Part 1 Pretreatment and fractionation: Hydrothermal pretreatment; Thermochemical pretreatment; Key features of pretreated biomass solids and impact on hydrolysis; Solvent fractionation. Part 2 Hydrolysis (saccharification): Acid hydrolysis; Enzymatic hydrolysis; Cellulases for enzymatic hydrolysis. Part 3 Fermentation and separation: Integrated hydrolysis, fermentation and co-fermentation; Co-fermentation challenges using baker’s yeast; Separation and purification. Part 4 Monitoring and modelling: Analytical monitoring of pretreatment and hydrolysis; On-line monitoring of fermentation; Modelling hydrolysis and fermentation. Part 5 Life-cycle assessment of and multiple products: Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA); Chemical production; Production of longer-chain alcohols.