Biochemical Approaches to Cancer - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483200248, 9781483225272

Biochemical Approaches to Cancer

1st Edition

Authors: Eric Reid
Editors: P. Campbell K. S. Dodgson
eBook ISBN: 9781483225272
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1965
Page Count: 212
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Description

Biochemical Approaches to Cancer focuses on biochemical approaches to cancer and covers topics ranging from the nature of carcinogens and their interactions with cell constituents to tissue composition and metabolism as affected by neoplasia. The metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, and nucleic acids is also discussed, along with biochemical pharmacology.

Comprised of nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the nature of cancer, which includes basic concepts and terminology, histology, and the use of electron microscopy to study cells. The reader is then introduced to various approaches to the cancer problem; the nature of carcinogens and interactions with cell constituents; and the effect of neoplasia on tissue composition and metabolism. Subsequent chapters deal with the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The book also considers the "control mechanisms" governing enzymic activities and their role in neoplastic transformation before concluding with an analysis of the biochemical pharmacology of anti-cancer drugs.

This monograph will be useful to biochemists, oncologists, pharmacologists, research workers, and undergraduate or postgraduate students interested in the biochemistry of cancer.

Table of Contents


Preface

1 The Nature of Cancer

Basic Concepts and Terminology

Concepts Derived from Cancer Research (Oncology)

Histology

Tumors

Precancerous Tissues

Electron Microscopy

Normal Cells

Tumor and Precancerous Cells

2 Approaches to the Cancer Problem

Role of Different Disciplines

Theories of Carcinogenesis

Biochemistry and Cancer Research

Test Material

Use of Transplants

Tumors Biochemically Comparable with Tissue of Origin

Hepatomas

Control Material for Hepatomas — Precancerous Liver

Baselines for Expressing Results

Delineation of Metabolic Derangements in Cancer

Topics Worthy of Study

Whole-Animal Experiments

Experiments with Cell-Free Preparations

3 Nature of Cancinogens and Interactions with Cell Constituents

Experimental Induction of Cancer

"Mechanical" Influences

Hormonal or Dietary Imbalances

Viruses

Chemicals of Known Structure

Specificity in Target and in Structure

Molecular Properties in Relation to Carcinogenesis

Alkylation Capacity in Relation to Carcinogenesis

Metabolic Transformations of Carcinogens

Reactivity of Carcinogens Towards Tissue Constituents

Studies with Carcinogens in Vivo

Studies with Carcinogens in Vitro.

4 Tissue Composition and Metabolism as Affected by Neoplasia

The Tumor-Bearing Host

Toxohormone

Abnormalities in Host Organs

Blood and Urinary Constituents, and Relevance to Diagnosis

Metastases

Tumors and Precancerous Tissues: Areas of Study

Various Tissue Constituents (Other Than Enzymes)

Inorganic Constituents

Vitamins

Sialic Acid

Various Enzymes

Catalase

Phosphatases

Other Hydrolases

Drug Metabolism and Some Catabolic Reactions

Some Synthetic Reactions

Lipid Levels and Phospholipid Metabolism

Phospholipid Synthesis

Choline Catabolism

Cholesterol

5 Carbohydrate and Fatty Acid Metabolism

Catabolism of Carbohydrate Via Pyruvate: Early Observations

Challenges to Warburg's Views

Situation as Assessed in 1951

Catabolism of Carbohydrate Via Pyruvate: Newer Observations

Observations with Isolated Mitochondria — Integration of Metabolic Observations

Hexokinases and Glucose-6-Phosphatase

Glycogen Metabolism and Gluconeogenesis

Glycogen Catabolism

Glycogen Synthesis

Pentose-Phosphate Cycle

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

Overall Rate of the Cycle.

Levels and Metabolism of Nicotinamide-Adenine Dinucleotides

Tissue Levels

Rates of Biosynthesis and Catabolism

Re-Oxidation of the Reduced Nucleotides

"Shuttle" Systems for NADH2 Re-Oxidation

Fatty Acid Metabolism

Catabolism

Biosynthesis

6 Protein Metabolism

Protein and Amino-Acid Levels

Free Amino Acids

Proteins in Sub-Cellular Fractions

Protein Patterns

Protein Patterns in Relation to Enzymic Activity

Sulphydryl Compounds

Catabolism

Protein Catabolism

Amino-Acid Catabolism

Urea Synthesis

Amino-Acid Supply

Transaminases

Glutamine

Protein Synthesis

Whole-Animal Experiments

Experiments with Intact-Cell Preparations

Experiments with Cell-Free Preparations

7 Nucleic-Acid Metabolism

DNA and its Catabolism

Alterations in DNA Properties

Deoxyribonucleases

5'-Deoxyribonucleotides

Tissue levels

5'-Deoxyribonucleotide Metabolism

RNA and its Catabolism

RNA Levels in Sub-Cellular Fractions

Alterations in RNA Properties

Ribonucleases

Catabolism of 2'- and 3'-Ribonucleotides

5'-Ribonucleotides

Tissue Levels

5'-Ribonucleotide Metabolism

Nucleic-Acid Synthesis

Whole-Animal Experiments

Experiments with Intact-Cell Preparations

Experiments with Cell-Free Preparations

8 Control Mechanisms

Metabolic Parameters in Relation to Cancer Development

Changes with Transplantation

Enzymic Aspects of Molecular Biology in Relation to Cancer

Revised Deletion-Hypothesis

Intracellular Compartmentation

Properties of Enzyme Proteins

Enzyme-Forming Systems

Various Metabolic "Adaptations"

Genetic Aspects of Molecular Biology in Relation to Cancer

Might the Neoplastic Transformation Centre on RNA?

Might the Neoplastic Transformation Centre on DNA?

Must the Neoplastic Transformation be at a Genetic Locus?

9 Biochemical Pharmacology

Chemotherapeutic Agents

Tissue Metabolism in Relation to Drug Action

Uptake and Metabolic Transformation of Drugs

Choice of Enzymic Targets

Agents Affecting Energy Supply

Agents Affecting Nucleic-Acid Structure or Synthesis

Agents Affecting Protein Structure or Synthesis

Drug Resistance

Use of Human Tumors as Test Material

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
212
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1965
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483225272

About the Author

Eric Reid

About the Editor

P. Campbell

Pat Campbell is Director of the Implant Retrieval Laboratory and a Professor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at The University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). She is a leading expert on implant retrieval and analysis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry, The Middlesex Hospital Medical School, London, U.K.

K. S. Dodgson