Basic and Applied Bone Biology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124160156, 9780123914590

Basic and Applied Bone Biology

1st Edition

Editors: David Burr Matthew Allen
eBook ISBN: 9780123914590
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124160156
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 2nd August 2013
Page Count: 390
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Description

This book provides an overview of skeletal biology from the molecular level to the organ level, including cellular control, interaction and response; adaptive responses to various external stimuli; the interaction of the skeletal system with other metabolic processes in the body; and the effect of various disease processes on the skeleton. The book also includes chapters that address how the skeleton can be evaluated through the use of various imaging technologies, biomechanical testing, histomorphometric analysis, and the use of genetically modified animal models.

Key Features

  • Presents an in-depth overview of skeletal biology from the molecular to the organ level
  • Offers "refresher" level content for clinicians or researchers outside their areas of expertise
  • Boasts editors and many chapter authors from Indiana and Purdue Universities, two of the broadest and deepest programs in skeletal biology in the US; other chapter authors include clinician scientists from pharmaceutical companies that apply the basics of bone biology

Readership

Graduate students, medical fellows/residents, researchers, and academic clinicians in the fields of bone biology, endocrinology, osteology, rheumatology, and dentistry.

Table of Contents

Front-matter

Dedications

Preface

Acknowledgements

List of Contributors

Section 1: Basic Bone Biology and Physiology

Chapter 1. Bone Morphology and Organization

The Functions of Bone

Bone is Organized as a Multiscale Material

Bone Composition

The Nanoscale Organization of Bone

The Microstructural Organization of Bone

The Macroscopic Organization of Bone

The Blood Supply and Innervation of Bone

Bone Fluid Compartments

Bone Mass and Bone Quality

Suggested Readings

Chapter 2. Bone Cells

Osteoclasts

Osteoblasts

Osteocytes

Suggested Readings

Chapter 3. Local Regulation of Bone Cell Function

Overview of Cytokines and Growth Factors and their Receptors

Local Factors that Regulate Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation and Function

Factors that Regulate Osteoclast Differentiation and Function

Factors that Affect Osteoblast Differentiation and Function

Local Factors that Affect Both Osteoclasts and Osteoblasts

Regulation of Bone Cell Differentiation and Function Through Cell-Cell Contact

Local Angiogenic Factors that Regulate Bone Cell Activity

Cell Surface Attachment Molecules

Suggested Readings

Chapter 4. Bone Modeling and Remodeling

Skeletal Development

Bone Modeling

Bone Remodeling

Bone Repair

Effects of Modeling and Remodeling on Bone Structure and Material Properties

Laboratory Assessment of Modeling and Remodeling

Suggested Readings

Section 2: Assessment of Bone Structure and Function

Chapter 5. Skeletal Imaging

Radiography

Absorptiometry (Photon and X-Ray)

Computed Tomography

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Positron Emission Tomography

Ultrasound

Suggested Readings

Chapter 6. Skeletal Hard Tissue Biomechanics

Introduction to Basic Bone Structure and Function

Fundamentals of Solid Mechanics

Factors Contributing to Whole Bone Mechanical Properties

Suggested Readings

Chapter 7. Techniques in Histomorphometry

Histologic Specimens

Histomorphometric Analysis

Assumptions and Technical Aspects

Histologic Features of Disease and Treatment

Suggested Readings

Chapter 8. Skeletal Genetics: From Gene Identification to Murine Models of Disease

Simple and Complex Traits

Transgenic Technology and the Creation of Novel Research Models

Transgenic Animals and Bone Biology

Suggested Readings

Section 3: Skeletal Adaptation

Chapter 9. Mechanical Adaptation

Wolff’s Law—A Historical Perspective

Components of Strain that May be Osteogenic

Animal Models of Skeletal Mechanotransduction

Rules for Bone Adaptation

The Mechanostat

Cell Sensitivity and Refractory Periods

A Test of Wolff’s Law

Mechanotransduction on a Smaller Scale: Cell Types and their Environment

Fluid Flow in Bone Tissue has Manifold Cellular Effects

Cellular Deformation and Stimulation

What is the Mechanoreceptor?

Coordinating the Biochemical Response to Mechanical Stimulation

Clinical Implications: Reaping the Benefits of Mechanical Loading Effects to Improve Skeletal Health

Important Features of Exercise Regimens Designed to Influence Skeletal Adaptation

Skeletal Benefit of Exercise During Infancy and Childhood

Skeletal Response to Exercise in Adulthood

Suggested Readings

Chapter 10. Fracture Healing

Introduction

Types of Bone Fracture

Primary and Secondary Repair Mechanisms

Stages of Fracture Repair

Assessment of Fracture Healing

Cellular Events of Fracture Repair

Molecular Regulation of Chondrogenesis and Osteogenesis During Fracture Repair

Local Regulation of Fracture Repair

Systemic Factors in Fracture Repair

Effects of Osteoporosis Drugs on Fracture Healing

Effects of Mechanical and Electrical Stimulation on Fracture Repair

Suggested Readings

Chapter 11. Craniofacial Biology, Orthodontics, and Implants

Craniofacial Skeleton

Orthodontic Tooth Movement

Suture Expansion

Implants

Suggested Readings

Section 4: Hormonal and Metabolic Effects on Bone

Chapter 12. Skeletal Growth and Development

Prenatal

Childhood

Development of Peak Bone Mass

Regulators of Growth

Catch-Up Growth

Fracture Risk in Children

Suggested Readings

Chapter 13. Calcium and Phosphate: Hormonal Regulation and Metabolism

Interplay Among Organ Systems Regulates Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism

Regulation of Whole Body Calcium Metabolism

Hormones Controlling Calcium Metabolism

Regulation of Whole Body Phosphate Metabolism

Suggested Readings

Chapter 14. Nutrition

Macro- and Micronutrient Roles in Bone Health

When and How Nutrients Influence Bone Mass

Perturbing Calcium Metabolism

Whole Diet Matters

Dietary Bioactives and their Mechanisms

Effects of Obesity and Weight Loss on Bone

Correcting Nutrient Deficiencies Versus Optimizing Intakes

Challenges for Studying Nutrient Interventions

Suggested Readings

Chapter 15. Hormonal Effects on Bone Cells

Introduction: Direct Versus Indirect Effects of Hormones on Bone Cells

Parathyroid Hormone

Sex Steroids

Glucocorticoids

Thyroid Hormone

Somatotropin/Growth Hormone

Insulin

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

Leptin

Suggested Readings

Section 5: Skeletal Disease and Treatment

Chapter 16. Metabolic Bone Diseases

Osteoporosis

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Hyperparathyroidism

Hypoparathyroidism

Nutritional Rickets/Osteomalacia

Hypophosphatemia

Hyperphosphatemia

Hypophosphatasia

Paget Disease of Bone

Osteopetroses

Suggested Readings

Chapter 17. Pharmaceutical Treatments of Osteoporosis

Calcium and Vitamin D

Anticatabolic Therapies

Anabolic Therapy

Combination Treatments

Emerging Therapies

Treatment Decisions

Suggested Readings

Index

Details

No. of pages:
390
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123914590
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124160156

About the Editor

David Burr

David B. Burr is a University Distinguished Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology at Indiana University School of Medicine, and Professor of Biomedical Engineering at IUPUI. He joined the Indiana University School of Medicine faculty in 1990 as Chair of the Department of Anatomy (1990-2010), following faculty positions at the University of Kansas and West Virginia University Medical Schools. He served as President of the American Association of Anatomists (2007-2009) and the Orthopaedic Research Society, and is the Director of the IBMS Sun Valley Workshop on Musculoskeletal Biology. He is a fellow of the American Association of Anatomists, and serves as Editor-in-Chief for Current Osteoporosis Reports, Associate Editor for Bone and the J of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. He is the author of more than 230 research articles in the peer- reviewed literature, 48 book chapters and reviews, and four books on the structure, function and mechanics of bone.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine; Professor of Biomedical Engineering (IUPUI), and Professor of Biomedical Engineering (Purdue University); Adjunct Professor of Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, IUPUI and Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN

Matthew Allen

Matthew R. Allen is an Associate Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology at Indiana University School of Medicine. His research career, and interest in bone biology, began at Alma College during a summer research fellowship and continued during his years as a PhD student at Texas A&M (in Kinesiology) and post-doctoral fellow at IU School of Medicine. His research focuses on understanding how interventions can be maximized to strengthen the skeleton and his teaching duties include Medical Histology (to first year medical students) and Basic Bone Biology (to graduate students). He serves on the Editorial Board for the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, BONE, and BoneKEY, and as an Associate Editor for Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism. He has authored more than 70 research articles and 18 book chapters and reviews.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN

Reviews

"Quite a wide range of biomedical scientists cover basic bone biology and physiology, assessing bone structure and function, skeletal adaptation, hormonal and metabolic effects on bone, and skeletal disease and treatment. Among specific topics are bone modeling and remodeling, skeletal hard tissue biomechanics, skeletal growth and development, hormonal effects on bone cells, and pharmaceutical treatments of osteoporosis."--ProtoView.com, February 2014
"The textbook was designed for a graduate course in basic bone biology at Indiana University, and many of the contributors teach there or nearly universities. Quite a wide range of biomedical scientists cover basic bone biology and physiology, assessing bone structure and function, skeletal adaptation, hormonal and metabolic effects on bone, and skeletal disease and treatment."--Reference & Research Book News, December 2013
"Basic and Applied Bone Biology provides a comprehensive background of bone science and related research techniques. Topics covered include bone physiology, biomechanics, histomorphometry, skeletal imaging, genetics, and fracture healing; in addition, clinical areas such as metabolic bone diseases and the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis are discussed. The book is concise, clearly written and beautifully illustrated and will be an invaluable source of information for basic and clinical researchers!"--Juliet Compston, Professor of Bone Medicine, University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine and Addenbrooke’s NHS Trust, Deptartment of Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom
"I have enjoyed instructing graduate students and orthopedic residents in bone physiology but a reoccurring frustration has been the lack of a comprehensive textbook. I was delighted to learn that Drs. Burr and Allen were editing a textbook, Basic and Applied Bone Biology, and found the quality of the presentation to actually exceed my high expectations. The text is very readable and the illustrations informative and exceptionally clear. Based on the diversity of topics I reviewed, this book will be useful for all scientists engaged in bone research as well as students new to the discipline. I look forward to including it in my personal library as well as using it as a textbook!"--Russell T. Turner, PhD, Professor and Director, Skeletal Biology Laboratory, College Of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Oregon, USA