Basic Neurochemistry

Basic Neurochemistry

Principles of Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Neurobiology

8th Edition - November 2, 2011

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  • Editors: Scott Brady, George Siegel, R. Wayne Albers, Donald L. Price
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123749475
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080959016

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Basic Neurochemistry, Eighth Edition, is the updated version of the outstanding and comprehensive classic text on neurochemistry. For more than forty years, this text has been the worldwide standard for information on the biochemistry of the nervous system, serving as a resource for postgraduate trainees and teachers in neurology, psychiatry, and basic neuroscience, as well as for medical, graduate, and postgraduate students and instructors in the neurosciences. The text has evolved, as intended, with the science. This new edition continues to cover the basics of neurochemistry as in the earlier editions, along with expanded and additional coverage of new research from intracellular trafficking, stem cells, adult neurogenesis, regeneration, and lipid messengers. It contains expanded coverage of all major neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, including the neurochemistry of addiction, pain, and hearing and balance; the neurobiology of learning and memory; sleep; myelin structure, development, and disease; autism; and neuroimmunology.

Key Features

  • Completely updated text with new authors and material, and many entirely new chapters
  • Over 400 fully revised figures in splendid color
  • 61 chapters covering the range of cellular, molecular and medical neuroscience
  • Translational science boxes emphasizing the connections between basic and clinical neuroscience
  • Companion website at


Advanced undergraduates, graduate students and post-docs in neuroscience or biomedical science, medical students, clinical neuroscientists and neurologists

Table of Contents

  • Associate Editors

    List of Boxes


    List of Contributors

    Eighth Edition Acknowledgments and History

    Preface to the Eighth Edition

    Part I: Cellular Neurochemistry and Neural Membranes

    Chapter 1. Cell Biology of the Nervous System


    Cellular Neuroscience is the Foundation of Modern Neuroscience

    Neurons: Common Elements and Diversity

    Macroglia: More than Meets the Eye


    Blood–Brain Barriers and the Nervous System

    The Neurovascular Unit Includes Multiple Components



    Chapter 2. Cell Membrane Structures and Functions

    Phospholipid Bilayers

    Membrane Proteins

    Biological Membranes


    Chapter 3. Membrane Transport


    Primary Active Transport (P-Type) Pumps

    Na,K-Adenosinetriphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase)

    Ca Adenosinetriphosphatases and Na,Ca Antiporters

    The Primary Plasma Membrane Ca Transporter (PMCA)

    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Pumps (SERCA)

    Other P-Type Transporters

    V0V1 Proton Pumps

    ATP-Binding Cassettes

    Secondary Active Transport

    General Physiology of Neurotransmitter Uptake and Storage

    The Cation Antiporters

    The Anion Antiporters

    Facilitated Diffusion: Aquaporins and Diffusion of Water

    Facilitated Diffusion of Glucose and Myoinositol


    Chapter 4. Electrical Excitability and Ion Channels

    Membrane Potentials and Electrical Signals in Excitable Cells

    Action Potentials in Electrically Excitable Cells

    Functional Properties of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels

    The Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Superfamily

    The Molecular Basis for Ion Channel Function

    Ion Channel Diversity



    Chapter 5. Lipids


    Properties of Brain Lipids

    Complex Lipids

    Analysis of Brain Lipids

    Brain Lipid Biosynthesis

    Genes for Enzymes Catalyzing Synthesis and Degradation of Lipids

    Lipids in the Cellular Milieu




    Chapter 6. The Cytoskeleton of Neurons and Glia


    Molecular Components of the Neuronal Cytoskeleton

    Ultrastructure and Molecular Organization of Neurons and Glia

    Cytoskeletal Structures in the Neuron Have Complementary Distributions and Functions



    Chapter 7. Intracellular Trafficking


    General Mechanisms of Intracellular Membrane Trafficking in Mammalian Cells Include Both Universal and Highly Specialized Processes

    Fundamentals of Membrane Trafficking are Based on a set of Common Principles

    The biosynthetic Secretory Pathway Includes Synthetic, Processing, Targeting and Secretory Steps

    The Endocytic Pathway Plays Multiple Roles in Cells of the Nervous System

    Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking is a Specialized Form of Regulated Secretion and Recycling Optimized for Speed and Efficiency



    Chapter 8. Axonal Transport


    Neuronal Organelles in Motion

    Discovery and Development of the Concept of Fast and Slow Components of Axonal Transport

    Fast Axonal Transport

    Slow Axonal Transport

    Molecular Motors: Kinesin, Dynein and Myosin

    AXONAL Transport and Neuropathology



    Chapter 9. Cell Adhesion Molecules


    Immunoglobulin Superfamily



    Cooperation and Crosstalk between Cell Adhesion Molecules



    Chapter 10. Myelin Structure and Biochemistry

    The Myelin Sheath

    Characteristic Composition of Myelin



    Chapter 11. Energy Metabolism of the Brain


    Substrates for Cerebral Energy Metabolism

    Age and Development Influence Cerebral Energy Metabolism

    Fueling Brain: Supply–Demand Relationships and Cerebral Metabolic Rate

    Metabolism in the Brain is Highly Compartmentalized

    Glycolysis: Conversion of Glucose to Pyruvate

    Glycogen is Actively Synthesized and Degraded in Astrocytes

    The Pentose Phosphate Shunt has Essential Roles in Brain

    The Malate–Aspartate Shuttle has a key Role in Brain Metabolism

    There is Active Metabolism of Lactate in Brain

    Major Functions of the Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle: Pyruvate Oxidation to CO2, NADH/FADH2 Formation for ATP Generation and Synthesis of Glutamate and Aspartate

    Mitochondrial Heterogeneity: Differential Distribution of Many TCA Cycle Enzymes and Components of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Neuronal and Glial Mitochondria

    Glutamate–Glutamine Metabolism is Linked to Energy Metabolism

    Metabolic Studies in Brain: Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Relation of Energy Metabolism to Pathological Conditions in the Brain



    Part II: Intercellular Signaling

    Chapter 12. Synaptic Transmission and Cellular Signaling: An Overview

    Synaptic Transmission

    Cellular Signaling Mechanisms



    Chapter 13. Acetylcholine


    Synthesis, Storage and Release of Acetylcholine: Distribution of Cholinergic Pathways

    Enzymatic Breakdown of Acetylcholine

    Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptors

    Muscarinic Cholinergic Receptors


    Chapter 14. Catecholamines

    Overview of Catecholamines


    Adrenergic Receptors

    Agonist-Induced Downregulation

    Repeated Antagonist Treatment


    Chapter 15. Serotonin

    Serotonin, The Neurotransmitter

    Serotonin Receptors


    Chapter 16. Histamine


    Histamine: The Molecule and the Messenger

    Histaminergic Cells of the Central Nervous System: Anatomy and Morphology

    Dynamics of Histamine in the Brain

    Molecular Sites of Histamine Action

    Histamine Actions on the Nervous System

    Significance of Brain Histamine for Drug Action


    Chapter 17. Glutamate and Glutamate Receptors

    The Amino Acid Glutamate is the Major Excitatory Neurotransmitter in the Brain

    Brain Glutamate is Derived from Blood-Borne Glucose and Amino Acids that Cross the Blood–Brain Barrier

    Glutamine is an Important Immediate Precursor for Glutamate: The Glutamine Cycle

    Synaptic Vesicles Accumulate Transmitter Glutamate by Vesicular Glutamate Transporters

    Is Aspartate a Neurotransmitter?

    Long-Term Potentiation or Depression of Glutamatergic Synapses May Underlie Learning

    The Neuronal Pathways of the Hippocampus are Essential Structures for Memory Formation

    Ionotropic and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors are Principal Proteins at the Postsynaptic Density

    Three Classes of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors are Identified

    Glutamate Produces Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials

    Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Modulate Synaptic Transmission

    Glutamate Receptors Differ in their Postsynaptic Distribution

    Proteins of the Postsynaptic Density Mediate Intracellular Effects of Glutamate Receptor Activation

    Dendritic Spines are Motile, Changing their Shape and Size in Response to Synaptic Activity within Minutes

    Sodium-Dependent Symporters in the Plasma Membranes Clear Glutamate from the Extracellular Space

    Sodium-Dependent Glutamine Transporters in Plasma Membranes Mediate the Transfer of Glutamine from Astrocytes to Neurons

    Excessive Glutamate Receptor Activation may Mediate Certain Neurological Disorders


    Chapter 18. GABA


    GABA Synthesis, Release and Uptake

    GABA Receptor Physiology and Pharmacology

    Structure and Function of GABA Receptors

    GABA is the Major Rapidly Acting Inhibitory Neurotransmitter in Brain


    Chapter 19. Purinergic Signaling

    Nomenclature of Purines and Pyrimidines

    Purine Release

    Purinergic Receptors

    Effects of Purines in the Nervous System

    Disorders of the Nervous System—Purines and Pain: A1R, P2X and P2Y Receptors

    Disorders of the Nervous System: Adenosine Kinase and the Adenosine Hypothesis of Epilepsy

    Disorders of the Nervous System: Parkinson’s Disease and A2A Antagonists

    Concluding Comments


    Chapter 20. Peptides


    Neuropeptide Receptors

    Neuropeptide Functions and Regulation

    Peptidergic Systems in Disease


    Part III: Intracellular Signaling

    Chapter 21. G Proteins

    Heterotrimeric G Proteins

    Small G Proteins

    Other Features of G Proteins


    Chapter 22. Cyclic Nucleotides in the Nervous System

    Introduction: Second Messengers

    Adenylyl Cylcases

    Guanylyl Cyclases


    Spatiotemporal Integration and Regulation of Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling in Neurons

    Conclusion and Future Perspective


    Chapter 23. Phosphoinositides


    The Inositol Lipids

    The Inositol Phosphates


    Phosphoinositides and Cell Regulation


    Chapter 24. Calcium

    The Calcium Signal in Context

    Calcium Measurement

    Calcium Homeostasis at the Plasma Membrane

    Cellular Organelles and Calcium Pools

    Ca2+ Signaling Begins in Microdomains

    Local and Global Ca2+ Signaling: Integrative Roles for Astrocytes?



    Chapter 25. Serine and Threonine Phosphorylation

    Protein Phosphorylation is a Fundamental Mechanism Regulating Cellular Functions

    Protein Ser/Thr Kinases

    Protein Ser/Thr Phosphatases

    Common strategies used for the evaluation of neuronal functions of protein kinases and phosphatases

    Neuronal Phosphoproteins

    Protein Phosphorylation is a Fundamental Mechanism Underlying Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Functions

    Protein Phosphorylation in Human Neuronal Disorders



    Chapter 26. Tyrosine Phosphorylation

    Tyrosine Phosphorylation in the Nervous System

    Protein Tyrosine Kinases

    Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    Role of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in the Nervous System


    Chapter 27. Transcription Factors in the Central Nervous System

    The Transcriptional Process

    Regulation of Transcription by Transcription Factors

    Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Receptors as Transcription Factors

    cAMP Regulation of Transcription

    The Role of Transcription Factors in Cellular Phenotype

    The Transcriptome Dictates Cellular Phenotype

    Transcription as a Target for Drug Development


    Part IV: Growth, Development and Differentiation

    Chapter 28. Development of the Nervous System


    Early Embryology of the Nervous System

    Spatial Regionalization

    Neurogenesis and Gliogenesis

    PNS Development and Target Interactions

    Axon Guidance Contributes to Correct Connections

    Synapse Formation

    Activity and Experience Shape Long-Lasting Connections



    Chapter 29. Growth Factors

    Introduction: What is a Growth Factor?


    Regulation of Neurotrophin Expression


    Neurotrophin Receptors

    Glial Cell line–Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)

    GFL Receptors


    Neurotrophic Cytokines

    Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 30. Stem Cells in the Nervous System


    Stem Cells are Multipotent and Self-Renewing

    Neural Stem Cells Contribute to Neurons and Glia During Normal Development

    Stem Cells can be Identified Antigenically and Functionally

    Stem Cells Offer Potential for Repair in the Adult Nervous System


    Chapter 31. Formation and Maintenance of Myelin


    Schwann Cell Development

    Oligodendrocyte Development

    Regulation of Myelination

    Developmental and Metabolic Aspects of Myelin

    Genetic Disorders of Myelination

    Myelin Maintenance




    Chapter 32. Axonal Growth in the Adult Mammalian Nervous System: Regeneration and Compensatory Plasticity


    Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System

    Regeneration in the Central Nervous System

    Central Nervous System Injury and Compensatory Plasticity




    Part V: Cell Injury and Inflammation

    Chapter 33. Molecular Mechanisms and Consequences of Immune and Nervous System Interactions


    Distinguishing Friend from FOE

    The Nervous System Regulates Both Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    Immune Privilege Is Not Immune Isolation: The CNS as an Immune-Active Organ

    Immune-Regulated Changes in Neuronal Function and Mammalian Behavior

    Summary: Manipulating Neuroimmune Interactions


    Chapter 34. Neuroinflammation

    Neuroinflammation: Introduction

    The Highly Regulated Activation of Microglia and Phagocytosis

    Microglial Dysfunction During Aging

    Protein Aggregation


    Lipid Mediator Pathways in Neuroinflammation

    Ischemia-Reperfusion Damage

    The Interface Between Inflammation and the Immune System in the CNS

    Mitochondria: A Connection Between Inflammation and Neurodegeneration

    Neuroprotective Signaling Circuits


    Chapter 35. Brain Ischemia and Reperfusion: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Stroke Injury

    Brain Responses to Ischemia

    Injury in the Ischemic Phase

    Brain Injury During the Reperfusion Phase: Free Radicals in Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury

    Breakdown of the Neurovascular Unit and Brain Edema

    Neuroprotection Signaling and Resolution of Inflammation: Mechanisms

    Potential Therapeutic Strategies for Acute Ischemic Stroke



    Chapter 36. Lipid Mediators: Eicosanoids, Docosanoids and Platelet-Activating Factor

    Storage of Lipid Messengers in Neural Membrane Phospholipids

    Phospholipases A2


    Platelet-Activating Factor



    Diacylglycerol Kinases

    Lipid Signaling in Neuroinflammation

    Docosahexaenoic Acid

    Lipid Peroxidation and Oxidative Stress


    Neuroprotectin D1: A Docosahexaenoic-Acid–Derived Mediator

    The Future of Neurolipidomic Signaling


    Chapter 37. Apoptosis and Necrosis

    Distinguishing Features of Apoptosis and Necrosis



    Targeting Apoptosis and Necrosis in Neurological Disorders


    Part VI: Inherited and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Chapter 38. Peripheral Neuropathy: Neurochemical and Molecular Mechanisms


    Peripheral Nerve Organization

    Genetically Determined Neuropathies

    Diabetic Neuropathy

    Autoimmune Neuropathies

    Other Causes of Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    Axon Degeneration and Protection


    Chapter 39. Diseases Involving Myelin

    General Classification

    Acquired Immune-Mediated and/or Infectious Diseases of Myelin

    Genetically Determined Disorders of Myelin

    Other Diseases Primarily Involving Myelin

    Disorders Primarily Affecting Neurons with Secondary Involvement of Myelin

    Repair in Demyelinating Diseases



    Chapter 40. The Epilepsies: Phenotypes and Mechanisms

    Epilepsy is a Common Neurological Disorder

    Terminology and Classification

    Mechanisms of Antiseizure Drugs

    Genetics of Epilepsy


    Chapter 41. Genetics of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Genetic Aspects of Common Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Alzheimer’s Disease

    Parkinson’s Disease

    Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Frontotemporal Dementia

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Neurodegenerative Triplet Repeat Disorders

    Creutzfeld-JaKob Disease and other Prion Diseases

    Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 42. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism


    Disorders of Branched-Chain Amino Acids: Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Disorders of Phenylalanine Metabolism: Phenylketonuria

    Disorders of Glycine Metabolism: Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia

    Disorders of Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism: Homocystinuria

    The Urea Cycle Defects

    Disorders of Glutathione Metabolism

    Disorders of -Aminobutyric Acid Metabolism

    Disorders of N-Acetyl Aspartate Metabolism


    Chapter 43. Inborn Metabolic Defects of Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Carbohydrates, Fatty Acids and Mitochondria

    Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    Peroxisomal Diseases

    Classification of Peroxisomal Diseases

    Therapy of Peroxisomal Diseases

    Diseases of Carbohydrate and Fatty Acid Metabolism

    Diseases of Mitochondrial Metabolism

    Acknowledgments and Dedication


    Chapter 44. Disorders of Muscle Excitability

    Organization of the Neuromuscular Junction

    Excitation and Contraction of the Muscle Fiber

    Genetic Disorders of the Neuromuscular Junction

    Hereditary Diseases of Muscle Membranes

    Immune Diseases of Muscle Excitability

    Toxins and Metabolites that Alter Muscular Excitation


    Chapter 45. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Is the Most Common Adult-Onset Motor Neuron Disease

    Models of Motor Neuron Disease Induced by Experimental Nerve Injury Have been Instructive

    Selected Genetic Models of Relevance to ALS and Other Motor Neuron Diseases Have been Identified or Generated

    Available Genetic Mouse Models Will Aid in Discovering Disease Mechanisms and Novel Means of Therapy



    Chapter 46. Neurobiology of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Alzheimer’s Disease is the Most Prevalent Neurodegenerative Disease of the Elderly




    Chapter 47. Synucleinopathies and Tauopathies



    Parkinson’s Disease and Other Lewy Body Diseases

    Multiple System Atrophy

    Synthetic α-Synuclein Filaments

    Animal Models of Synucleinopathies


    Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau

    Tau and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Other Tauopathies

    MAPT Mutations Causing Tauopathy

    Relevance for Other Tauopathies

    Synthetic Tau Filaments

    Animal Models of Human Tauopathies



    Chapter 48. Cellular and Molecular Basis of Neurodegeneration in the CAG–Polyglutamine Repeat Diseases

    Introduction to the CAG–Polyglutamine Repeat Diseases

    Expanded Polyglutamine Tracts Promote Protein Misfolding to Drive Neurotoxicity

    The Role of Protein turnover Pathways in Polyglutamine Disease Pathogenesis

    The Importance of Normal Function in the Polyglutamine Repeat Diseases

    RNA Toxicity in the Polyglutamine Repeat Diseases?

    Gene Silencing is a Promising Therapy for Polyglutamine Repeat Disease


    Chapter 49. Neurotransmitters and Disorders of the Basal Ganglia

    Anatomy and Physiology of the Basal Ganglia

    Disorders that Involve Basal Ganglia Dysfunction



    Chapter 50. Molecular Basis of Prion Diseases


    Prion Diseases are Biologically Unique

    Animal Prion Diseases

    Human Prion Diseases

    Prion Disease Pathology and Pathogenesis

    The Protein-Only Hypothesis of Prion Propagation

    Characterization of PrPC

    Characterization of PrPSc

    The Molecular Basis of Prion Strain Diversity

    Prion Transmission Barriers

    Future Perspectives


    Part VII: Sensory Transduction

    Chapter 51. Molecular Biology of Vision

    Structure and Development of the Visual System

    Photoreceptors and Phototransduction

    Signaling Downstream of Photoreceptors

    Recycling of Phototransduction Molecules

    Retinal Neurodegeneration


    Chapter 52. Molecular Basis of Olfaction and Taste





    Chapter 53. Molecular Biology of Hearing and Balance

    General Features of Mechanotransduction

    Non-Vertebrate Model Systems

    Hair Cells

    Hair Cells in the Inner Ear

    Balance: Vestibular Organs

    Hearing: Cochlea



    Chapter 54. Pain

    Nociceptive Versus Clinical Pain

    Nociceptors are First Responders

    Pain Transmission in the Spinal Cord

    Brainstem, Thalamus and Cortex

    Opioid Analgesia


    Inflammatory Pain

    Neuropathic Pain

    Genetic Factors




    Part VIII: Neural Processing and Behavior

    Chapter 55. Endocrine Effects on the Brain and Their Relationship to Behavior


    Behavioral Control of Hormonal Secretion

    Classification of Hormonal Effects

    Biochemistry of Steroid and Thyroid Hormone Actions

    Intracellular Steroid Receptors: Properties and Topography

    Membrane Steroid Receptors and Signaling Pathways

    Biochemistry of Thyroid Hormone Actions on Brain

    Diversity of Steroid-Hormone Actions on the Brain



    Chapter 56. Learning and Memory

    Brief History of Memory Research in Humans

    Divisions of Memory

    Molecular Mechanisms of Learning

    Molecular Mechanisms of Memory Consolidation and Storage

    Neural Population-Level Memory Traces and Their Organizing Principles


    Chapter 57. The Neurochemistry of Sleep and Wakefulness

    Sleep Phenomenology and Function: The Search for Neurochemical Substrates

    Development of Sleep Disorders Medicine and Sleep Neurobiology





    Amino Acids


    Conclusions and Future Directions


    Chapter 58. The Neurochemistry of Schizophrenia

    Clinical Aspects of Schizophrenia

    Brain Imaging

    Cellular and Molecular Studies



    Chapter 59. The Neurochemistry of Autism

    Clinical Aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)

    Genetic Studies

    Neurochemical Studies



    Chapter 60. Neurobiology of Severe Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    Mood Disorders

    Neurotransmitter and Neuropeptide Systems and the Pathophysiology of Mood Disorders

    Neuroanatomical and Neuropathological Correlates of Mood Disorders

    Intracellular Signaling Pathways

    Anxiety Disorders

    The Neurochemistry of Fear and Anxiety

    Intracellular Targets for Anxiety Disorders

    Future Directions and the Development of Novel Therapeutics


    Chapter 61. Addiction

    General Principles

    Neuronal Circuitry of Addiction


    Psychomotor Stimulants

    Cannabinoids (Marijuana)


    Ethanol, Sedatives and Anxiolytics

    Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs

    Addiction and Neuronal Plasticity Share Common Cellular Mechanisms





Product details

  • No. of pages: 1120
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2011
  • Published: November 2, 2011
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123749475
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080959016

About the Editors

Scott Brady

Affiliations and Expertise

Head, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, USAUniversity of Illinois, Chicago, IL, USA

George Siegel

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Neruology, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine; Chief of Neurology Service (retired), Edward Hines, Jr. Veterans Affairs Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA

R. Wayne Albers

R. Wayne Albers

OBITUARY FOR R. WAYNE ALBERS, August 5, 1928 - September 28, 2013

R. Wayne Albers, Ph.D., Scientist Emeritus, Chief of Section on Enzyme Chemistry (retired), Laboratory of Neurochemistry in the NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, is a world-recognized neuroscientist most noted for his research in the field of membrane cation transport and neuronal excitability in the nervous system. Dr. Albers and physiologist R.L. Post performed the principal experiments leading to their now widely-held Albers-Post model for the mechanism of the cation transport enzyme, sodium-potassium-activated ATPase. Dr. Albers was one of the founding co-editors of the comprehensive text, Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects, first published in 1972, continuing as co-editor for 8 editions, the latest having been published in 2012. After receiving his PhD at Washington University School of Medicine in 1954, Dr. Albers embarked on a distinguished career of research at the NIH, being a founding investigator in the first Laboratory of Neurochemistry.

Dr. Albers was one of the first members of the American Society for Neurochemistry at its inception, serving on its Council and its Committees on Publications and Education and on Electronic Publications. He has served as Professor of Biochemistry at George Washington University, Faculty Member of the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences, Associate Editor of the Journal of Neurochemistry and of Experimental Neurology, and on the editorial boards of several journals.

Dr. Albers passed away on September 28, 2013. He was 85 years old and is survived by his former wife, Frances Albers, their children Gail Morrell, Belinda Caron and Patricia Steinhoff, 6 grandchildren, and 8 great-grandchildren. He also had a son, the late Jonathan Albers.

Dr. Albers was considered a gentleman, an excellent scientific colleague with a keen intellect and friend by all who worked with him. He will be sorely missed, not only by his family, but also by the entire neurochemistry community.

George J. Siegel

October 1, 2013

Affiliations and Expertise

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD, USA

Donald L. Price

About the Editors in Chief

Scott Brady

Affiliations and Expertise

Head, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, USAUniversity of Illinois, Chicago, IL, USA

George Siegel

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Neruology, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine; Chief of Neurology Service (retired), Edward Hines, Jr. Veterans Affairs Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA

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  • Pasan F. Fri Feb 22 2019

    Great for putting the pieces together

    The material is nicely organized and is laid out in a manner that allows learners to put individual concepts together toward larger learning objectives.