Biochemical and Photosynthetic Aspects of Energy Production - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126189803, 9780323159241

Biochemical and Photosynthetic Aspects of Energy Production

1st Edition

Editors: Anthony San Pietro
eBook ISBN: 9780323159241
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1980
Page Count: 246
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Biochemical and Photosynthetic Aspects of Energy Production describes the biological processes that may serve to provide alternative energy sources. This book contains nine chapters that specifically tackle the utilization of biological and agricultural wastes, energy farming, and leaf protein.
The introductory chapters deal with the dynamics of seaweed growth, the physical properties controlling them, and the elements of algal-bacterial systems. These topics are followed by a discussion on the potential for the production of meaningful amounts of gaseous and liquid fuels, as well as selected organic chemicals from residues and biomass. The following chapters examine the fundamentals and principles of nitrogen fixation, the factors that affect the possibilities of success in energy farming projects, and the development and atmospheric consequences of oxygen and carbon dioxide cycles. The concluding chapters explore the mechanism of glycerol production in the Dunaliella alga and the energy analysis in biofuel production. Biochemists, biologists, and researchers in the fields of alternative fuels will find this book of great value.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


1 Biological and Agricultural Systems: An Overview

I. Introduction

II. Impending Liquid Fuel Problem

III. Energy Available from Photosynthesis

IV. Efficiency of Photosynthesis

V. Areas Required for Solar Power

VI. Complete Crop Utilization

VII. Energy Farming

VIII. Cellulose

IX. Waste Disposal and Algae

X. Plant Selection and Breeding

XI. Regulation of Plant Reactions and Selected End Products

XII. Controlled Environments

XIII. Nitrogen Fixation

XIV. Biocatalytic Hydrogen Production Systems

XV. Carbon Reduction

XVI. Artificial Chlorophyll Membranes

XVII. Bacteriorhodopsin Membranes

XVIII. Concluding Remarks


2 Marine Biomass Production through Seaweed Aquaculture

I. Introduction

II. Seaweed Growth

III. Impact of Advective-Convective Processes on Oceanic Culture

IV. Conclusions


3 Algal-Bacterial Systems

I. Introduction

II. Elements of Algal-Bacterial Systems

III. Conclusions


4 Fuels and Organic Chemicals via Anaerobic Fermentation of Residues and Biomass

I. Introduction

II. Perspective of Economic Impact

III. Temperature Effect

IV. New Processing Concepts

V. Fermenter Functioning

VI. Biomass Sources

VII. Summary


5 Biological Nitrogen Fixation with an Emphasis on the Legumes

I. Introduction

II. Biological Nitrogen-Fixation Systems

III. The Symbiotic Association in Legumes

IV. Asymbiotic Fixation by Rhizobia

V. The Enzymology of Nitrogen Fixation

VI. Energy Requirements for Nitrogen Fixation

VII. Increasing Biological Nitrogen Fixation


6 Energy Crops (Energy Farming)

I. Introduction

II. Why Is Efficiency Important?

III. Advantages of Energy Farming

IV. Efficiencies of Solar Energy Conversion by Plants

V. Calculated Maximum Biomass Production and Reported High Yields

VI. C-4 Metabolism and Photorespiration and Effects of CO2 Enrichment

VII. Energy Content of Biomass

VIII. Types of Energy Farms

IX. Crops Requiring Moderate Rainfall or Irrigation

X. Energy Crops in Semi-Arid and Arid Regions

XI. Ponds and Fresh-Water or Brackish-Water Bodies

XII. Marine: Giant Kelp

XIII. Biomass Residues from Agriculture and Forestry

XIV. Summary

XV. Epilogue


7 The O2/CO2 Cycle: Development and Atmospheric Consequences

I. Rise of Atmospheric Oxygen

II. Distribution of Biogenic Carbon and Oxygen

III. Stability of Atmospheric Oxygen Content

IV. Increase of Carbon Dioxide—The "Greenhouse" Effect


8 Glycerol Production in the Alga Dunaliella

I. Introduction

II. Growth of Dunaliella under Measurable and Controlled Conditions

III. Glycerol Production in Dunaliella

IV. Bioengineering Approach

V. Economic Appraisal

VI. Conclusion


9 Energy Considerations of Biofuels Production

I. Energy Analysis

II. Solar Energy

III. Fuels from Biomass

IV. Conclusion




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© Academic Press 1980
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Anthony San Pietro

Affiliations and Expertise

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.A.

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