Biaxial Stretching of Film - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845696757, 9780857092953

Biaxial Stretching of Film

1st Edition

Principles and Applications

Editors: Mark T. DeMeuse
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845696757
eBook ISBN: 9780857092953
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 18th July 2011
Page Count: 288
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Biaxial (having two axes) stretching of film is used for a range of applications and is the primary manufacturing process by which products are produced for the food packaging industry. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications provides an overview of the manufacturing processes and range of applications for biaxially stretched films.

Part one reviews the fundamental principles of biaxial stretching. After an introductory chapter which defines terms, chapters discuss equipment design and requirements, laboratory evaluations, biaxial film structures and typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films. Additional topics include post production processing of biaxially stretched films, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and academic investigations of biaxially stretched films. Part two investigates the applications of biaxial films including fresh cut produce, snack packaging and product labelling. A final chapter investigates potential future trends for biaxially oriented films and orienting lines.

Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications is a valuable reference tool for a broad spectrum of readers, ranging from polymer and fibre engineers to electrical engineers. It will also be suitable for professionals in the food packaging and paper industries.

Key Features

  • A valuable reference tool for polymer and fibre engineers, electrical engineers and professionals in the food packaging and paper industries
  • Provides a comprehensive overview of the manufacturing processes of biaxially stretched films and includes a discussion of their future applications
  • Places emphasis on the technology as well as the different types of polymers used


Polymer and fiber engineers to electrical engineers. It will also be suitable for professionals in the food packaging and paper industries.

Table of Contents

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Part I: Fundamental principles of biaxial stretching

Chapter 1: Fundamentals of biaxial stretching and definitions of terms


1.1 Introduction

1.3 Recommendations

1.4 Conclusions

Chapter 2: Equipment design and requirements of biaxially stretched films


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Double bubble process for biaxial stretching of films

2.3 Tenter process for production of biaxially oriented films

2.4 Recommendations

Chapter 3: Laboratory evaluations of biaxially stretched film


3.1 Introduction

3.2 T.M. Long stretcher for laboratory evaluations

3.3 Karo IV laboratory stretcher from Brückner

3.4 Literature studies involving laboratory stretching equipment

3.5 Recommendations

Chapter 4: Polyolefins used in biaxial stretched films


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Polypropylene

4.3 Use of polyethylene in biaxial stretching

4.4 Conclusions

4.5 Recommendations

Chapter 5: Other polymers used for biaxial films


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

5.3 Polyamides in biaxially oriented films

5.4 Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) in biaxially stretched films

5.5 Recommendations

Chapter 6: Biaxial film structures


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Film structures based on homopolymer polypropylene

6.3 Recommendations

Chapter 7: Typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Commercial production processes for biaxially oriented films

7.3 Novel technologies currently being developed

7.4 Recommendations

Chapter 8: Post-production processing of biaxially oriented films


8.1 Introduction

8.1 Surface treatment of films

8.3 Conclusions

8.4 Recommendations

Chapter 9: Strain energy function and stress–strain model for uniaxial and biaxial orientation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Experimental

9.3 Stress–strain behavior of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)

9.4 Modeling of the stress–strain behavior – literature review

9.5 Development of a stress–strain model

Chapter 10: Academic investigations of biaxially stretched films


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Literature studies of common commodity polymers

10.3 Biaxial studies of specialty polymers

10.4 Recommendations

Chapter 11: Biaxially stretched polyamide film


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Processing of biaxially oriented polyamide (BOPA)

11.3 BOPA film properties

Part II: Applications of biaxial films

Chapter 12: Fresh-cut produce packaging and the use of biaxial stretched films


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Quality factors determining shelf-life

12.3 Respiration and metabolism

12.4 Package atmosphere modification

12.5 Packaging methods and quality maintenance

12.6 Future trends

12.7Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 13: Biaxial stretched films for use in snack packaging


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Basic principles and methods for snack packaging

13.3 Technologies and techniques

13.4 Advantages and limitations

13.5 Applications

13.6 Future trends

13.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 14: Biaxially stretched films for product labeling


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Labeling systems and technologies

14.3 Label applications

14.4 Label preparation – label design, printing and converting

14.5 Future trends and new developments in labeling and label films

14.6 Conclusions

Chapter 15: Applications of biaxial stretched films


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Biaxial stretching of nanocomposite and multilayer films

15.3 Conclusions

15.4 Future trends

Chapter 16: Future trends for biaxially oriented films and orienting lines


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Trends for packaging film

16.3 Trends for technical film

16.4 Development environment for biaxially oriented film



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About the Editor

Mark T. DeMeuse

Mark T. DeMeuse is a Consultant at MTD Polymer Consulting. He specializes in material development and polymer characterization methodologies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Polymer Consultant, USA