Biochemical Actions of Hormones V12 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124528123, 9780323146340

Biochemical Actions of Hormones V12

1st Edition

Editors: Gerald Litwack
eBook ISBN: 9780323146340
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1985
Page Count: 550
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Description

Biochemical Actions of Hormones, Volume XII is a compendium of papers discussing aspects of molecular biology with regard to hormone action and to certain hormone receptors. One paper discusses the different approaches and strategies that are used in determining the amino acid sequence. The paper also describes the structural organization of polyprotein precursors such as the peptide chemistry approach or the nucleic acid approach. Another paper investigates the regulation of prolactin biosynthesis by peptide hormones as a model for peptidergic regulation of gene expression. The paper defines in detail which components of the biosynthetic machinery are being regulated by the polypeptide hormones. One paper also analyzes the molecular biology of the metallothioneins, focusing on the glucocorticoid regulation of metallothioneins genes. Experiments show that when the mouse MT-I gene is activated in lymphoid cells, or transferred to other cells, it still retains information needed in metal-regulated expression, though glucocorticoids can no longer regulate the same gene. Other papers discuss the purification and properties of the nerve growth factor receptor, and the thyrotropin receptor. Micro-biologists, biochemists, molecular biologists, cellular biologists, endocrinologists, and scientists involved in cell research will find this collection valuable.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

1. Generation of Diversity of Opioid Peptides

I. Introduction

II. Approaches and Strategies Used in Characterizing the Opioid Peptide Precursor Proteins

III. Structure of Opioid Peptide Genes

IV. Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Opioid Peptide Gene Expression

V. Regulation of POMC Gene Expression

VI. Proenkephalin Gene Regulation

VII. Translational and Posttranslational Control of Production of Opioid Peptides

References

2 Polypeptide Hormone Regulation of Prolactin Gene Transcription

I. Introduction

II. Regulation of Prolactin Synthesis by Peptide Hormones

III. Transduction Mechanisms of TRH-Stimulated Prolactin Gene Transcription

IV. The Potential Significance of Transcriptional Regulation by Peptide Hormones

References

3. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Metallothionein Gene Expression

I. Introduction

II. Regulation of the Mouse MT-I Gene by Glucocorticoids

III. Comparisons to Heavy Metal Regulation

IV. Regulation of the Mouse MT-I Gene in New Environments

V. Summary

References

4. Regulation of the Synthesis of Tyrosine Aminotransferase and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase by Glucocorticoid Hormones

I. Introduction and Historical Perspective

II. Regulation of Tyrosine Aminotransferase by Glucocorticoid Hormones

III. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase

IV. Conclusions and Perspectives

References

5. Messenger RNA Stabilization and Gene Transcription in the Estrogen Induction of Vitellogenin mRNA

I. Introduction: The Xenopus Vitellogenin System

II. Nuclear Actions of Estrogen in Vitellogenin mRNA Induction

III. Estrogen Stabilizes Cytoplasmic Vitellogenin mRNA

IV. Methods for Determination of Rates of Gene Transcription and mRNA Degradation

V. Potential Mechanisms for the Regulation of mRNA Degradation

VI. Estrogen Action in Xenopus Liver

VII. Summary

References

6. Regulation of Growth Hormone and Prolactin Gene Expression by Hormones and Calcium

I. Introduction

II. Cell Lines Currently Employed to Study Regulation of Growth Hormone and Prolactin

III. Development of a Cytoplasmic Dot Hybridization Technique for Studies of mRNA Regulation

IV. Regulation by Glucocorticoid and Thyroid Hormones of Growth Hormone Gene Expression

V. Regulation and Mediation by Calcium of Specific Gene Expression

VI. Summary

References

7. Mechanisms Involved in the Actions of Calcium-Dependent Hormones

I. Introduction

II. Changes in Cytosolic Ca2+ Induced by Calcium-Dependent Hormones

III. Mobilization of Intracellular Ca2+ by Calcium-Dependent Hormones

IV. Stimulation of Ca2+ Influx or Inhibition of Ca2+ Efflux by Calcium-Dependent Hormones

V. Role of Cytosolic Ca2+ in the Physiological Responses to Calcium-Dependent Hormones

VI. Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms of Calcium-Dependent Hormones

VII. Effects of Calcium-Dependent Hormones on Phosphoinositide Metabolism

VIII. Summary

References

8. Steroid and Polypeptide Hormone Interaction in Milk-Protein Gene Expression

I. Introduction

II. Hormonal Stimulation of Milk-Protein Synthesis in Mammary Tissue In Vitro

III. Studies in Expiants of Mammary Tissue In Vitro

IV. Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology of Protein Synthesis

V. Measurements of Casein mRNA Activity

VI. Hormone Responses of Mammary Cell Polysomes Active in Casein Synthesis

VII. Specific Transcription of Casein mRNAs

VIII. Quantitative Measurement of Hormonal Influence on Casein Gene Expression in Murine Mammary Gland In Vivo

IX. Milk-Protein Gene Expression in Mammary Tissue In Vitro

X. Dissociation of Mammogenesis and Lactogenesis in a Two-Step Culture Model

XI. Simultaneous Occurrence of Morphogenesis and Casein Gene Expression

XII. Glucocorticoid and Prolactin Interaction in Milk-Protein Gene Expression

XIII. Role of Progesterone in Casein Gene Expression

XIV. Nuclear Binding of Glucocorticoid Receptor and Milk-Protein Gene Expression

XV. Hormonal Regulation of Milk-Protein Gene Expression in Rats and Rabbits

XVI. Possible Mechanisms of Prolactin Action

XVII. Action of Insulin

XVIII. Milk-Protein cDNA Chnes and Concluding Remarks

References

9. Control of Prolactin Production by Estrogen

I. Introduction

II. Estrogen Stimulates the Growth of Prolactin-Producing Cells

III. Estrogen Affects the Morphology of Prolactin-Producing Cells

IV. Estrogen Induces Pituitary Tumors

V. Estrogen Stimuhtes Synthesis of Prolactin

VI. Estrogen Increases Prolactin Storage

VII. Estrogen Changes the Response of Prolactin Cells to Agents That Affect Prolactin Release

VIII. Rapid Effects of Estrogen

IX. Effects of Antiestrogens

X. Conclusion

References

10. Genetic and Epigenetic Bases of Glucocorticoid Resistance in Lymphoid Cell Lines

I. Introduction

II. Genetic Defects in Glucocorticoid Receptor

III. Epigenetic Control of "Lysis" Function

IV. Membrane Permeability and Dexamethasone Resistance

V. Unidentified Determinants of Glucocorticoid Sensitivity

VI. Role of Growth Factors in Glucocorticoid Sensitivity

VII. Conclusions

References

11. Estrogen and Antiestrogen Binding Sites: Relation to the Estrogen Receptor and Biological Response

I. Introduction

II. Type II Estrogen Binding Sites and an Endogenous Ligand

III. Antiestrogen Binding Sites and an Endogenous Ligand

References

12. The Mineralocorticoid Receptor

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Characteristics of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

IV. Mineralocorticoid Antagonists

V. Target Tissue Evaluation by Receptor Analyses

VI. Relationship of Steroid—Receptor Interactions to the Physiohgical Role of Aldosterone

VII. New Concepts and Unresolved Issues

References

13. Purification and Properties of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor

I. Introduction

II. NGF-Receptor Properties on Intact Cells

III. Purification of the NGF Receptor

IV. States of the NGF Receptor

V. Conclusions and Perspectives

References

14. The Thyrotropin Receptor

I. Introduction

II. Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and the Thyrotropin Receptor

III. The Thyrotropin Receptor: A Functional Complex of More Than One Membrane Component

IV. TSH Receptor Structure

V. TSH Receptor Structure and TSH-Related Growth Activity

VI. TSH Receptor Regulation of the Adenylate Cyclase Signal

VII. Thyrotropin Receptor—Mediated Signal Processes Involving Phospholipid Modulation

VIII. TSH Receptor—Mediated Growth Related to Multiple Signal Coupling Mechanisms

IX. TSH Receptors on Nonthyroid Tissue

X. Summary

References

Index

Contents of Previous Volumes

Details

No. of pages:
550
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1985
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323146340

About the Editor

Gerald Litwack

Dr. Litwack is an accomplished and prolific author and editor at Elsevier. Spanning over 25 years, he has been the editor of over 55 volumes of Vitamins and Hormones, co-author of Hormones, editor of 14 volumes of Biochemical Actions of Hormones, co-editor of Actions of Hormones on Molecular Processes, author of Human Biochemistry and Disease, and just wrapping up Human Biochemistry. He also authored Experimental Biochemistry [Wiley] and edited Receptor Purification, 2 volumes [Humana]. He is an author on over 300 journal articles and has been on the editorial boards of numerous journals, including Endocrinology, Oncology Research, Oncology Reports, Journal of Molecular Biochemistry, Chemtracts, Cancer Research, Apoptosis, and Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression.

Affiliations and Expertise

, Emeritus Professor and Chair of Basic Sciences, Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, Scranton, PA