Beam Processing Technologies

Beam Processing Technologies

1st Edition - May 21, 1989

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  • Editors: Norman G. Einspruch, S. S. Cohen, Raj N. Singh
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483217857

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Beam Processing Technologies is a collection of papers that deals with the miniaturization of devices that will be faster, consume less power, and cost less per operation or fabrication. One paper discusses metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit technology including the operation of devices whose lateral and vertical dimensions are scaled down. If the devices' silicon doping profiles are increased by the same scale factor, they can operate on lower voltages and currents, with the same performance. Another paper describes laser beam processing and wafer-scale integration as techniques to increase the number of devices on a silicon chip. Electron beam technologies can be used in many fabrication processes such as in microlithography, selective oxidation, doping, metrology. Ion beam applications depend on the presence of the ion introduced into the device (e.g. implantation doping), on pseudoelastic collisions (e.g. physical sputtering or crystal damage), and on inelastic scattering (e.g. polymer resist exposure). Silicon molecular beam epitaxy (SiMBE) can also grow high-quality layers at low temperature, particularly concerning germanium, especially as reagrds the growth system design and utilization of n- and p-type doping. Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) is another epitaxial growth technique that can surpass MBE and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD). The collection is suitable chemical engineers, industrial physicists, and researchers whose work involve micro-fabrication and development of integrated circuits.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1 Trends in MOS Integrated Circuit Technology

    I. Historical Perspective

    II. Device Scaling

    III. Trends in FET Design

    IV. Isolation

    V. Lithography

    VI. Ion Implantation

    VII. Dielectrics

    VIII. Interconnect

    IX. Contacts

    X. Reliability

    XI. BiCMOS

    XII. Memory Technology

    XIII. The Future


    Chapter 2 Laser Beam Processing and Wafer-Scale Integration

    I. Introduction

    II. Theoretical Considerations

    III. Results for the LIDL Process

    IV. Laser Beam Processing in IC Repair and Customization


    Chapter 3 Electron Beam Processing

    I. Introduction

    II. Interaction of Electrons with Matter

    III. Components for Electron Beam Machines

    IV. Multibeam E-Beam Machines

    V. Applications Involving Low Electron Energies

    VI. Chemical Processing


    Chapter 4 Ion Beam Techniques and Applications

    I. Introduction

    II. Sources for Broad-Area Ion Beams

    III. Sources for Submicrometer Beams

    IV. Parallel Processing with Broad-Area Beams

    V. Serial Processing with Finely Focused Beams

    VI. Summary


    Chapter 5 Silicon Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Capabilities and Trends

    I. Introduction

    II. Si MBE Technology

    III. Growth Mechanisms and Surface Preparation

    IV. Silicon Doping

    V. Polycrystalline Silicon

    VI. Application of Si MBE

    VII. Conclusion


    Chapter 6 Chemical Beam Epitaxy

    I. Introduction

    II. CBE System Design

    III. Substrate Preparation for Growth

    IV. Growth Kinetics of CBE

    V. Quality of Epilayers

    VI. Growth of Epilayers Using Group Alkyls

    VII. GaInAs/InP and GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Wells and Superlattices

    VIII. Doping Control

    IX. Device Applications

    X. Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 7 Ion Implantation for VLSI

    I. Introduction

    II. Commençai Ion Implanters

    III. Ion Beam Production and Acceleration

    IV. Implantation Physics

    V. Problems Associated with Ion Implantation

    VI. Endstation Design

    VII. Ion Implanter System Design


    Chapter 8 Incoherent Radiation and Its Applications (Visible, UV, X rays)

    I. Introduction

    II. Pattern Replication

    III. Optical Imaging

    IV. Photolithographic Tools

    V. Deep-UV Lithography

    VI. X-ray Lithography

    VII. Thermal Processing with Incoherent Radiation

    VIII. Conclusion


    Chapter 9 Electron Beam Testing: An Outline of Techniques

    I. Introduction

    II. Introduction to the Scanning Electron Microscope

    III. Qualitative Voltage Contrast

    IV. Voltage Contrast Linearization for Potential Measurements

    V. Estimate of Minimum Measurable Voltage

    VI. Observation of Fast Voltage Waveforms and Dynamic Voltage Distributions Using a Pulsed Beam Probe

    VII. Electron Beam Pulsing in the Electron-Optical Column

    VIII. Stroboscopic and Sampling Mode Operation

    IX. Other Modes with Synchronous and Asynchronous Pulsed Beams

    X. Summary



Product details

  • No. of pages: 558
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1989
  • Published: May 21, 1989
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483217857

About the Editors

Norman G. Einspruch

S. S. Cohen

Raj N. Singh

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