Biochemical Basis of Medicine - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780723607229, 9781483193496

Biochemical Basis of Medicine

1st Edition

Authors: Eric D. Wills
eBook ISBN: 9781483193496
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 25th April 1985
Page Count: 654
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Biochemical Basis of Medicine discusses academic biochemistry and the applications of biochemistry in medicine. This book deals with the biochemistry of the subcellular organelles, the biochemistry of the body , and of the specialized metabolism occurring in many body tissues. This text also discusses the various applications of biochemistry as regards environmental hazards, as well as in the diagnosis of illnesses and their treatment.
This text explains the structure of the mammalian cell, the cell's metabolism, the nutritional requirements of the whole body, and the body's metabolism. This book explains the specialized metabolisms involved in tissues such as those occurring in blood clotting, in the liver during carbohydrate metabolism, or in the kidneys during water absorption. The text explains toxicology or biochemical damage caused by excess presence of copper, mercury, or lead in the body. Chelation therapy can remove these toxic metals. This book describes the effects of alcohol on plasma liquids, the multistage concept of carcinogenesis, and the biochemical basis of diagnosis. Diagnosis and treatment include the determination of typical enzymes found in the plasma, tests for genetic defects in blood proteins, and the use of chemotherapeutic drugs.
This book is suitable for chemists, students and professors in organic chemistry, and laboratory technicians whose work is related to pharmacology.

Table of Contents

Part 1 Biochemistry of the Cell and Its Metabolism

Chapter 1 Infrastructure of the Mammalian Cell

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Methods of Studying Cell Structure and Function

1.3 Ultrastructure of Typical Cells

1.4 Biochemical Functions of the Main Subcellular Components

Chapter 2 Roles of Extracellular and Intracellular Membranes: Membrane Structure and Membrane Transport

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Membrane Composition

2.3 Membrane Structure

2.4 Membrane Functions

2.5 Membrane Transport

Chapter 3 Role of Subcellular Organelles: Lysosomes

3.1 Origin of Lysosomal Enzymes

3.2 The Nature of the Lysosomal Enzymes

3.3 Investigational Methods and Properties of Lysosomal Enzymes

3.4 The Life Cycle of the Lysosome

3.5 Functions of Lysosomes in the Tissues

3.6 Lysosomes in Pathological Conditions

Chapter 4 Role of Subcellular Organelles: Peroxisomes

4.1 Historical and Background

4.2 Structure of the Peroxisome

4.3 Enzyme Complement of the Peroxisomes

4.4 Biological Functions of Peroxisomes

4.5 Evolutionary History of Peroxisomes and Its Significance

Chapter 5 Role of Subcellular Organelles: Metabolism in the Cytosol

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Preparation of the Cytosol

5.3 Composition of the Cytosol

5.4 Functions of the Cytosol

Chapter 6 Role of Subcellular Organelles: Mitochondria and Energy Conservation

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Mitochondria in Typical Cells

6.3 Mitochondrial Structure

6.4 Composition of the Mitochondria

6.5 Functions of the Mitochondria

6.6 Relation of Mitochondrial Structure to Enzyme Activity and Function

6.7 Replication of Mitochondria

Chapter 7 Role of Subcellular Organelles: Inter-Relationships of the Mitochondria and Cytosol

7.1 Membranes of the Mitochondria

7.2 Mitochondrial Transport Systems

7.3 Classification of Carrier Types

7.4 Classification of Carriers

7.5 Mode of Action of Typical Carriers

7.6 Roles of Carrier Systems in Metabolism

Chapter 8 Role of Subcellular Organelles: The Nucleus

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Structure of the Nucleus

8.3 Metabolism in the Nucleus

Chapter 9 Role of Subcellular Organelles: The Endoplasmic Reticulum

9.1 Nature of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

9.2 Relationship of the Endoplasmic Reticulum to Other Cellular Organelles

9.3 Separation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum By Ultracentrifugation—The 'Microsomes' or 'Microsomal Fraction'

9.4 Structure and Composition of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

9.5 Functions of the Smooth Membranes of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

9.6 Functions of the Rough Membranes of the Endoplasmic Reticulum—The Ribosomes

Part 2 Whole Body Metabolism

Chapter 10 Nutrition: General Aspects

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Components of an Adequate Diet

10.3 Causes of Malnutrition

10.4 Nutritional Methodology

10.5 Nutritional Problems in Modern Society

Chapter 11 Nutrition: Energy Requirements and the Supply of Energy by Oxidation of Foodstuffs

11.1 Energy Units

11.2 Energy Supply and Utilization

11.3 Basal Metabolism

11.4 Energy for Work Activity

11.5 Energy Supply from Foodstuffs

Chapter 12 Nutrition: Proteins in the Diet

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Protein Turnover

12.3 Consequences of Removal of Protein from the Diet

12.4 Protein in Foodstuffs

12.5 Daily Protein Requirements

12.6 Protein Quality: First and Second Class Proteins and Essential Amino Acids

12.7 Concept of 'Biological Value' and 'Chemical Score'

12.8 Simulated Meat Foods

12.9 Consequence of Large Intakes of Protein

12.10 Nitrogen Balance

Chapter 13 Nutrition: Dietary Fats

13.1 Introduction: Why Eat Fats?

13.2 Essential Fatty Acids

13.3 Human Response to Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency

13.4 Chain Elongation and Functions of Essential Fatty Acids

13.5 Diet and Heart Disease

13.6 Mode of Action of Polyunsaturated Fats in Reducing the Concentration of the Plasma Cholesterol

13.7 Value of Dietary Changes in the Prevention of Heart Disease

Chapter 14 Nutrition: Vitamins

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Classification of the Vitamins

14.3 Vitamin Synthesis by Intestinal Bacteria

14.4 Storage of Vitamins

14.5 The Water-Soluble Vitamins: the B Groups of Vitamins and Vitamin C

14.6 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Chapter 15 Nutrition: Inorganic Constituents of the Diet

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Metals Found in the Human Body

15.3 Factors Affecting Metal Requirements

15.4 Dietary Requirements for Metals

15.5 Anions in the Diet

Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption of Foodstuffs

16.1 Foods Digested and Absorbed in Man

16.2 Biochemical Changes in Ingested Foods and the Role of Digestive Organs

16.3 Enzymic Processes Involved in Digestion

16.4 The Digestive Secretions

16.5 Control of Digestive Secretions: The Gastrointestinal Hormones

16.6 Methods of Studying Absorption from the Intestine

16.7 Absorption Mechanisms

16.8 Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption

16.9 Protein Digestion and Absorption

16.10 Fat Digestion and Absorption

16.11 Dietary Fiber

16.12 Bacteria Flora in the Gastrointestinal Tract

16.13 Malabsorption Syndromes

Chapter 17 Hormones: A Summary of Their Structures and Functions

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Role of the Second Messenger: Cyclic AMP

17.3 Structural Relationships of the Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland

17.4 the Hypothalamus—Anterior Pituitary—Target Organ Relationships

17.5 Hormones of the Hypothalamus

17.6 Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)

17.7 Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)

17.8 Hormones of the Pancreas

17.9 Hormones of the Thyroid

17.10 The Adrenals - the Adrenal Medulla

17.11 The Adrenal Cortex

17.12 Control of Metabolism by Hormones

Chapter 18 Plasma Glucose and Its Regulation

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Maintenance of Glucose Concentration During Fasting Conditions

18.3 Insulin Release in the Fed Condition

18.4 Tissue Response to Increased Insulin and Glucose Plasma Concentration

18.5 The Role of Glucagon

18.6 Circulating Glucose Under Stress Conditions

Chapter 19 Plasma Lipids and Their Regulation

19.1 Classification of Plasma Lipids

19.2 Lipid Transport in the Fed State

19.3 Lipid Transport in the Fasting State

19.4 Fatty Livers

19.5 Interaction and Interchange between Lipoproteins

19.6 Hyperlipoproteinaemias

Chapter 20 Plasma Amino Acids and Utilization of Amino Acids by the Tissues

20.1 How Does Man Utilize Amino Acids?

20.2 The Effect of a Protein Meal on Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations

20.3 The Utilization of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Muscle and Formation of Alanine

20.4 The Induction of Amino Acid Catabolizing Enzymes

20.5 Amino Acid Imbalance

20.6 Hormonal Regulation of Plasma Amino Acids

Chapter 21 Plasma Electrolytes 254

21.1 Electrolyte Composition of Normal Plasma

21.2 Water Compartments of the Body

21.3 The Osmolarity of the Fluid Compartment and Its Regulation

21.4 Changes in the Plasma Concentrations of Specific Electrolytes

Chapter 22 Plasma Calcium and Phosphate: Regulation By Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone

22.1 Introduction: Importance of Calcium and Phosphate in the Animal Body

22.2 Plasma Calcium

22.3 Dietary Calcium and Phosphate and Calcium Kinetics

22.4 Factors Regulating Calcium Absorption

22.5 Vitamin D

22.6 Conversion of Vitamin D3 to 1,25-Dihydroxy-Vitamin-D3

22.7 Mode of Action of 1,25-Dihydroxy-Vitamin-D3

22.8 Parathyroid Hormone

22.9 Calcitonin

22.10 Inter-Relationships of Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin in the Regulation of Plasma Calcium

Chapter 23 Starvation

23.1 Energy Storage

23.2 Phases of Starvation

23.3 Interprandial Phase

23.4 Postabsorptive Phase (Overnight Fast)

23.5 Prolonged Starvation

23.6 Clinical Aspects of Starvation—Anorexia Nervosa

Part 3 Specialized Metabolism of Tissues

Chapter 24 Blood: Erythropoiesis—Role of Folate and Vitamin B12

24.1 Normal Erythropoiesis and Site of Formation of Abnormal Cells In Conditions of Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies

24.2 Macrocytic Anaemias

24.3 Causes of Folate Deficiency

24.4 Absorption of Folate

24.5 Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

24.6 Absorption and Transport of Vitamin B12

24.7 Inter-Relationships of Folate and Vitamin B12

24.8 Mode of Action of Folic Acid

24.9 Mode of Action of Vitamin B12

24.10 Metabolic Inter-Relationships of Folate and Vitamin B12 in 'Methyltetrahydrofolate Sink' Hypothesis

24.11 Possible Relationships of Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies to Anemias

24.12 Neurological Damage in Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Chapter 25 Blood: Metabolism in the Red Blood Cell

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Role of Glycolysis and the Pentose-Shunt Pathways

25.3 Utilization of ATP in Ion Transport

25.4 Metabolic Role of 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate

25.5 The Role of Glutathione and NADPH

25.6 Genetic Abnormalities: Enzyme Deficiencies

Chapter 26 Blood: Blood Clotting

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Physiological Events in Blood Clotting

26.3 Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation

26.4 Roles of Prostaglandins, Endoperoxides, Prostacyclins and Thromboxanes in Platelet Aggregation

26.5 Summary of Biochemical Events in the Clotting Process

26.6 The Intrinsic Pathway

26.7 The Extrinsic Pathway

26.8 The Common Pathway of Blood Clotting

26.9 Interactions of Platelets and Plasma Factors in the Clotting Process

26.10 Fibrinolysis

26.11 Genetic Defects and Abnormalities of Blood Clotting

Chapter 27 Blood: Catabolism of Haemoglobin

27.1 Role of the Reticuloendothelial System

27.2 Mechanisms of Bile Pigment Formation

27.3 Bilirubin Transport

27.4 Conjugation of Bilirubin: Role of the Liver

27.5 Excretion of Bile Pigments and Bacterial Metabolism

27.6 Development of Conjugating Enzymes

27.7 Inherited Defects of Conjugation

27.8 Hyperbilirubinaemias: Causes and Consequences

Chapter 28 Blood: Iron and Iron Metabolism

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Iron Balance

28.3 Daily Iron Losses

28.4 Iron Intake and Dietary Iron

28.5 Factors Affecting Iron Absorption

28.6 the Mechanism and Control of Iron Absorption

28.7 Iron Transport: Transferrin

28.8 Iron Storage: Ferritin and Haemosiderin

28.9 Iron Kinetics

28.10 Valency of Iron During Metabolism

28.11 Iron Pathology

Chapter 29 Functions of the Liver

29.1 Structure of the Liver

29.2 Metabolic Roles of the Liver: General Considerations

29.3 Role of the Liver in Carbohydrate Metabolism

29.4 Role of the Liver in Fat Metabolism

29.5 The Role of the Liver in Amino Acid Metabolism

29.6 The Role of the Liver in Protein Synthesis

29.7 The Role of the Liver in Storage

29.8 The Role of the Liver in Providing Digestive Secretions

29.9 The Excretory Role of the Liver in Synthesizing or Processing Metabolites for Excretion

Chapter 30 the Kidney

30.1 Major Functions of the Kidney

30.2 the Structure of the Kidney

30.3 Mechanism of Action

30.4 Composition of the Urine

30.5 Major Metabolic Processes in the Kidney

30.6 Energy Provision in the Kidney

30.7 Water Absorption

30.8 Absorption of Electrolytes

30.9 Absorption of Glucose

30.10 Absorption of Amino Acids

30.11 Regulation of pH

Chapter 31 Muscle

31.1 Microscopic Structure of Muscle

31.2 The Proteins of Muscle

31.3 Assembly of Proteins Into Filaments

31.4 Models of Muscle Contraction

31.5 Energy for Contraction

31.6 The Role of Calcium in Muscle Contraction

Chapter 32 Bone and Collagen: Calcification

32.1 Bone Structure

32.2 Bone Mineral

32.3 Precipitation of Calcium Phosphate

32.4 Collagen

32.5 Biosynthesis of Collagen and the Role of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)

32.6 Calcification of Bone

32.7 Resorption of Bone

Chapter 33 The Brain and the Central Nervous System

33.1 Excitation and Conduction

33.2 Chemical Transmission and Transmitters

33.3 Amino Acid Transmitters

33.4 Myelin

33.5 Metabolism in the Brain

Part 4 Environmental Hazards—Detoxication

Chapter 34 Toxicology: General Aspects

34.1 Biochemical Damage Caused by Toxic Substances

Chapter 35 Toxic Metals

35.1 Metal Complexes and Chelates

35.2 Protein Complexes

35.3 Copper

35.4 Toxicity of Mercury

35.5 Toxicity of Lead

35.6 Radionuclides

35.7 Removal of Toxic Metals: Chelation Therapy

Chapter 36 Metabolism of Xenobiotics: Xenobiochemistry

36.1 Origins of Xenobiotics and Mode of Entry into the Body

36.2 General Properties of Xenobiotic Metabolites

36.3 Role of the Liver in Xenobiotic Metabolism

36.4 Phase I and Phase II Reactions

36.5 Conjugation Reactions of Xenobiotics

36.6 Reduction in Xenobiotic Metabolism

36.7 Hydrolysis of Xenobiotics

36.8 Oxidative Metabolism of Xenobiotics

36.9 Induction of Oxidative Xenobiotic Metabolism

Chapter 37 Alcohol: Effects On Metabolism

37.1 Metabolism of Ethanol

37.2 Hypoglycaemic Effects of Alcohol

37.3 Effects of Alcohol on Plasma Lipids

Chapter 38 Chemical Carcinogenesis

38.1 Introduction: What is Cancer?

38.2 Cancer-Causing Agents

38.3 Chemical Nature of Carcinogens—Their Occurrence in the Environment and Their Origins

38.4 How Do Carcinogens Gain Access to the Body?

38.5 Methods of Testing for Carcinogens

38.6 Factors Affecting the Carcinogenicity of Chemicals

38.7 Multistage Concept of Carcinogenesis

38.8 Metabolism of Carcinogens

38.9 Formation of Electrophilic Reagents

38.10 Site of DNA Attack

38.11 Induction of Enzyme Systems Involved in Oxidative Metabolism of Carcinogens

Part 5 Biochemical Basis of Diagnosis—Disease and Its Treatment

Chapter 39 Biochemical Diagnosis

39.1 Principles of Methods Used

39.2 Typical Enzymes Determined in Plasma

39.3 Distribution of Enzymes in Tissues and Serum Patterns

39.4 Isoenzymes

39.5 Examples of the Use of Measurements of Serum Enzyme in Diagnosis

Chapter 40 An Example of Metabolic Disturbance: Obesity

40.1 Introduction

40.2 Measurement of Obesity

40.3 Relation of Water Loss to Obesity

40.4 The Fundamental Causes of Obesity

40.5 Regulation of Food Intake

40.6 The Adipocytes in Obesity

40.7 The Biochemical Changes Observed in Obesity

40.8 the Role of Thermogenesis in Obesity

Chapter 41 Biochemical Genetics: Inborn Errors of Metabolism

41.1 Introduction

41.2 General Defects in Metabolic Processes

41.3 Clinical Manifestations of Metabolic Errors

41.4 Therapeutics

41.5 Typical Metabolic Disorders

41.6 Genetic Defects of Blood Proteins

41.7 Carbohydrate Metabolism

41.8 Defects of Amino Acid Metabolism

41.9 Lipid Metabolism

41.10 Purine/Pyrimidine Metabolism

Chapter 42 Immunology

42.1 Introduction

42.2 Antigens and Antibodies

42.3 Antibody Structure: The Immunoglobulins

42.4 Antibody Synthesis: Roles of Macrophages and Lymphocytes

42.5 Control of Antibody Synthesis: Antibody Diversity

42.6 Complement

42.7 Immunity to Infection

42.8 Allergy, Autoimmune Diseases and Transplantation

Chapter 43 Principles of Chemotherapy

43.1 Historical Background

43.2 Origins of New Drugs

43.3 Why are Chemotherapeutic Drugs Effective?

43.4 Relation of Chemical Structure to Chemotherapeutic Activity

43.5 Summary of Mode of Action of Chemotherapeutic Drugs

43.6 Problems in Cancer Therapy—Multiple Drug Therapy and Effect of Drugs On Cell Cycle


Appendix 1 Commonly Occurring Mono- and Disaccharides

Appendix 2 Polysaccharides—Starch and Glycogen

Appendix 3 Mucopolysaccharides—Proteoglycans

Appendix 4 Naturally Occurring Α-Amino Acids

Appendix 5 Lipid Chemistry and Classification

Appendix 6 Phospholipids

Appendix 7 Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Metabolism

Appendix 8 Structure of the Steroids and Major Inter-Relationships

Appendix 9 Purine and Pyrimidine Bases

Appendix 10 Nucleosides—Nucleotides

Appendix 11 Nucleic Acid Structure

Appendix 12 Classification and Numbering of Enzymes

Appendix 13a Enzyme Kinetics and Enzyme Inhibition

Appendix 13b Example of the Mechanism of Action of an Enzyme

Appendix 14 Glycolysis—Outline of Stages

Appendix 15 Glycolysis

Appendix 16 Pentose Phosphate Pathway—Outline of Stages

Appendix 17 Citric Acid Cycle—ATP Formation

Appendix 18 Citric Acid Cycle—Structures of Intermediates

Appendix 19 Citric Acid Cycle—Links with Amino Acid Metabolism

Appendix 20 ß-Oxidation of Fatty Acids

Appendix 21 The Electron Transport Chain

Appendix 22 Steroid Synthesis: Biosynthesis of Cholesterol

Appendix 23 Purine Metabolism

Appendix 24 Summary of Amino Acid Metabolism

Appendix 25 Ornithine Cycle—Synthesis of Urea

Appendix 26 Synthesis of DNA

Appendix 27 Replication of DNA: Formation of Okazaki Fragments

Appendix 28 Metabolic Compartmentation of Protein Synthesis

Appendix 29 The Genetic Code

Appendix 30 The Genetic Code—Relationships of Amino Acid Structure to Coding Symbol

Appendix 31 Transfer RNAs

Appendix 32 Protein Synthesis

Further Reading



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Eric D. Wills

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