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Beam Processing Technologies - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122341212, 9781483217857

Beam Processing Technologies, Volume 21

1st Edition

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Editors: Norman G. Einspruch S. S. Cohen Raj N. Singh
eBook ISBN: 9781483217857
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st May 1989
Page Count: 558
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1 Trends in MOS Integrated Circuit Technology

I. Historical Perspective

II. Device Scaling

III. Trends in FET Design

IV. Isolation

V. Lithography

VI. Ion Implantation

VII. Dielectrics

VIII. Interconnect

IX. Contacts

X. Reliability


XII. Memory Technology

XIII. The Future


Chapter 2 Laser Beam Processing and Wafer-Scale Integration

I. Introduction

II. Theoretical Considerations

III. Results for the LIDL Process

IV. Laser Beam Processing in IC Repair and Customization


Chapter 3 Electron Beam Processing

I. Introduction

II. Interaction of Electrons with Matter

III. Components for Electron Beam Machines

IV. Multibeam E-Beam Machines

V. Applications Involving Low Electron Energies

VI. Chemical Processing


Chapter 4 Ion Beam Techniques and Applications

I. Introduction

II. Sources for Broad-Area Ion Beams

III. Sources for Submicrometer Beams

IV. Parallel Processing with Broad-Area Beams

V. Serial Processing with Finely Focused Beams

VI. Summary


Chapter 5 Silicon Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Capabilities and Trends

I. Introduction

II. Si MBE Technology

III. Growth Mechanisms and Surface Preparation

IV. Silicon Doping

V. Polycrystalline Silicon

VI. Application of Si MBE

VII. Conclusion


Chapter 6 Chemical Beam Epitaxy

I. Introduction

II. CBE System Design

III. Substrate Preparation for Growth

IV. Growth Kinetics of CBE

V. Quality of Epilayers

VI. Growth of Epilayers Using Group Alkyls

VII. GaInAs/InP and GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Wells and Superlattices

VIII. Doping Control

IX. Device Applications

X. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 7 Ion Implantation for VLSI

I. Introduction

II. Commençai Ion Implanters

III. Ion Beam Production and Acceleration

IV. Implantation Physics

V. Problems Associated with Ion Implantation

VI. Endstation Design

VII. Ion Implanter System Design


Chapter 8 Incoherent Radiation and Its Applications (Visible, UV, X rays)

I. Introduction

II. Pattern Replication

III. Optical Imaging

IV. Photolithographic Tools

V. Deep-UV Lithography

VI. X-ray Lithography

VII. Thermal Processing with Incoherent Radiation

VIII. Conclusion


Chapter 9 Electron Beam Testing: An Outline of Techniques

I. Introduction

II. Introduction to the Scanning Electron Microscope

III. Qualitative Voltage Contrast

IV. Voltage Contrast Linearization for Potential Measurements

V. Estimate of Minimum Measurable Voltage

VI. Observation of Fast Voltage Waveforms and Dynamic Voltage Distributions Using a Pulsed Beam Probe

VII. Electron Beam Pulsing in the Electron-Optical Column

VIII. Stroboscopic and Sampling Mode Operation

IX. Other Modes with Synchronous and Asynchronous Pulsed Beams

X. Summary




Beam Processing Technologies is a collection of papers that deals with the miniaturization of devices that will be faster, consume less power, and cost less per operation or fabrication. One paper discusses metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit technology including the operation of devices whose lateral and vertical dimensions are scaled down. If the devices' silicon doping profiles are increased by the same scale factor, they can operate on lower voltages and currents, with the same performance. Another paper describes laser beam processing and wafer-scale integration as techniques to increase the number of devices on a silicon chip. Electron beam technologies can be used in many fabrication processes such as in microlithography, selective oxidation, doping, metrology. Ion beam applications depend on the presence of the ion introduced into the device (e.g. implantation doping), on pseudoelastic collisions (e.g. physical sputtering or crystal damage), and on inelastic scattering (e.g. polymer resist exposure). Silicon molecular beam epitaxy (SiMBE) can also grow high-quality layers at low temperature, particularly concerning germanium, especially as reagrds the growth system design and utilization of n- and p-type doping. Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) is another epitaxial growth technique that can surpass MBE and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD). The collection is suitable chemical engineers, industrial physicists, and researchers whose work involve micro-fabrication and development of integrated circuits.


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1989
21st May 1989
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

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About the Editors

Norman G. Einspruch

S. S. Cohen

Raj N. Singh