Bioactive Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements in Neurological and Brain Disease - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124114623, 9780124115293

Bioactive Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements in Neurological and Brain Disease

1st Edition

Prevention and Therapy

Editors: Ronald Ross Watson Victor Preedy
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124114623
eBook ISBN: 9780124115293
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 11th September 2014
Page Count: 528
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Nutritional supplement research concerning brain health and neurological disease is becoming an important focus. While nutritional supplements are very popular for general health and well being, the effectiveness of common supplements and their impact on general brain health and for the treatment or prevention of neurological disease is not clearly understood. This comprehensive introduction to bioactive nutraceuticals for brain and neurological provides a foundation review for research neuroscientists, clinical neurologists, pharmacology researchers and nutrition scientists on what we know now about these supplements and the brain and where focused research is still necessary.

Key Features

  • Foundational review content covering nutrition and brain and neurological health
  • Reviews known nutritional supplements and impact on brain and neurological health
  • Comprehensive coverage ideal for research scientists and clinical practitioners


Neuroscience\Neurology Research, Nutrition Research

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • About the Editors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section I. The Role of Complementary and Alternative Supplements: An Overview of Mechanisms of Action and Neurological Targets
    • Chapter 1. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Botanical Extracts Contribute to Their Protective Effects in Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia
      • Introduction
      • Role of ProInflammatory Proteins in Brain Edema in Ischemic Injury
      • The Role of Botanical Extracts in Attenuating Brain Edema and Cell Swelling in Ischemia
      • The Role of Botanical Extracts in Reducing Inflammation in Injury
      • Conclusion
      • Conflict of Interest Statement
    • Chapter 2. Blueberry Polyphenols and Neuroprotection
      • Introduction
      • Blueberry Polyphenols
      • Neurodegeneration: Mechanisms and Implications for Brain Performance
      • Neuroprotective Effects of Blueberry Polyphenols
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 3. Neuropharmacology Effects of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and Its Active Constituents
      • Introduction
      • Animal Studies
      • Clinical Studies
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 4. Lutein, Brain, and Neurological Functions
      • Adults and Cognitive Function
      • Eye–Brain Connection
      • Carotenoids in Eye and Brain
      • Early Life Period
      • Influence of Carotenoids on Brain Functions
      • Lutein and Cognitive Function
      • Lutein and Parkinson’s Disease
      • Lutein and Huntington’s Disease
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 5. Bioactive Nutrients for Brain Health
      • Diet and Cognitive Function
    • Chapter 6. Using Paullinia cupana (Guarana) to Treat Fatigue and Other Symptoms of Cancer and Cancer Treatment
      • Introduction
      • Paullinia cupana (guarana)
      • Cancer-Related Fatigue
      • The Use of Guarana for CRF Treatment
      • Mechanism of Action of Guarana in Patients with CRF
      • Preliminary Data on the Dry Guarana Extract for Terminal Cancer Patients with History of Weight Loss (Tumor Cachexia)
      • Preliminary Data on Dry Guarana Extract for Treatment of Hot Flashes in Breast Cancer Survivors
    • Chapter 7. Polyphenols, Nerve Growth Factor, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, and the Brain
      • The Brain
      • Neurotrophins
      • Polyphenols
      • Polyphenols and the Brain
      • Polyphenols and Neurotrophins
      • Conclusions
      • Disclosure
    • Chapter 8. The Antiaggregative, Antiamyloid Properties of Bioactive Polyphenols in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
      • Introduction
      • (-) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate
      • Curcumin
      • Resveratrol
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 9. Rhinacanthus Nasutus Extract as a Neuroprotectant
      • Rhinacanthus nasutus Properties and Use in Traditional Medicine
      • Rhinacanthus nasutus and Its Emerging Potential Role as a Neuroprotectant
      • Rhinacanthus nasutus, Immune Response, and Neuroprotection
  • Section II. Role of Diets, Complementary, and Alternative Supplements in Prevention and Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases
    • Chapter 10. Nutraceuticals, Dietary Supplements, and Functional Foods as Alternatives for the Relief of Neuropathic Pain
      • Nutraceuticals and Food Supplements and Neuropathic Pain Treatment
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 11. The Therapeutic Activities of Selected Scrophulariaceae and Buddlejaceae Species and Their Secondary Metabolites Against Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • Introduction
      • Verbascum Species (Mullein) and their Therapeutic Activities Against Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • Scrophularia Species (Figwort) and their Therapeutic Activities against Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • Buddleja Species (Butterfly Bush) and Their Therapeutic Activities against Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • Secondary Metabolites and Their Therapeutic Activities against Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 12. Ginkgo biloba Extracts in Neurological Disorders Therapy
      • Introduction
      • Medical Uses
      • Dosage and Duration
      • Normal Cognitive Functioning
      • Age-Related Cognitive Impairment
      • Age-Related Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease
      • Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease
      • Multiple Sclerosis
      • Tardive Dyskinesia
      • Meta-Analysis and Systematic Reviews of Ginkgo Clinical Trials
      • Side Effects and Quality Issues of EGb 761®
      • Exposure to Ginkgo Leaf Extracts in Clinical Studies
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 13. The Ketogenic Diet for the Adjuvant Treatment of Malignant Brain Tumors
      • Introduction
      • Tumor Metabolism
      • The Ketogenic Diet
      • Mechanisms of Action
      • Case Studies and Clinical Trials
      • Implementation of the KD
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 14. Reduction is the New Youth
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 15. Natural Sleep Aids and Polyphenols as Treatments for Insomnia
      • Introduction
      • Herbal Supplements for Treating Insomnia
      • Hypnotic Effects of Terrestrial Plant Polyphenols
      • Hypnotic Effects of Marine Plant Polyphenols
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 16. The Effects of Trace Element Deficiencies on Neurological Disease and Treatment with Trace Element Support
      • Introduction
      • Zinc Deficiency, Neurological Disorders, and Zinc Supplement
      • Neurological Diseases and Mg Supplement
      • Selenium and Neurological Diseases
      • Iron Deficiency and Brain Diseases
      • Copper Deficiency and Brain Diseases
      • Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Supplementation in Neurological Disorders
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 17. Nutritional Supplementation in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
      • Introduction
      • Is Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome a Neurological Disorder?
      • Dietary Facts in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
      • Nutritional Resources by Clinical Feature
      • Conclusions
  • Section III. Mood and Cognition by Nutraceutical Interventions
    • Chapter 18. Ayurvedic Approach to Food and Dietary Supplements for the Brain and Neurologic Health
      • Introduction
      • The Three Doshas
      • Importance of Diet and Digestion
      • Shadarasa (Six Types of Taste)
      • Psychological Constitution and Food
      • Ayurvedic Concept of Vyadhi (Disease)
      • Viruddha Ahara (Incompatible Foods)
      • Foods that are Beneficial for the Brain and Neurological Health
      • Herbs and Herbal Mixtures for the Brain and Neurological Health
      • Ghee as a Therapeutic Vehicle
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 19. The Effect of Acai (Euterpe spp.) Fruit Pulp on Brain Health and Performance
      • Introduction
      • Acai Fruit Pulp
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 20. Chili Pepper Compounds in the Management of Neuropathic Pain
      • Introduction
      • Chili Pepper and its Compounds
      • Pharmacological Features of Capsaicin
      • Formulations of Topical Capsaicin
      • Capsaicin for the Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathic Pain
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 21. Curcumin and Neurological/Brain Disorders
      • Introduction
      • Herbal Medicines and Nervous System
      • Curcumin
      • A Curcumin Source with Enhanced BioavaIlability
      • Conclusion
  • Section IV. Drugs and Foods and Nutraceutical Interactions During Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases: Toxicities
    • Chapter 22. The Effects of Taurine Exposure on the Brain and Neurological Disorders
      • Introduction
      • Taurine Developmental Distribution in the Brain
      • Taurine Biosynthesis in the Brain
      • Blood–Brain Taurine Transport
      • Actions of Taurine in the Brain
      • Taurine in Learning and Memory
      • Taurine in Neural Control of Arterial Pressure
    • Chapter 23. Adverse Neurological Effects Caused by the Ingestion of Plants, Seeds, and Fruits
      • Introduction
      • Consumption of Toxic Plants in the Diet
      • Healing Plants
      • Acute Intoxications due to Toxic Plants
      • Hallucinogenic Plants and Cacti
      • Fungi and Mycotoxins
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 24. Molecular Mechanisms of Geniposide and Genipin Against Alzheimer’s Disease
      • Anti-Aβ Toxicity
      • Anti-Oxidative Stress
      • Antiendoplasmic Reticulum Stress
      • Anti-Inflammation
      • Promoting Neurite Outgrowth
      • Activation of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor (GLP-1R)
      • Summary
    • Chapter 25. Flavones and Flavonols in Brain and Disease
      • Brain Pathology: Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
      • Flavones and Flavonols: Chemical and Structural Features
      • Brain Effects of Flavones and Flavonols: In Vivo Evidence
      • Working Mechanisms Underlying the Brain Effects of Flavones and Flavonols: In Vitro Evidence
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 26. Mercury and Neurodegeneration
      • Sources of Mercury Exposure
      • Hg Metabolism
      • Interactions with Other Dietary Factors
      • Role of Hg in Neurological Pathology
      • Treatment
    • Chapter 27. Ameliorative Effects of Nutraceuticals in Neurological Disorders
      • Introduction
      • Garlic (Allium sativum)
      • Curcumin (Curcuma longa L)
      • Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)
      • Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri)
      • Berries
      • Almonds (Prunus dulcis/amygdalus L.) and Walnuts (Juglans regia L.)
      • Mechanisms of Nutraceuticals in Ameliorating Neurodegeneration
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 28. The Role of Caffeine in Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • Introduction
      • The Genetic Role of Caffeine in ND
      • The Non-genetic Role of Caffeine in Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 29. Dietary Supplements as Cognitive Enhancers
      • Introduction
      • Neuromodulatory Pathways Underlying the Effect of Flavonoids on Cognition
      • Effect of Flavonoids on Hormetic Response and Gut Microbiota
      • The Effect of Flavonoids on Human Cognitive Performance
      • Conclusion
      • Conflict of Interest
  • Section V. Mechanisms of Action of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements in Neurological Disease Therapy: Autoimmunity and Antioxidant Actions
    • Chapter 30. Meat, Fat, and Fruit Consumption and Autoimmune Neurological and Brain Disease
      • Overview
      • Introduction
      • Nutrition and Autoimmune Regulation
      • Multiple Sclerosis
      • Myasthenia Gravis
      • Alzheimer’s Disease
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 31. Ginsenosides as Food Supplements and Their Potential Role in Immunological and Neurodegenerative Disorders
      • Introduction
      • Ginseng Chemistry
      • Dietary Supplementation of Ginseng
      • Role of Ginsenoside in the Immune System and Immunological Disorders
      • Ginseng and Inflammation-Related Diseases
      • Ginsenosides and their Application in Neurological and Neurodegenerative Disorders
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 32. Antioxidant Actions of Spices and Their Phytochemicals on Age-Related Diseases
      • Introduction
      • Spices in History
      • Chemical Composition of Spices
      • Biologic Effects of Spices
      • Spices and Antioxidant Activity
      • Mechanisms of Action
      • Exposure to Spices
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 33. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. (Saffron)
      • Introduction
      • Chemical Composition
      • Saffron Uses in Traditional Medicine
      • Pharmacological Studies on the Biological Activity of Saffron
      • Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects
    • Chapter 34. Electrophilic Derivatives of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for the Cure and Prevention of Neurodegenerative Disorders
      • Dietary Modulation of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cell Membranes and Its Significance for Neurodegenerative Disorders
      • Endogenous Generation of Electrophilic PUFAs from Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Their Biological Significance
      • Electrophile-Sensitive Pathways and Neurodegenerative Disorders
      • Electrophilic PUFAs as Novel Drugs for the Cure and Prevention of Neurodegenerative Disorders
    • Chapter 35. Antioxidants for the Prevention and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: An Overview
      • Introduction
      • Etiology and Pathogenesis of MS
      • Oxidative Stress, Oxidants, and Antioxidants
      • Lipoic Acid
      • Vitamin A
      • Vitamin E
      • Coenzyme Q10
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 36. High Caloric Diets in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerois
      • Introduction
      • Nutrition in ALS
      • Percutaneous Radiological Gastrostomy and Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy
      • High-Calorie Diets in ALS
      • NutrAceuticals/Dietary Supplements in ALS
      • Caloric Restriction in ALS
      • Summary
  • Section VI. Hypertension and Stroke
    • Chapter 37. Bioactive Nutraceuticals and Stroke: Activation of Endogenous Antioxidant Pathways and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Neurovascular Protection
      • Introduction
      • Nrf2: A Redox Sensitive Transcription Factor and Regulator of Cellular Antioxidant Defenses
      • Nutrition and Stroke
      • Neurovascular Protection in Stroke by Phytonutrients
      • Clinical Perspectives and Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 38. Oral Feeding in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage
      • Introduction
      • Malnutrition and Dehydration
      • Dysphagia
      • Nonoral Feeding
      • Dysphagia Therapy
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 39. Neuroprotection by Dietary Isoflavones and Their Role in Cerebral Ischemia
      • Introduction
      • Cerebral Ischemia
      • Dietary Isoflavones
      • Cerebral Ischemia Prevention
      • Cerebral Ischemia Treatment
      • Rehabilitation and Recovery
      • Mechanisms of Action
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 40. Vitamin K Antagonists (Coumarins), Drugs Used in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardioembolism, Deep Vein Thrombosis, and Pulmonary Embolism
      • Vitamin K
    • Chapter 41. Prevention of Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis by Vitamin E in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiological Studies Suggest that Vitamin E Protects against Stroke
      • Prevention of Neuronal Death by Vitamin E in SHRSP/Izm Rats
      • Comparison between Antihypertension Drugs and Vitamin E in Decreasing SHRSP/IZM Neuronal Death
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 42. Diet, Stroke, and Traumatic Brain Injury
      • Introduction
      • Soy
      • Omega-3 Fatty Acids
      • Phenolics
      • Ginseng
      • Conclusion
  • Section VII. Seizures, Epilepsy, and Parkinson's Disease
    • Chapter 43. A Plant-Food Diet in the Risk and Management of Parkinson’s Disease
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology of PD
      • Physiopathology of PD
      • Etiology of PD
      • Dietary Risk Factors in PD
      • Diet and Levodopa
      • Levodopa and Dietary Protein
      • The Protein-Redistribution Diet
      • A New Strategy: Normoproteic Protein-Redistributed Plant-Food (Vegan) Diet
      • Plant-Food Diets and Comorbidity in PD
      • Normoproteic Protein-Redistributed Plant-Food (Vegan) Diet: Practical Aspects
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
    • Chapter 44. Nutraceuticals and Other Natural Products in Parkinson's Disease Therapy
      • Introduction
      • Vitamins and PD
      • Omega Fatty Acids
      • Coenzyme Q10
      • Citicoline
      • Creatine
      • Glutathione
      • Carnosine
      • Spices
      • Tea
      • Conclusions
      • Conflict of Interest
    • Chapter 45. Ketogenic Diet Treatment in Adults with Refractory Epilepsy
      • Introduction
      • Ketogenic Diet
      • Modified Atkins Diet
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 46. Ketogenic Diets for the Treatment of Epilepsy
      • The History of the Ketogenic Diet
      • Composition, Implementation, and Maintenance of the Classic KD
      • Alternative Forms of Dietary Therapies
      • Side Effects
      • Proposed Mechanism of Action
      • Indications for KDs
      • The KD as a First-Line or Early Treatment of Epilepsy
      • Contraindications for the Use of the KD
      • Interactions between the KD and Other Therapies
      • The KD as a Viable Long-Term Treatment for Epilepsy
      • The Future of Dietary Therapies
    • Chapter 47. Nutritional/Metabolic Therapies in Animal Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Seizures
      • Background
      • Therapeutic Ketosis as a Metabolic Therapy
      • Metabolic Supplementation
      • KD Treatment for Seizure Disorders
      • Efficacy of Metabolic Therapies in Animal Models of Seizure
      • Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • Metabolic Therapies in Mouse Models of ALS
      • Metabolic Therapies in Mouse Models of AD
      • Neuroprotective Mechanism of Ketosis
      • Concerns
      • Potential Future Application
    • Chapter 48. Metabolic Dysfunctions in Epilepsy and Novel Metabolic Treatment Approaches
      • Introduction
      • Glycolysis Provides ATP Quickly
      • Impairments of Glycolysis in Epilepsy
      • Impairments of the TCA Cycle in Epilepsy
      • Anticonvulsant Effects of Current and Potential Metabolic Treatments
      • Anticonvulsant Mechanisms and the Metabolic Effects of Metabolic Therapies
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 49. Vitamin D for the Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease
      • Introduction
      • Basic Physiology and Metabolism of Vitamin D
      • Reference Intake for Vitamin D
      • Treating Vitamin D Deficiency
      • Theories Linking Vitamin D to AD
      • Clinical Trial Data
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 50. Is Multiple Sclerosis a Sun Deprivation Disease?
      • Introduction
      • MS
      • Vitamin D: An Overview
      • Vitamin D and Immune Function
      • Vitamin D and MS
      • What We Know Now: Findings and Limitations
      • Conclusion
  • Index


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About the Editor

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine.

Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier).

Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK


"...this book is helpful as a review of the current body of literature on foods and supplements that can aid in combating neurological diseases.  Score: 80 - 3 Stars" --Doody's