Biochemical Basis of Medicine

Biochemical Basis of Medicine

1st Edition - April 25, 1985

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  • Author: Eric D. Wills
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483193496

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Description

Biochemical Basis of Medicine discusses academic biochemistry and the applications of biochemistry in medicine. This book deals with the biochemistry of the subcellular organelles, the biochemistry of the body , and of the specialized metabolism occurring in many body tissues. This text also discusses the various applications of biochemistry as regards environmental hazards, as well as in the diagnosis of illnesses and their treatment. This text explains the structure of the mammalian cell, the cell's metabolism, the nutritional requirements of the whole body, and the body's metabolism. This book explains the specialized metabolisms involved in tissues such as those occurring in blood clotting, in the liver during carbohydrate metabolism, or in the kidneys during water absorption. The text explains toxicology or biochemical damage caused by excess presence of copper, mercury, or lead in the body. Chelation therapy can remove these toxic metals. This book describes the effects of alcohol on plasma liquids, the multistage concept of carcinogenesis, and the biochemical basis of diagnosis. Diagnosis and treatment include the determination of typical enzymes found in the plasma, tests for genetic defects in blood proteins, and the use of chemotherapeutic drugs. This book is suitable for chemists, students and professors in organic chemistry, and laboratory technicians whose work is related to pharmacology.

Table of Contents


  • Part 1 Biochemistry of the Cell and Its Metabolism

    Chapter 1 Infrastructure of the Mammalian Cell

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Methods of Studying Cell Structure and Function

    1.3 Ultrastructure of Typical Cells

    1.4 Biochemical Functions of the Main Subcellular Components

    Chapter 2 Roles of Extracellular and Intracellular Membranes: Membrane Structure and Membrane Transport

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Membrane Composition

    2.3 Membrane Structure

    2.4 Membrane Functions

    2.5 Membrane Transport

    Chapter 3 Role of Subcellular Organelles: Lysosomes

    3.1 Origin of Lysosomal Enzymes

    3.2 The Nature of the Lysosomal Enzymes

    3.3 Investigational Methods and Properties of Lysosomal Enzymes

    3.4 The Life Cycle of the Lysosome

    3.5 Functions of Lysosomes in the Tissues

    3.6 Lysosomes in Pathological Conditions

    Chapter 4 Role of Subcellular Organelles: Peroxisomes

    4.1 Historical and Background

    4.2 Structure of the Peroxisome

    4.3 Enzyme Complement of the Peroxisomes

    4.4 Biological Functions of Peroxisomes

    4.5 Evolutionary History of Peroxisomes and Its Significance

    Chapter 5 Role of Subcellular Organelles: Metabolism in the Cytosol

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Preparation of the Cytosol

    5.3 Composition of the Cytosol

    5.4 Functions of the Cytosol

    Chapter 6 Role of Subcellular Organelles: Mitochondria and Energy Conservation

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Mitochondria in Typical Cells

    6.3 Mitochondrial Structure

    6.4 Composition of the Mitochondria

    6.5 Functions of the Mitochondria

    6.6 Relation of Mitochondrial Structure to Enzyme Activity and Function

    6.7 Replication of Mitochondria

    Chapter 7 Role of Subcellular Organelles: Inter-Relationships of the Mitochondria and Cytosol

    7.1 Membranes of the Mitochondria

    7.2 Mitochondrial Transport Systems

    7.3 Classification of Carrier Types

    7.4 Classification of Carriers

    7.5 Mode of Action of Typical Carriers

    7.6 Roles of Carrier Systems in Metabolism

    Chapter 8 Role of Subcellular Organelles: The Nucleus

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Structure of the Nucleus

    8.3 Metabolism in the Nucleus

    Chapter 9 Role of Subcellular Organelles: The Endoplasmic Reticulum

    9.1 Nature of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    9.2 Relationship of the Endoplasmic Reticulum to Other Cellular Organelles

    9.3 Separation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum By Ultracentrifugation—The 'Microsomes' or 'Microsomal Fraction'

    9.4 Structure and Composition of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    9.5 Functions of the Smooth Membranes of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    9.6 Functions of the Rough Membranes of the Endoplasmic Reticulum—The Ribosomes

    Part 2 Whole Body Metabolism

    Chapter 10 Nutrition: General Aspects

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Components of an Adequate Diet

    10.3 Causes of Malnutrition

    10.4 Nutritional Methodology

    10.5 Nutritional Problems in Modern Society

    Chapter 11 Nutrition: Energy Requirements and the Supply of Energy by Oxidation of Foodstuffs

    11.1 Energy Units

    11.2 Energy Supply and Utilization

    11.3 Basal Metabolism

    11.4 Energy for Work Activity

    11.5 Energy Supply from Foodstuffs

    Chapter 12 Nutrition: Proteins in the Diet

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Protein Turnover

    12.3 Consequences of Removal of Protein from the Diet

    12.4 Protein in Foodstuffs

    12.5 Daily Protein Requirements

    12.6 Protein Quality: First and Second Class Proteins and Essential Amino Acids

    12.7 Concept of 'Biological Value' and 'Chemical Score'

    12.8 Simulated Meat Foods

    12.9 Consequence of Large Intakes of Protein

    12.10 Nitrogen Balance

    Chapter 13 Nutrition: Dietary Fats

    13.1 Introduction: Why Eat Fats?

    13.2 Essential Fatty Acids

    13.3 Human Response to Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency

    13.4 Chain Elongation and Functions of Essential Fatty Acids

    13.5 Diet and Heart Disease

    13.6 Mode of Action of Polyunsaturated Fats in Reducing the Concentration of the Plasma Cholesterol

    13.7 Value of Dietary Changes in the Prevention of Heart Disease

    Chapter 14 Nutrition: Vitamins

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Classification of the Vitamins

    14.3 Vitamin Synthesis by Intestinal Bacteria

    14.4 Storage of Vitamins

    14.5 The Water-Soluble Vitamins: the B Groups of Vitamins and Vitamin C

    14.6 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

    Chapter 15 Nutrition: Inorganic Constituents of the Diet

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Metals Found in the Human Body

    15.3 Factors Affecting Metal Requirements

    15.4 Dietary Requirements for Metals

    15.5 Anions in the Diet

    Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption of Foodstuffs

    16.1 Foods Digested and Absorbed in Man

    16.2 Biochemical Changes in Ingested Foods and the Role of Digestive Organs

    16.3 Enzymic Processes Involved in Digestion

    16.4 The Digestive Secretions

    16.5 Control of Digestive Secretions: The Gastrointestinal Hormones

    16.6 Methods of Studying Absorption from the Intestine

    16.7 Absorption Mechanisms

    16.8 Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption

    16.9 Protein Digestion and Absorption

    16.10 Fat Digestion and Absorption

    16.11 Dietary Fiber

    16.12 Bacteria Flora in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    16.13 Malabsorption Syndromes

    Chapter 17 Hormones: A Summary of Their Structures and Functions

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 The Role of the Second Messenger: Cyclic AMP

    17.3 Structural Relationships of the Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland

    17.4 the Hypothalamus—Anterior Pituitary—Target Organ Relationships

    17.5 Hormones of the Hypothalamus

    17.6 Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)

    17.7 Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)

    17.8 Hormones of the Pancreas

    17.9 Hormones of the Thyroid

    17.10 The Adrenals - the Adrenal Medulla

    17.11 The Adrenal Cortex

    17.12 Control of Metabolism by Hormones

    Chapter 18 Plasma Glucose and Its Regulation

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Maintenance of Glucose Concentration During Fasting Conditions

    18.3 Insulin Release in the Fed Condition

    18.4 Tissue Response to Increased Insulin and Glucose Plasma Concentration

    18.5 The Role of Glucagon

    18.6 Circulating Glucose Under Stress Conditions

    Chapter 19 Plasma Lipids and Their Regulation

    19.1 Classification of Plasma Lipids

    19.2 Lipid Transport in the Fed State

    19.3 Lipid Transport in the Fasting State

    19.4 Fatty Livers

    19.5 Interaction and Interchange between Lipoproteins

    19.6 Hyperlipoproteinaemias

    Chapter 20 Plasma Amino Acids and Utilization of Amino Acids by the Tissues

    20.1 How Does Man Utilize Amino Acids?

    20.2 The Effect of a Protein Meal on Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations

    20.3 The Utilization of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Muscle and Formation of Alanine

    20.4 The Induction of Amino Acid Catabolizing Enzymes

    20.5 Amino Acid Imbalance

    20.6 Hormonal Regulation of Plasma Amino Acids

    Chapter 21 Plasma Electrolytes 254

    21.1 Electrolyte Composition of Normal Plasma

    21.2 Water Compartments of the Body

    21.3 The Osmolarity of the Fluid Compartment and Its Regulation

    21.4 Changes in the Plasma Concentrations of Specific Electrolytes

    Chapter 22 Plasma Calcium and Phosphate: Regulation By Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone

    22.1 Introduction: Importance of Calcium and Phosphate in the Animal Body

    22.2 Plasma Calcium

    22.3 Dietary Calcium and Phosphate and Calcium Kinetics

    22.4 Factors Regulating Calcium Absorption

    22.5 Vitamin D

    22.6 Conversion of Vitamin D3 to 1,25-Dihydroxy-Vitamin-D3

    22.7 Mode of Action of 1,25-Dihydroxy-Vitamin-D3

    22.8 Parathyroid Hormone

    22.9 Calcitonin

    22.10 Inter-Relationships of Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin in the Regulation of Plasma Calcium

    Chapter 23 Starvation

    23.1 Energy Storage

    23.2 Phases of Starvation

    23.3 Interprandial Phase

    23.4 Postabsorptive Phase (Overnight Fast)

    23.5 Prolonged Starvation

    23.6 Clinical Aspects of Starvation—Anorexia Nervosa

    Part 3 Specialized Metabolism of Tissues

    Chapter 24 Blood: Erythropoiesis—Role of Folate and Vitamin B12

    24.1 Normal Erythropoiesis and Site of Formation of Abnormal Cells In Conditions of Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies

    24.2 Macrocytic Anaemias

    24.3 Causes of Folate Deficiency

    24.4 Absorption of Folate

    24.5 Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    24.6 Absorption and Transport of Vitamin B12

    24.7 Inter-Relationships of Folate and Vitamin B12

    24.8 Mode of Action of Folic Acid

    24.9 Mode of Action of Vitamin B12

    24.10 Metabolic Inter-Relationships of Folate and Vitamin B12 in 'Methyltetrahydrofolate Sink' Hypothesis

    24.11 Possible Relationships of Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies to Anemias

    24.12 Neurological Damage in Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Chapter 25 Blood: Metabolism in the Red Blood Cell

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Role of Glycolysis and the Pentose-Shunt Pathways

    25.3 Utilization of ATP in Ion Transport

    25.4 Metabolic Role of 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate

    25.5 The Role of Glutathione and NADPH

    25.6 Genetic Abnormalities: Enzyme Deficiencies

    Chapter 26 Blood: Blood Clotting

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Physiological Events in Blood Clotting

    26.3 Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation

    26.4 Roles of Prostaglandins, Endoperoxides, Prostacyclins and Thromboxanes in Platelet Aggregation

    26.5 Summary of Biochemical Events in the Clotting Process

    26.6 The Intrinsic Pathway

    26.7 The Extrinsic Pathway

    26.8 The Common Pathway of Blood Clotting

    26.9 Interactions of Platelets and Plasma Factors in the Clotting Process

    26.10 Fibrinolysis

    26.11 Genetic Defects and Abnormalities of Blood Clotting

    Chapter 27 Blood: Catabolism of Haemoglobin

    27.1 Role of the Reticuloendothelial System

    27.2 Mechanisms of Bile Pigment Formation

    27.3 Bilirubin Transport

    27.4 Conjugation of Bilirubin: Role of the Liver

    27.5 Excretion of Bile Pigments and Bacterial Metabolism

    27.6 Development of Conjugating Enzymes

    27.7 Inherited Defects of Conjugation

    27.8 Hyperbilirubinaemias: Causes and Consequences

    Chapter 28 Blood: Iron and Iron Metabolism

    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Iron Balance

    28.3 Daily Iron Losses

    28.4 Iron Intake and Dietary Iron

    28.5 Factors Affecting Iron Absorption

    28.6 the Mechanism and Control of Iron Absorption

    28.7 Iron Transport: Transferrin

    28.8 Iron Storage: Ferritin and Haemosiderin

    28.9 Iron Kinetics

    28.10 Valency of Iron During Metabolism

    28.11 Iron Pathology

    Chapter 29 Functions of the Liver

    29.1 Structure of the Liver

    29.2 Metabolic Roles of the Liver: General Considerations

    29.3 Role of the Liver in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    29.4 Role of the Liver in Fat Metabolism

    29.5 The Role of the Liver in Amino Acid Metabolism

    29.6 The Role of the Liver in Protein Synthesis

    29.7 The Role of the Liver in Storage

    29.8 The Role of the Liver in Providing Digestive Secretions

    29.9 The Excretory Role of the Liver in Synthesizing or Processing Metabolites for Excretion

    Chapter 30 the Kidney

    30.1 Major Functions of the Kidney

    30.2 the Structure of the Kidney

    30.3 Mechanism of Action

    30.4 Composition of the Urine

    30.5 Major Metabolic Processes in the Kidney

    30.6 Energy Provision in the Kidney

    30.7 Water Absorption

    30.8 Absorption of Electrolytes

    30.9 Absorption of Glucose

    30.10 Absorption of Amino Acids

    30.11 Regulation of pH

    Chapter 31 Muscle

    31.1 Microscopic Structure of Muscle

    31.2 The Proteins of Muscle

    31.3 Assembly of Proteins Into Filaments

    31.4 Models of Muscle Contraction

    31.5 Energy for Contraction

    31.6 The Role of Calcium in Muscle Contraction

    Chapter 32 Bone and Collagen: Calcification

    32.1 Bone Structure

    32.2 Bone Mineral

    32.3 Precipitation of Calcium Phosphate

    32.4 Collagen

    32.5 Biosynthesis of Collagen and the Role of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)

    32.6 Calcification of Bone

    32.7 Resorption of Bone

    Chapter 33 The Brain and the Central Nervous System

    33.1 Excitation and Conduction

    33.2 Chemical Transmission and Transmitters

    33.3 Amino Acid Transmitters

    33.4 Myelin

    33.5 Metabolism in the Brain

    Part 4 Environmental Hazards—Detoxication

    Chapter 34 Toxicology: General Aspects

    34.1 Biochemical Damage Caused by Toxic Substances

    Chapter 35 Toxic Metals

    35.1 Metal Complexes and Chelates

    35.2 Protein Complexes

    35.3 Copper

    35.4 Toxicity of Mercury

    35.5 Toxicity of Lead

    35.6 Radionuclides

    35.7 Removal of Toxic Metals: Chelation Therapy

    Chapter 36 Metabolism of Xenobiotics: Xenobiochemistry

    36.1 Origins of Xenobiotics and Mode of Entry into the Body

    36.2 General Properties of Xenobiotic Metabolites

    36.3 Role of the Liver in Xenobiotic Metabolism

    36.4 Phase I and Phase II Reactions

    36.5 Conjugation Reactions of Xenobiotics

    36.6 Reduction in Xenobiotic Metabolism

    36.7 Hydrolysis of Xenobiotics

    36.8 Oxidative Metabolism of Xenobiotics

    36.9 Induction of Oxidative Xenobiotic Metabolism

    Chapter 37 Alcohol: Effects On Metabolism

    37.1 Metabolism of Ethanol

    37.2 Hypoglycaemic Effects of Alcohol

    37.3 Effects of Alcohol on Plasma Lipids

    Chapter 38 Chemical Carcinogenesis

    38.1 Introduction: What is Cancer?

    38.2 Cancer-Causing Agents

    38.3 Chemical Nature of Carcinogens—Their Occurrence in the Environment and Their Origins

    38.4 How Do Carcinogens Gain Access to the Body?

    38.5 Methods of Testing for Carcinogens

    38.6 Factors Affecting the Carcinogenicity of Chemicals

    38.7 Multistage Concept of Carcinogenesis

    38.8 Metabolism of Carcinogens

    38.9 Formation of Electrophilic Reagents

    38.10 Site of DNA Attack

    38.11 Induction of Enzyme Systems Involved in Oxidative Metabolism of Carcinogens

    Part 5 Biochemical Basis of Diagnosis—Disease and Its Treatment

    Chapter 39 Biochemical Diagnosis

    39.1 Principles of Methods Used

    39.2 Typical Enzymes Determined in Plasma

    39.3 Distribution of Enzymes in Tissues and Serum Patterns

    39.4 Isoenzymes

    39.5 Examples of the Use of Measurements of Serum Enzyme in Diagnosis

    Chapter 40 An Example of Metabolic Disturbance: Obesity

    40.1 Introduction

    40.2 Measurement of Obesity

    40.3 Relation of Water Loss to Obesity

    40.4 The Fundamental Causes of Obesity

    40.5 Regulation of Food Intake

    40.6 The Adipocytes in Obesity

    40.7 The Biochemical Changes Observed in Obesity

    40.8 the Role of Thermogenesis in Obesity

    Chapter 41 Biochemical Genetics: Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    41.1 Introduction

    41.2 General Defects in Metabolic Processes

    41.3 Clinical Manifestations of Metabolic Errors

    41.4 Therapeutics

    41.5 Typical Metabolic Disorders

    41.6 Genetic Defects of Blood Proteins

    41.7 Carbohydrate Metabolism

    41.8 Defects of Amino Acid Metabolism

    41.9 Lipid Metabolism

    41.10 Purine/Pyrimidine Metabolism

    Chapter 42 Immunology

    42.1 Introduction

    42.2 Antigens and Antibodies

    42.3 Antibody Structure: The Immunoglobulins

    42.4 Antibody Synthesis: Roles of Macrophages and Lymphocytes

    42.5 Control of Antibody Synthesis: Antibody Diversity

    42.6 Complement

    42.7 Immunity to Infection

    42.8 Allergy, Autoimmune Diseases and Transplantation

    Chapter 43 Principles of Chemotherapy

    43.1 Historical Background

    43.2 Origins of New Drugs

    43.3 Why are Chemotherapeutic Drugs Effective?

    43.4 Relation of Chemical Structure to Chemotherapeutic Activity

    43.5 Summary of Mode of Action of Chemotherapeutic Drugs

    43.6 Problems in Cancer Therapy—Multiple Drug Therapy and Effect of Drugs On Cell Cycle

    Appendices

    Appendix 1 Commonly Occurring Mono- and Disaccharides

    Appendix 2 Polysaccharides—Starch and Glycogen

    Appendix 3 Mucopolysaccharides—Proteoglycans

    Appendix 4 Naturally Occurring Α-Amino Acids

    Appendix 5 Lipid Chemistry and Classification

    Appendix 6 Phospholipids

    Appendix 7 Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Metabolism

    Appendix 8 Structure of the Steroids and Major Inter-Relationships

    Appendix 9 Purine and Pyrimidine Bases

    Appendix 10 Nucleosides—Nucleotides

    Appendix 11 Nucleic Acid Structure

    Appendix 12 Classification and Numbering of Enzymes

    Appendix 13a Enzyme Kinetics and Enzyme Inhibition

    Appendix 13b Example of the Mechanism of Action of an Enzyme

    Appendix 14 Glycolysis—Outline of Stages

    Appendix 15 Glycolysis

    Appendix 16 Pentose Phosphate Pathway—Outline of Stages

    Appendix 17 Citric Acid Cycle—ATP Formation

    Appendix 18 Citric Acid Cycle—Structures of Intermediates

    Appendix 19 Citric Acid Cycle—Links with Amino Acid Metabolism

    Appendix 20 ß-Oxidation of Fatty Acids

    Appendix 21 The Electron Transport Chain

    Appendix 22 Steroid Synthesis: Biosynthesis of Cholesterol

    Appendix 23 Purine Metabolism

    Appendix 24 Summary of Amino Acid Metabolism

    Appendix 25 Ornithine Cycle—Synthesis of Urea

    Appendix 26 Synthesis of DNA

    Appendix 27 Replication of DNA: Formation of Okazaki Fragments

    Appendix 28 Metabolic Compartmentation of Protein Synthesis

    Appendix 29 The Genetic Code

    Appendix 30 The Genetic Code—Relationships of Amino Acid Structure to Coding Symbol

    Appendix 31 Transfer RNAs

    Appendix 32 Protein Synthesis

    Further Reading

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 654
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1985
  • Published: April 25, 1985
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483193496

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Eric D. Wills

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