Biochemical Actions of Hormones V12

Biochemical Actions of Hormones V12

1st Edition - January 28, 1985

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  • Editor: Gerald Litwack
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146340

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Description

Biochemical Actions of Hormones, Volume XII is a compendium of papers discussing aspects of molecular biology with regard to hormone action and to certain hormone receptors. One paper discusses the different approaches and strategies that are used in determining the amino acid sequence. The paper also describes the structural organization of polyprotein precursors such as the peptide chemistry approach or the nucleic acid approach. Another paper investigates the regulation of prolactin biosynthesis by peptide hormones as a model for peptidergic regulation of gene expression. The paper defines in detail which components of the biosynthetic machinery are being regulated by the polypeptide hormones. One paper also analyzes the molecular biology of the metallothioneins, focusing on the glucocorticoid regulation of metallothioneins genes. Experiments show that when the mouse MT-I gene is activated in lymphoid cells, or transferred to other cells, it still retains information needed in metal-regulated expression, though glucocorticoids can no longer regulate the same gene. Other papers discuss the purification and properties of the nerve growth factor receptor, and the thyrotropin receptor. Micro-biologists, biochemists, molecular biologists, cellular biologists, endocrinologists, and scientists involved in cell research will find this collection valuable.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    1. Generation of Diversity of Opioid Peptides

    I. Introduction

    II. Approaches and Strategies Used in Characterizing the Opioid Peptide Precursor Proteins

    III. Structure of Opioid Peptide Genes

    IV. Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Opioid Peptide Gene Expression

    V. Regulation of POMC Gene Expression

    VI. Proenkephalin Gene Regulation

    VII. Translational and Posttranslational Control of Production of Opioid Peptides

    References

    2 Polypeptide Hormone Regulation of Prolactin Gene Transcription

    I. Introduction

    II. Regulation of Prolactin Synthesis by Peptide Hormones

    III. Transduction Mechanisms of TRH-Stimulated Prolactin Gene Transcription

    IV. The Potential Significance of Transcriptional Regulation by Peptide Hormones

    References

    3. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Metallothionein Gene Expression

    I. Introduction

    II. Regulation of the Mouse MT-I Gene by Glucocorticoids

    III. Comparisons to Heavy Metal Regulation

    IV. Regulation of the Mouse MT-I Gene in New Environments

    V. Summary

    References

    4. Regulation of the Synthesis of Tyrosine Aminotransferase and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase by Glucocorticoid Hormones

    I. Introduction and Historical Perspective

    II. Regulation of Tyrosine Aminotransferase by Glucocorticoid Hormones

    III. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase

    IV. Conclusions and Perspectives

    References

    5. Messenger RNA Stabilization and Gene Transcription in the Estrogen Induction of Vitellogenin mRNA

    I. Introduction: The Xenopus Vitellogenin System

    II. Nuclear Actions of Estrogen in Vitellogenin mRNA Induction

    III. Estrogen Stabilizes Cytoplasmic Vitellogenin mRNA

    IV. Methods for Determination of Rates of Gene Transcription and mRNA Degradation

    V. Potential Mechanisms for the Regulation of mRNA Degradation

    VI. Estrogen Action in Xenopus Liver

    VII. Summary

    References

    6. Regulation of Growth Hormone and Prolactin Gene Expression by Hormones and Calcium

    I. Introduction

    II. Cell Lines Currently Employed to Study Regulation of Growth Hormone and Prolactin

    III. Development of a Cytoplasmic Dot Hybridization Technique for Studies of mRNA Regulation

    IV. Regulation by Glucocorticoid and Thyroid Hormones of Growth Hormone Gene Expression

    V. Regulation and Mediation by Calcium of Specific Gene Expression

    VI. Summary

    References

    7. Mechanisms Involved in the Actions of Calcium-Dependent Hormones

    I. Introduction

    II. Changes in Cytosolic Ca2+ Induced by Calcium-Dependent Hormones

    III. Mobilization of Intracellular Ca2+ by Calcium-Dependent Hormones

    IV. Stimulation of Ca2+ Influx or Inhibition of Ca2+ Efflux by Calcium-Dependent Hormones

    V. Role of Cytosolic Ca2+ in the Physiological Responses to Calcium-Dependent Hormones

    VI. Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms of Calcium-Dependent Hormones

    VII. Effects of Calcium-Dependent Hormones on Phosphoinositide Metabolism

    VIII. Summary

    References

    8. Steroid and Polypeptide Hormone Interaction in Milk-Protein Gene Expression

    I. Introduction

    II. Hormonal Stimulation of Milk-Protein Synthesis in Mammary Tissue In Vitro

    III. Studies in Expiants of Mammary Tissue In Vitro

    IV. Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology of Protein Synthesis

    V. Measurements of Casein mRNA Activity

    VI. Hormone Responses of Mammary Cell Polysomes Active in Casein Synthesis

    VII. Specific Transcription of Casein mRNAs

    VIII. Quantitative Measurement of Hormonal Influence on Casein Gene Expression in Murine Mammary Gland In Vivo

    IX. Milk-Protein Gene Expression in Mammary Tissue In Vitro

    X. Dissociation of Mammogenesis and Lactogenesis in a Two-Step Culture Model

    XI. Simultaneous Occurrence of Morphogenesis and Casein Gene Expression

    XII. Glucocorticoid and Prolactin Interaction in Milk-Protein Gene Expression

    XIII. Role of Progesterone in Casein Gene Expression

    XIV. Nuclear Binding of Glucocorticoid Receptor and Milk-Protein Gene Expression

    XV. Hormonal Regulation of Milk-Protein Gene Expression in Rats and Rabbits

    XVI. Possible Mechanisms of Prolactin Action

    XVII. Action of Insulin

    XVIII. Milk-Protein cDNA Chnes and Concluding Remarks

    References

    9. Control of Prolactin Production by Estrogen

    I. Introduction

    II. Estrogen Stimulates the Growth of Prolactin-Producing Cells

    III. Estrogen Affects the Morphology of Prolactin-Producing Cells

    IV. Estrogen Induces Pituitary Tumors

    V. Estrogen Stimuhtes Synthesis of Prolactin

    VI. Estrogen Increases Prolactin Storage

    VII. Estrogen Changes the Response of Prolactin Cells to Agents That Affect Prolactin Release

    VIII. Rapid Effects of Estrogen

    IX. Effects of Antiestrogens

    X. Conclusion

    References

    10. Genetic and Epigenetic Bases of Glucocorticoid Resistance in Lymphoid Cell Lines

    I. Introduction

    II. Genetic Defects in Glucocorticoid Receptor

    III. Epigenetic Control of "Lysis" Function

    IV. Membrane Permeability and Dexamethasone Resistance

    V. Unidentified Determinants of Glucocorticoid Sensitivity

    VI. Role of Growth Factors in Glucocorticoid Sensitivity

    VII. Conclusions

    References

    11. Estrogen and Antiestrogen Binding Sites: Relation to the Estrogen Receptor and Biological Response

    I. Introduction

    II. Type II Estrogen Binding Sites and an Endogenous Ligand

    III. Antiestrogen Binding Sites and an Endogenous Ligand

    References

    12. The Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods

    III. Characteristics of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    IV. Mineralocorticoid Antagonists

    V. Target Tissue Evaluation by Receptor Analyses

    VI. Relationship of Steroid—Receptor Interactions to the Physiohgical Role of Aldosterone

    VII. New Concepts and Unresolved Issues

    References

    13. Purification and Properties of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor

    I. Introduction

    II. NGF-Receptor Properties on Intact Cells

    III. Purification of the NGF Receptor

    IV. States of the NGF Receptor

    V. Conclusions and Perspectives

    References

    14. The Thyrotropin Receptor

    I. Introduction

    II. Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and the Thyrotropin Receptor

    III. The Thyrotropin Receptor: A Functional Complex of More Than One Membrane Component

    IV. TSH Receptor Structure

    V. TSH Receptor Structure and TSH-Related Growth Activity

    VI. TSH Receptor Regulation of the Adenylate Cyclase Signal

    VII. Thyrotropin Receptor—Mediated Signal Processes Involving Phospholipid Modulation

    VIII. TSH Receptor—Mediated Growth Related to Multiple Signal Coupling Mechanisms

    IX. TSH Receptors on Nonthyroid Tissue

    X. Summary

    References

    Index

    Contents of Previous Volumes

Product details

  • No. of pages: 550
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1985
  • Published: January 28, 1985
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146340

About the Editor

Gerald Litwack

Dr. Litwack is an accomplished and prolific author and editor at Elsevier. Spanning over 25 years, he has been the editor of over 55 volumes of Vitamins and Hormones, co-author of Hormones, editor of 14 volumes of Biochemical Actions of Hormones, co-editor of Actions of Hormones on Molecular Processes, author of Human Biochemistry and Disease, and just wrapping up Human Biochemistry. He also authored Experimental Biochemistry [Wiley] and edited Receptor Purification, 2 volumes [Humana]. He is an author on over 300 journal articles and has been on the editorial boards of numerous journals, including Endocrinology, Oncology Research, Oncology Reports, Journal of Molecular Biochemistry, Chemtracts, Cancer Research, Apoptosis, and Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor and Chair of Basic Sciences, Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, Scranton, PA, USA

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