Beta Nucleation of Polypropylene - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781455775453, 9781455775637

Beta Nucleation of Polypropylene

1st Edition

Properties, Technology, and Applications

Authors: Philip Jacoby
Hardcover ISBN: 9781455775453
eBook ISBN: 9781455775637
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 21st November 2013
Page Count: 148
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Description

Preface

Part One: Fundamentals of Nucleation

1. The Semicrystalline Morphology of Polypropylene

1.1 Introduction: The Hierarchal Crystal Structure of Polypropylene

1.2 Polymer Structure and Its Influence on Crystallinity

1.3 Spherulitic Structure of PP

1.4 Polymorphism

1.5 Characterizing Beta Crystallinity

References

2. Differences Between the Alpha and Beta Crystal Forms of PP

2.1 Thermal Property Differences

2.2 Mechanical Property Differences

2.3 The Effect of Processing Conditions on the Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene

2.4 Morphology Effects

2.5 Mechanical Property Effects

References

3. The Use of Nucleating Agents in Polypropylene

3.1 How Nucleating Agents Function?

3.2 Beta Nucleation

References

4. Effect of Polymer Variables on Beta Nucleation

4.1 Molecular Weight

4.2 Effect of Molecular Weight Distribution

4.3 Beta Nucleation of ICP PP

4.4 Beta Nucleation of RCP PP

4.5 Influence of the Beta Nucleant Type

Reference

5. The Influence of Other Additives on Beta Nucleation

5.1 Effect of Additives on Nucleation

5.2 Additive Interference with Beta Nucleation

5.3 Overcoming the Interference of Alpha Nucleants in Beta-Nucleated Applications

5.4 Effect of Fillers on Beta Nucleation

References

Part Two: Applications and Advantages of Beta Nucleation

6. Microporous Film

6.1 Stretching of Nonnucleated Film

6.2 Cavitation Techniques Using Fillers

6.3 Extraction Techniques

6.4 Using Stretching Techniques on Beta Crystalline Extruded Sheet

6.5 Monoaxially Oriented Microporous Film

6.6 Biaxially Oriented Microporous Film

References

7. Extrusion and Thermoforming

7.1 Use of Beta Nucleation in Thermoforming

7.2 Microvoid Formation as a Function of Processing Condition

7.3 Improved Thickness Uniformity of Thermoformed Containers

7.4 Improved High-Temperature Dimensional Stability

7.5 Cycle Time Advantages Using Beta Nucleation

7.6 General Guidelines for Controlling and Optimizing Processing Conditions

References

8. Geogrids

8.1 Examples of Geogrids Produced with and without Beta Nucleation

8.2 Processing Issues Associated with the Production of Geogrids

8.3 Line Speed and Stretch Temperatures

Reference

9. Rotomolding

References

10. Injection Molding

10.1 The Use of Beta Nucleation to Improve the Impact Strength of PP Closures

10.2 Impact Strength of Filled PP Systems

References

11. Fiber Applications

11.1 Melt-Spun Fibers

11.2 Slit-Film Fibers

References

12. Pipe Applications

References

13. Welding and Heat-Sealing Applications

13.1 Thermal and Vibrational Welding

13.2 Use of Beta Nucleation to Produce PP–PP Composites

References

Index

Key Features

  • Only comprehensive review of beta-nucleated polypropylene technology and applications available
  • The author is one of the world's leading experts in this field
  • Shows how to achieve cost savings and product improvements using beta nucleation technology compared to existing polypropylene fabrication practices and enables implementation of the technology

Readership

Engineers and technicians involved in processing of polypropylene, including engineers who do injection molding, rotomolding, extrusion, thermoforming, and film production. Various applications, including packaging, household appliances, automotive, construction, electrical, textile, agriculture and medical.

Table of Contents

Preface

Part One: Fundamentals of Nucleation

1. The Semicrystalline Morphology of Polypropylene

1.1 Introduction: The Hierarchal Crystal Structure of Polypropylene

1.2 Polymer Structure and Its Influence on Crystallinity

1.3 Spherulitic Structure of PP

1.4 Polymorphism

1.5 Characterizing Beta Crystallinity

References

2. Differences Between the Alpha and Beta Crystal Forms of PP

2.1 Thermal Property Differences

2.2 Mechanical Property Differences

2.3 The Effect of Processing Conditions on the Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene

2.4 Morphology Effects

2.5 Mechanical Property Effects

References

3. The Use of Nucleating Agents in Polypropylene

3.1 How Nucleating Agents Function?

3.2 Beta Nucleation

References

4. Effect of Polymer Variables on Beta Nucleation

4.1 Molecular Weight

4.2 Effect of Molecular Weight Distribution

4.3 Beta Nucleation of ICP PP

4.4 Beta Nucleation of RCP PP

4.5 Influence of the Beta Nucleant Type

Reference

5. The Influence of Other Additives on Beta Nucleation

5.1 Effect of Additives on Nucleation

5.2 Additive Interference with Beta Nucleation

5.3 Overcoming the Interference of Alpha Nucleants in Beta-Nucleated Applications

5.4 Effect of Fillers on Beta Nucleation

References

Part Two: Applications and Advantages of Beta Nucleation

6. Microporous Film

6.1 Stretching of Nonnucleated Film

6.2 Cavitation Techniques Using Fillers

6.3 Extraction Techniques

6.4 Using Stretching Techniques on Beta Crystalline Extruded Sheet

6.5 Monoaxially Oriented Microporous Film

6.6 Biaxially Oriented Microporous Film

References

7. Extrusion and Thermoforming

7.1 Use of Beta Nucleation in Thermoforming

7.2 Microvoid Formation as a Function of Processing Condition

7.3 Improved Thickness Uniformity of Thermoformed Containers

7.4 Improved High-Temperature Dimensional Stability

7.5 Cycle Time Advantages Using Beta Nucleation

7.6 General Guidelines for Controlling and Optimizing Processing Conditions

References

8. Geogrids

8.1 Examples of Geogrids Produced with and without Beta Nucleation

8.2 Processing Issues Associated with the Production of Geogrids

8.3 Line Speed and Stretch Temperatures

Reference

9. Rotomolding

References

10. Injection Molding

10.1 The Use of Beta Nucleation to Improve the Impact Strength of PP Closures

10.2 Impact Strength of Filled PP Systems

References

11. Fiber Applications

11.1 Melt-Spun Fibers

11.2 Slit-Film Fibers

References

12. Pipe Applications

References

13. Welding and Heat-Sealing Applications

13.1 Thermal and Vibrational Welding

13.2 Use of Beta Nucleation to Produce PP–PP Composites

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
148
Language:
English
Copyright:
© William Andrew 2014
Published:
Imprint:
William Andrew
eBook ISBN:
9781455775637

About the Author

Philip Jacoby

Affiliations and Expertise

Mayzo Corporation, USA