Biaxial (having two axes) stretching of film is used for a range of applications and is the primary manufacturing process by which products are produced for the food packaging industry. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications provides an overview of the manufacturing processes and range of applications for biaxially stretched films.

Part one reviews the fundamental principles of biaxial stretching. After an introductory chapter which defines terms, chapters discuss equipment design and requirements, laboratory evaluations, biaxial film structures and typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films. Additional topics include post production processing of biaxially stretched films, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and academic investigations of biaxially stretched films. Part two investigates the applications of biaxial films including fresh cut produce, snack packaging and product labelling. A final chapter investigates potential future trends for biaxially oriented films and orienting lines.

Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications is a valuable reference tool for a broad spectrum of readers, ranging from polymer and fibre engineers to electrical engineers. It will also be suitable for professionals in the food packaging and paper industries.

Key Features

  • A valuable reference tool for polymer and fibre engineers, electrical engineers and professionals in the food packaging and paper industries
  • Provides a comprehensive overview of the manufacturing processes of biaxially stretched films and includes a discussion of their future applications
  • Places emphasis on the technology as well as the different types of polymers used


Polymer and fiber engineers to electrical engineers. It will also be suitable for professionals in the food packaging and paper industries.

Table of Contents

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Part I: Fundamental principles of biaxial stretching

Chapter 1: Fundamentals of biaxial stretching and definitions of terms


1.1 Introduction

1.3 Recommendations

1.4 Conclusions

Chapter 2: Equipment design and requirements of biaxially stretched films


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Double bubble process for biaxial stretching of films

2.3 Tenter process for production of biaxially oriented films

2.4 Recommendations

Chapter 3: Laboratory evaluations of biaxially stretched film


3.1 Introduction

3.2 T.M. Long stretcher for laboratory evaluations

3.3 Karo IV laboratory stretcher from Brückner

3.4 Literature studies involving laboratory stretching equipment

3.5 Recommendations

Chapter 4: Polyolefins used in biaxial stretched films


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Polypropylene

4.3 Use of polyethylene in biaxial stretching

4.4 Conclusions

4.5 Recommendations

Chapter 5: Other polymers used for biaxial films


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

5.3 Polyamides in biaxially oriented films

5.4 Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) in biaxially stretched films

5.5 Recommendations

Chapter 6: Biaxial film structures


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Film structures based on homopolymer polypropylene

6.3 Recommendations

Chapter 7: Typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Commercial production processes for biaxially oriented films

7.3 Novel technologies currently being developed

7.4 Recommendations

Chapter 8: Post-production processing of biaxially oriented films


8.1 Introduction


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© 2011
Woodhead Publishing
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About the editor

Mark T. DeMeuse

Mark T. DeMeuse is a Consultant at MTD Polymer Consulting. He specializes in material development and polymer characterization methodologies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Polymer Consultant, USA