Behavioral Neuroscience - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121916503, 9781483217567

Behavioral Neuroscience

1st Edition

An Introduction

Authors: Carl W. Cotman James L McGaugh
eBook ISBN: 9781483217567
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1980
Page Count: 856
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Description

Behavioral Neuroscience: An Introduction provides a basic understanding of what is known about the means by which neurons communicate and about the nervous system which interprets, integrates, and transmits signals into meaningful and appropriate behaviors. The book starts with an overview of the nervous system. The text then describes the general operation and organization of the nervous system; and some of the major types of neurons in the context of their systems. The basic characteristics of neurons and how they communicate; the processes and the basic integrative properties of defined groups of neurons; and complex learning and memory are also considered.
The book further tackles the auditory, somesthetic, olfactory, gustatory, visual, and motor systems; the functions of the autonomic nervous system and the neuroendocrine system; and the neural basis of two types of motivated behavior, drinking and feeding. The text also encompasses sleep and activity rhythms; the development of the neural circuitry and its plasticity throughout life; and the development of behavior. Behavioral disorders and the aspects of the human nervous system which make man unique among all living creatures are also looked into. Behavioral psychologists, behavioral neuroscientists, and psychobiologists will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents


Preface

1 What Does the Nervous System Do

I. Introduction

II. Functions of the Nervous System

III. What the Nervous System Does

References

2 Organizing Principles of the Nervous System

I. Introduction

II. Overview—The General Regions of the CNS

III. Elements of the Nervous System

IV. Overview and Summary

V. The Next Step —The Study of Neurons

Key Terms

References

3 Neurons

I. Introduction

II. Projection Neurons

III. Local Circuit Neurons

IV. Neuronal Ultrastructure

V. The Dynamic Neuroplasm

VI. Fueling the Brain: Its Energy and Nutrient Requirements

VII. Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

4 Basic Principles of Neuronal Signaling

I. Introduction

II. The "Charged-Up and Ready-to-Go" Neuron

III. The Action Potential

IV. Recovery of Ion Gradients

V. Coding

VI. Decoding

VII. Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

5 Synaptic Transmission

I. Introduction

II. Overview of Synaptic Transmission

III. Cholinergic Synaptic Transmission

IV. Catecholaminergic Synaptic Transmission

V. Synaptic Plasticity

VI. Conclusion and Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

6 Integration: Putting It All Together

I. Introduction

II. Neuronal Integration at the Level of a Single Neuron

III. Chemical Coding of Brain Circuitry

IV. The Functional Role of Transmitters in the Brain

V. Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

7 Elementary Learning and Behavioral Plasticity

I. Habituation and Sensitization

II. General Theories of Habituation

III. Cellular Mechanisms of Habituation and Sensitization

IV. Future Directions

V. Associative Learning

VI. Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

8 Complex Learning and Memory

I. Approaches to the Neurobiological Bases of Memory

II. Effects of Brain-Lesions on Retention

III. Neurobiological Correlates of Memory

IV. Neurophysiological Correlates of Learning

V. EEG Studies of Learning

VI. Unit Studies of Learning

VII. Evoked Potentials

VIII. Neurochemical Correlates of Training

IX. Experimental Modulation of Memory Storage Processes

X. Retrograde Amnesia

XI. Effects of Direct Electrical Stimulation of the Brain

XII. Facilitating Effects of Brain Stimulation

XIII. Effects of CNS Stimulants on Memory

XIV. Effects of Inhibition of RNA and Protein Synthesis

XV. Endogenous Modulators of Memory Storage

XVI. Peripheral Catecholamines

XVII. Sleep and Memory Modulation

XVIII. Brain Pathology and Memory

XIX. The Amnesic Syndrome: An Introduction

XX. Retrograde Amnesia in Human Patients

XXI. Neuropathology

XXII. The Psychological Defect in Amnesia

XXIII. The Organization of Memory in the Brain

XXIV. Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

9 Hearing, Tasting and Smelling, and Feeling

I. Introduction

II. Auditory System

III. Somesthetic System

IV. Gustatory and Olfactory Systems

V. Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

10 Seeing

I. Introduction

II. Common Optical Problems

III. The Transduction Process: Light into Electrical Impulses

IV. Building Blocks of Perception

V. Development and Plasticity

VI. Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

11 Moving

I. Introduction

II. The Output: Muscle Contractile Properties

III. The Input: Muscle Receptor Properties

IV. Concepts in Motor Control

V. Spinal Cord Control and Organization

VI. Supraspinal Control: Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum and Motor Cortex

VII. Plasticity, Learning and Volition

VIII. Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

12 Internal States of the Body: Autonomic, Neuroendocrine and Pain Functions

I. Introduction

II. Autonomic Nervous System

III. The Neuroendocrine System: Chemical Integration

IV. Pain

Key Terms

General References

References

13 Thirst and Hunger

I. Introduction

II. Drinking

III. Feeding

IV. Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

14 Sleep and Activity Rhythms

I. Electrophysiological Correlates of Sleep Stages

II. Species Differences in Sleep

III. Neural Structures Affecting Sleep

IV. Chemical Substrates of Sleep

V. Hormones, Neurotransmitters and Sleep

VI. Sleep Disorders

VII. Circadian Rhythms

VIII. Regulation of Circadian Rhythms: Locus of Oscillation

IX. The Concept of Motivation

X. Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

15 The Development, Remodeling and Aging of Neuronal Circuitry

I. Introduction

II. Development of Neuronal Circuitry

III. Trophic Influences of Nerves—A Lasting Partnership between Neurons and Their Target Cells

IV. Remodeling of Neuronal Circuitry

V. Aging of Neuronal Circuitry

VI. The Saga of Neuronal Circuitry: Summary and Conclusions

Key Terms

General References

References

16 Development of Behavior

I. Single Gene Influences on Behavior

II. Development of Sex-Related Behavior: Genetic and Hormonal Influences

III. Mechanism of Hormone Action in Sexual Development

IV. Environmental Influences on the Development of Behavior

V. Development of Language in Humans

VI. Summary

Key Terms

General References

References

17 Behavioral Disorders

I. Introduction

II. Schizophrenia

III. Affective Disorders

IV. Summary and Conclusions

V. Behavioral Disorders Created by Drug Abuse

VI. Drug Types

VII. Mechanisms of Narcotic Dependence and Tolerance

VIII. Summary and Conclusions

IX. Alcoholism

Key Terms

General References

References

18 Why Am I What I Am

I. Introduction

II. Organization of the Human Cerebral Cortex

III. Hemispheric Dominance

IV. Toward Unified Behavior

V. Consciousness

VI. Conclusion

Key Terms

General References

References

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
856
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1980
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483217567

About the Author

Carl W. Cotman

James L McGaugh