditions with a primary decrease in functional activity

    A. Barbiturate anesthesia

    B. Hypothermia

    V. Conditions with a primary increase in functional activity

    A. Epileptic seizures

    B. Hyperthermia

    C. Amphetamine intoxication

    D. Anxiety and stress

    VI. Conditions with a primary decrease in oxygen or glucose supply

    A. Hypoxia

    B. Hypoglycemia

    VII. Coupling mechanisms

    A. Coupling or functional activity and metabolic rate

    B. Coupling of metabolism and blood flow

    C. Relationship between metabolic rate and metabolic state



    Chapter 7 The physiology of the neurohypophysial system and its relation to memory processes

    I. Introduction

    A. Synthesis, storage and release of vasopressin

    B. Structure and phylogeny of vasopressin and vasopressin-like peptides

    II. Peripheral actions of vasopressin

    A. Physiological effects of vasopressin

    B. Mode of action of vasopressin

    C. Regulation of the secretion of vasopressin

    III. Adenohypophysiotropic actions of vasopressin

    IV. Central actions of vasopressin; its role in memory processes

    A. Vasopressin, vasopressin analogues and avoidance and approach behavior of intact rats

    B. Behavioral profile of rats which lack vasopressin due to a genetic failure

    C. CNS site of action of vasopressin in relation to avoidance behavior

    D. The role of the cerebrospinal fluid as a route of transport for the behavioral effect of vasopressin

    E. Intraventricular administration of vasopressin antiserum inhibits retention of passive avoidance behavior

    V. Concluding remarks


    Chapter 8 Experience, learning and brain metabolism

    I. Specificity and plasticity : learning and memory

    II. Behavioral methods and problems

    III. Biochemical methods and problems

    IV. Correlation studies

    A. Background

    B. Correlates of broad sense plasticity

    C. Correlates of learning

    V. Pharmacological studies

    A. Background

    B. Inhibition of RNA synthesis

    C. Inhibition of protein synthesis

    D. Other inhibitory effects

    VI. Conclusions



    Chapter 9 The biochemistry of sleep

    I. Introduction

    II. The sleep states

    III. Possible functions of sleep

    IV. Sleep-inducing factors

    V. Intermediary metabolism

    VI. Macromolecules

    A. The phosphoprotein story

    B. Proteins

    C. Cytochemical analyses

    D. RNA

    VII. Conclusions



    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 360
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323154253

About the Editor

A.N. Davison

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