Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease

Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease

Bioactive Foods in Chronic Disease States

1st Edition - October 22, 2012

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  • Editors: Ronald Watson, Victor Preedy
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964854
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123965400

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Description

One major example of the synergy of bioactive foods and extracts is their role as an antioxidant and the related remediation of cardiovascular disease. There is compelling evidence to suggest that oxidative stress is implicated in the physiology of several major cardiovascular diseases including heart failure and increased free radical formation and reduced antioxidant defences. Studies indicate bioactive foods reduce the incidence of these conditions, suggestive of a potential cardioprotective role of antioxidant nutrients. Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease investigates the role of foods, herbs and novel extracts in moderating the pathology leading to cardiovascular disease. It reviews existing literature, and presents new hypotheses and conclusions on the effects of different bioactive components of the diet.

Key Features

  • Addresses the most positive results from dietary interventions using bioactive foods to impact cardiovascular disease
  • Documents foods that can affect metabolic syndrome and other related conditions
  • Convenient, efficient and effective source that allows readers to identify potential uses of compounds – or indicate those compounds whose use may be of little or no health benefit
  • Associated information can be used to understand other diseases that share common etiological pathways

Readership

Nutritionists, dieticians, and biomedical researchers whose focus is on identifying cardiovascular and related diseases; food scientists targeting health-related product development.

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments for Bioactive Foods in Chronic Disease States

    Preface: Bioactive Food for Cardiovascular Disease

    Contributors

    Chapter 1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Humans: Intervention Trials, Healthy Heart Concept, Future Developments

    1 Introduction

    2 Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in CVD

    3 Modern View of Omega Fatty Acid Therapy in CVD

    4 Healthy Heart Concept: Less-Known Facts on Omega Fatty Acids

    5 Guidelines on Omega Fatty Acid in CVD to Physicians, Nurses: Healthy Heart Concept

    6 Implications and Futuristic Prospective

    7 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 2. Herbal Supplements or Herbs in Heart Disease: History, Herbal Foods, Coronary Heart Disease

    1 Introduction

    2 Relation to TG Metabolism

    3 Herbal Foods: Approved Herbs in Cardiovascular Disease

    4 Repertory of Herbs and Their Properties

    5 Herbs in Human Use

    6 Cardioprotective Herb Active Components in Human Use Approved by CDC and Regulated by FDA

    7 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 3. Plant Statins and Heart Failure

    1 Heart Failure

    2 Statins in the Treatment of HF

    3 Complementary Medicine in Heart Failure

    4 Plant Sterols/Stanols (Phytosterols)

    5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 4. Bioactive Nutrients and Cardiovascular Disease

    1 Bioactive Nutrients

    References

    Chapter 5. Vitamins and Myocardial Infarction in Diabetics

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Patients with Myocardial Infarction and DM Are at Particular Risk

    3 Importance of OS in Myocardial Infarction

    4 Importance of OS in DM

    5 Antioxidant Effect of Vitamins

    6 Summary

    References

    Chapter 6. Cardioprotective Nutrients

    1 Introduction

    2 Cardioprotective Nutrients

    3 Conclusion

    References

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 7. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Risk of Noncommunicable Diseases

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 FV and CVD

    3 FV and Diabetes Mellitus

    4 FV and MetS

    5 FV and Hypertension

    6 FV and Obesity

    7 FV and Bone Mineral Status

    8 FV and Cancer

    9 Prevention of Noncommunicable Disease by FV Intake

    10 Conclusion

    References

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 8. Diet and Homocysteinemia: A Role in Cardiovascular Disease?

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Homocysteine

    3 Homocysteinemia

    4 Future Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 9. Phytosterols and Cardiovascular Disease

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Phytosterols in the Diet

    3 Plasma Phytosterols and CVD

    4 Phytosterol Mechanism of Action

    5 Physical Factors Affecting Phytosterol LDL Lowering

    6 Biological Factors Affecting Response to Phytosterols

    7 Phytosterols and Pharmaceutical Cholesterol Lowering Therapies

    8 Phytosterols, MetS, and Diabetes

    9 Phytosterols and Triglyceride Lowering

    10 Phytosterols and CVD Risk Reduction

    11 Conclusion

    12 Summary Points

    Glossary

    References

    Chapter 10. Taurine Effects on Arterial Pressure Control

    Abbreviations

    1 An Overview of Arterial Pressure Control

    2 Physiology of Taurine

    3 Taurine and Perinatal Development

    4 Taurine and the Heart

    5 Taurine and the Autonomic Nervous System

    6 Perinatal Taurine and Arterial Pressure Control

    7 Adult Taurine Exposure and Hypertension

    8 Taurine and the Kidney

    9 Summary

    References

    Chapter 11. Fish Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease – Part 1

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 All-Cause Mortality

    3 Coronary Heart Disease Mortality

    4 Coronary Heart Disease Prevention

    References

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 12. Fish Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease – Part 2

    Abbreviations

    1 Heart Failure – Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

    2 Stroke Prevention

    3 Pathophysiological Mechanisms

    4 Methodological Problems

    5 Fish Contaminants

    6 Dietary Guidelines

    7 Conclusion

    References

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 13. Quercetin and Its Metabolites in Heart Health

    1 Quercetin: Chemistry and Bioavailability

    2 Cardiovascular Disease and Quercetin

    3 Safety of Quercetin

    Glossary

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 14. Vitamin K, Coronary Calcification and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    1 Vitamin K

    2 Vitamin K and Arterial Calcification

    3 Vitamin K Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    4 Vitamin K Intake and Risk of Stroke

    5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 15. A Review of the Antioxidant Actions of Three Herbal Medicines (Crataegus monogyna, Ginkgo biloba, and Aesculus hippocastanum) on the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases

    1 Introduction

    2 Hawthorn

    3 Ginkgo

    4 Horse Chestnut Seed

    5 Concluding Statements

    6 Summary

    Glossary

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 16. Grape Polyphenols in Heart Health Promotion

    1 Introduction

    2 Grape Chemistry and Bioavailability

    3 Human Studies – Cardiovascular Effects

    4 Potential Mechanisms of Effect

    5 Translational Frontiers

    References

    Chapter 17. Cacao for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Dietary Antioxidants

    3 The Role of Tryptophan Metabolism and Neopterin Formation in Cardiovascular Disease

    4 Cacao to Enhance Mood

    5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 18. Phytoestrogens and the Role in Cardiovascular Health: To Consume or Not to Consume?

    Abbreviations

    1 Background and Significance

    2 Phytoestrogens and Biology, Chemistry, and Pharmacokinetics

    3 Biological Modes of Action: Estrogenic, Antiestrogenic, and ER Independent Modes of Action

    4 Phytoestrogens and Cardiovascular Health

    5 Confounding Factors to Consider

    6 Summary and Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 19. Probiotic Species on Cardiovascular Disease: The Use of Probiotics to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Probiotics

    3 Mechanism of Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Probiotics

    4 Hypotensive Effect of Fermented Milk Product

    5 Mechanisms of Blood Pressure Lowering

    6 Alternative Targets of Bioactive Peptides

    7 Effects of Peptides Other Than Blood Pressure-lowering Effect

    8 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Inflammation, CVD, and Probiotics

    9 Improving Insulin Resistance Associated with Inflammation

    10 Conclusions and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 20. Dairy Foods and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Abbreviations

    1 Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases in the United States

    2 Mechanism of Inflammation

    3 Role of Selected Foods in the Prevention of Inflammation in CVD

    4 Summary

    References

    Chapter 21. Red Palm Oil Carotenoids: Potential Role in Disease Prevention

    Abbreviations

    1 Background

    2 Carotenoid Content of RPO

    3 Biological Significance of Dietary Carotenoids

    4 Carotenoids in Health and Disease

    5 Safety of Carotenoids from Natural Food Sources

    6 Nutritional Value of RPO

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 22. Bioactive Compounds in Red Palm Oil Can Modulate Mechanisms of Actions in In Vitro Anoxic Perfused Rat Hearts

    1 Introduction

    2 Involvement of the Prosurvival and Apoptotic Pathways in Red Palm Oil Protection

    3 Involvement of the NO-CGMP Pathway and MMP in Red Palm Oil Protection

    4 Optimal Feeding Period and Dosage of Red Palm Oil to Offer Protection Against Anoxia

    5 Red Palm Oil Protection in Other Disease Models

    6 Summary

    References

    Chapter 23. The Effect of L-Carnitine Supplement and Its Derivatives on Cardiovascular Disease

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 The Effect of LC and its Derivates on the Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    3 The Effect of LC and its Derivatives on Patients with Atherosclerosis

    4 The Effect of LC and its Derivatives on Patients with Congestive Heart Failure/Cardiomyopathy

    References

    Chapter 24. Dietary Blueberry Supplementation as a Means of Lowering High Blood Pressure

    Abbreviations

    1 Hypertension

    2 Conventional Treatment of Hypertension

    3 Treatment of Hypertension Through Functional Foods and Phytochemicals

    4 Conclusion

    Glossary

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chapter 25. Vitamin D and Cardiometabolic Risks

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 The Metabolic Syndrome

    3 IR, Diabetes, and Vitamin D

    4 Overweight, Obesity, and Vitamin D

    5 Lipoproteins and Vitamin D

    6 Hypertension

    7 CVD and Vitamin D

    8 Final Remarks

    Glossary

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 26. Phytosterols and Micronutrients for Heart Health

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Micronutrients

    3 Phytosterols

    4 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 27. Protection by Plant Flavonoids Against Myocardial Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Flavonols

    3 Flavanols

    4 Proanthocyanidins

    5 Flavanones

    6 Flavones

    7 Isoflavones

    8 Anthocyanins

    9 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 28. Bioactive Compounds in Heart Disease

    1 Introduction

    2 Flavonoids

    3 Phytoestrogens

    4 Resveratrol

    5 Carotenoids

    6 Organosulfur Compounds

    7 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    8 Conclusion

    Relevant Website

    References

    Chapter 29. A Critical Appraisal of the Individual Constituents of Indian Diet in Modulating Cardiovascular Risk

    1 Introduction

    2 The Indian Diet and Cuisine

    3 Cereals

    4 Pulses

    5 Nuts

    6 Dry Fruits

    7 Spices

    8 Fruits and Vegetables

    9 Oils and Fats

    10 Fish and Fish Oils

    11 Milk and Dairy Products

    12 Sweets and Desserts

    13 Meat and Meat Products

    14 Egg and Egg Products

    15 Consideration of High Salt Intake in India

    16 Micronutrients and Cardiac Health

    17 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 30. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Humans: Chemistry, Dyslipidemia

    1 Introduction

    2 Omega Fatty Acids and Dyslipidemia

    3 Mechanism of Lipid Lowering and Cardioprotection by Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake

    4 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 31. Herbal Supplements or Herbs in Heart Disease: Herbiceutical Formulation, Clinical Trials, Futuristic Developments

    1 Introduction

    2 Herbiceutical Formula in Heart Disease Treatment

    3 Herbiceutical Testing

    4 Cardioprotective Herbal Active Components in Human Use Approved by CDC and Regulated by FDA

    5 Pharmaceutical Approach of Herbiceutical Formula with Antiarrhythmic Properties

    6 Treatment Recommendations for Herbiceuticals in Cardiovascular Prevention

    7 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 32. Fish Proteins in Coronary Artery Disease Prevention: Amino Acid–Fatty Acid Concept

    1 Introduction

    2 Fish Proteins and Amino Acids

    3 Fish Proteins in Cardiac Prevention

    4 Effect of Fish Dietary Proteins on Coronary Artery Disease

    5 Effect of Fish Proteins on Atherosclerosis

    6 Prevention of CAD: Fish Diet

    7 Conclusion

    Appendix 1 New method developed: SDS-PAGE electrophoresis

    References

    Chapter 33. Herbs Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Heart Diseases

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 TCM Herbs

    3 Discussion

    References

    Chapter 34. Protective Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Against Atherosclerosis

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Etiopathogenesis of Atherosclerosis

    3 Prevention of Atherosclerosis

    4 Plants in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis

    5 Allium sativum

    6 Bioactive Compounds in Garlic

    7 Protective Effect of Garlic Against Atherosclerosis

    8 Conclusions

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 35. Potential of Soy Phytochemicals in Cardiomyocyte Regeneration and Risk Reduction of Coronary Heart Disease

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction and Overview

    2 Pathogenesis of CHD

    3 Cardiomyocyte Regeneration

    4 Soy Phytochemicals and Cardioprotection

    5 Role of soy Isoflavones in Control of Cardiomyocyte Proliferation, Cell Cycle Reentry, and Regeneration

    6 Conclusion and Future Studies

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 36. Fish Oil Fatty Acids and Vascular Reactivity

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Observational Studies Examining the Relationship Between Habitual LC n-3 PUFA Intake with Carotid IMT and Vascular Reactivity

    3 Chronic Studies Examining the Impact of LC n-3 PUFA Supplementation on Vascular Function

    4 Acute Studies Examining the Effects of LC n-3 PUFA on Postprandial Vascular Reactivity

    5 Potential Mechanisms

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Relevant Website

    Chapter 37. Counteracting the Inflammatory Response in the Atherosclerosis Bioactive Products

    1 Introduction

    2 Inflammatory Mechanisms in Atherosclerosis

    3 Low-Density Lipoprotein

    4 Oxidative Stress and Vascular Function

    5 Antioxidants – Protective Role in CVD

    6 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 38. Cardioprotective Efficacy of Alternative and Complementary Therapeutics

    1 Introduction

    2 Acorus calamus

    3 Aegle marmelos

    4 Allium cepa

    5 Allium sativum

    6 Centella asiatica

    7 Commiphora wightii

    8 Emblica officinalis

    9 Ocimum sanctum

    10 Picrorhiza kurroa

    11 Terminalia arjun

    12 Terminalia chebula

    13 Tinospora cordifolia

    14 Withania somnifera

    15 Zingiber officinale

    16 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 39. Effect of Terminalia arjuna on Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Abbreviations

    1 Terminalia arjuna: A Cardioprotective Plant

    2 Terminalia arjuna and Cardiac Hypertrophy

    3 Conclusion and Future Perspective

    References

    Chapter 40. Plant Sterols and Artery Disease

    Abbreviations

    1 What Are Plant Sterols?

    2 Metabolism of Phytosterols in Humans

    3 Plant Sterols and Artery Disease in Humans

    4 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 41. Antiatherogenic Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): Scientific Observations and Ethnomedicinal Validation

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Etiopathogenesis of Atherosclerosis

    3 Plants in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis

    4 Protective Effects of Ginger Against Atherosclerosis

    5 Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 746
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: October 22, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964854
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123965400

About the Editors

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson
Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is Emeritus Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, at King’s College London and Professor of Clinical Biochemistry (Hon) at King’s College Hospital. He was the long-term Director of the Genomics Centre at King’s College London from 2006 to 2020. Professor Preedy has carried out research when attached to Imperial College London, The School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London) and the MRC Centre at Northwick Park Hospital. He has collaborated with research groups in Finland, Japan, Australia, USA and Germany. Prof. Preedy is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long-standing interest in dietary and plant-based components. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 750 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, King’s College London; Professor, King’s College Hospital, London, UK

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