Basic and Applied Bone Biology

Basic and Applied Bone Biology

1st Edition - June 11, 2013

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  • Editors: David B. Burr, Matthew R. Allen
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123914590
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124160156

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Description

This book provides an overview of skeletal biology from the molecular level to the organ level, including cellular control, interaction and response; adaptive responses to various external stimuli; the interaction of the skeletal system with other metabolic processes in the body; and the effect of various disease processes on the skeleton. The book also includes chapters that address how the skeleton can be evaluated through the use of various imaging technologies, biomechanical testing, histomorphometric analysis, and the use of genetically modified animal models.

Key Features

  • Presents an in-depth overview of skeletal biology from the molecular to the organ level
  • Offers "refresher" level content for clinicians or researchers outside their areas of expertise
  • Boasts editors and many chapter authors from Indiana and Purdue Universities, two of the broadest and deepest programs in skeletal biology in the US; other chapter authors include clinician scientists from pharmaceutical companies that apply the basics of bone biology

Readership

Graduate students, medical fellows/residents, researchers, and academic clinicians in the fields of bone biology, endocrinology, osteology, rheumatology, and dentistry.

Table of Contents

  • Front-matter

    Dedications

    Preface

    Acknowledgements

    List of Contributors

    Section 1: Basic Bone Biology and Physiology

    Chapter 1. Bone Morphology and Organization

    The Functions of Bone

    Bone is Organized as a Multiscale Material

    Bone Composition

    The Nanoscale Organization of Bone

    The Microstructural Organization of Bone

    The Macroscopic Organization of Bone

    The Blood Supply and Innervation of Bone

    Bone Fluid Compartments

    Bone Mass and Bone Quality

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 2. Bone Cells

    Osteoclasts

    Osteoblasts

    Osteocytes

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 3. Local Regulation of Bone Cell Function

    Overview of Cytokines and Growth Factors and their Receptors

    Local Factors that Regulate Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation and Function

    Factors that Regulate Osteoclast Differentiation and Function

    Factors that Affect Osteoblast Differentiation and Function

    Local Factors that Affect Both Osteoclasts and Osteoblasts

    Regulation of Bone Cell Differentiation and Function Through Cell-Cell Contact

    Local Angiogenic Factors that Regulate Bone Cell Activity

    Cell Surface Attachment Molecules

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 4. Bone Modeling and Remodeling

    Skeletal Development

    Bone Modeling

    Bone Remodeling

    Bone Repair

    Effects of Modeling and Remodeling on Bone Structure and Material Properties

    Laboratory Assessment of Modeling and Remodeling

    Suggested Readings

    Section 2: Assessment of Bone Structure and Function

    Chapter 5. Skeletal Imaging

    Radiography

    Absorptiometry (Photon and X-Ray)

    Computed Tomography

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Positron Emission Tomography

    Ultrasound

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 6. Skeletal Hard Tissue Biomechanics

    Introduction to Basic Bone Structure and Function

    Fundamentals of Solid Mechanics

    Factors Contributing to Whole Bone Mechanical Properties

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 7. Techniques in Histomorphometry

    Histologic Specimens

    Histomorphometric Analysis

    Assumptions and Technical Aspects

    Histologic Features of Disease and Treatment

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 8. Skeletal Genetics: From Gene Identification to Murine Models of Disease

    Simple and Complex Traits

    Transgenic Technology and the Creation of Novel Research Models

    Transgenic Animals and Bone Biology

    Suggested Readings

    Section 3: Skeletal Adaptation

    Chapter 9. Mechanical Adaptation

    Wolff’s Law—A Historical Perspective

    Components of Strain that May be Osteogenic

    Animal Models of Skeletal Mechanotransduction

    Rules for Bone Adaptation

    The Mechanostat

    Cell Sensitivity and Refractory Periods

    A Test of Wolff’s Law

    Mechanotransduction on a Smaller Scale: Cell Types and their Environment

    Fluid Flow in Bone Tissue has Manifold Cellular Effects

    Cellular Deformation and Stimulation

    What is the Mechanoreceptor?

    Coordinating the Biochemical Response to Mechanical Stimulation

    Clinical Implications: Reaping the Benefits of Mechanical Loading Effects to Improve Skeletal Health

    Important Features of Exercise Regimens Designed to Influence Skeletal Adaptation

    Skeletal Benefit of Exercise During Infancy and Childhood

    Skeletal Response to Exercise in Adulthood

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 10. Fracture Healing

    Introduction

    Types of Bone Fracture

    Primary and Secondary Repair Mechanisms

    Stages of Fracture Repair

    Assessment of Fracture Healing

    Cellular Events of Fracture Repair

    Molecular Regulation of Chondrogenesis and Osteogenesis During Fracture Repair

    Local Regulation of Fracture Repair

    Systemic Factors in Fracture Repair

    Effects of Osteoporosis Drugs on Fracture Healing

    Effects of Mechanical and Electrical Stimulation on Fracture Repair

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 11. Craniofacial Biology, Orthodontics, and Implants

    Craniofacial Skeleton

    Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    Suture Expansion

    Implants

    Suggested Readings

    Section 4: Hormonal and Metabolic Effects on Bone

    Chapter 12. Skeletal Growth and Development

    Prenatal

    Childhood

    Development of Peak Bone Mass

    Regulators of Growth

    Catch-Up Growth

    Fracture Risk in Children

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 13. Calcium and Phosphate: Hormonal Regulation and Metabolism

    Interplay Among Organ Systems Regulates Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism

    Regulation of Whole Body Calcium Metabolism

    Hormones Controlling Calcium Metabolism

    Regulation of Whole Body Phosphate Metabolism

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 14. Nutrition

    Macro- and Micronutrient Roles in Bone Health

    When and How Nutrients Influence Bone Mass

    Perturbing Calcium Metabolism

    Whole Diet Matters

    Dietary Bioactives and their Mechanisms

    Effects of Obesity and Weight Loss on Bone

    Correcting Nutrient Deficiencies Versus Optimizing Intakes

    Challenges for Studying Nutrient Interventions

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 15. Hormonal Effects on Bone Cells

    Introduction: Direct Versus Indirect Effects of Hormones on Bone Cells

    Parathyroid Hormone

    Sex Steroids

    Glucocorticoids

    Thyroid Hormone

    Somatotropin/Growth Hormone

    Insulin

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

    Leptin

    Suggested Readings

    Section 5: Skeletal Disease and Treatment

    Chapter 16. Metabolic Bone Diseases

    Osteoporosis

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Hyperparathyroidism

    Hypoparathyroidism

    Nutritional Rickets/Osteomalacia

    Hypophosphatemia

    Hyperphosphatemia

    Hypophosphatasia

    Paget Disease of Bone

    Osteopetroses

    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 17. Pharmaceutical Treatments of Osteoporosis

    Calcium and Vitamin D

    Anticatabolic Therapies

    Anabolic Therapy

    Combination Treatments

    Emerging Therapies

    Treatment Decisions

    Suggested Readings

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 390
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: June 11, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123914590
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124160156

About the Editors

David B. Burr

David B. Burr
David B. Burr is a University Distinguished Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology at Indiana University School of Medicine, and Professor of Biomedical Engineering at IUPUI. He joined the Indiana University School of Medicine faculty in 1990 as Chair of the Department of Anatomy (1990-2010), following faculty positions at the University of Kansas and West Virginia University Medical Schools. He served as President of the American Association of Anatomists (2007-2009) and the Orthopaedic Research Society, and is the Director of the IBMS Sun Valley Workshop on Musculoskeletal Biology. He is a fellow of the American Association of Anatomists, and serves as Editor-in-Chief for Current Osteoporosis Reports, Associate Editor for Bone and the J of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. He is the author of more than 230 research articles in the peer- reviewed literature, 48 book chapters and reviews, and four books on the structure, function and mechanics of bone.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine; Professor of Biomedical Engineering (IUPUI), and Professor of Biomedical Engineering (Purdue University); Adjunct Professor of Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, IUPUI and Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA

Matthew R. Allen

Matthew R. Allen
Matthew R. Allen is an Associate Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology at Indiana University School of Medicine. His research career, and interest in bone biology, began at Alma College during a summer research fellowship and continued during his years as a PhD student at Texas A&M (in Kinesiology) and post-doctoral fellow at IU School of Medicine. His research focuses on understanding how interventions can be maximized to strengthen the skeleton and his teaching duties include Medical Histology (to first year medical students) and Basic Bone Biology (to graduate students). He serves on the Editorial Board for the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, BONE, and BoneKEY, and as an Associate Editor for Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism. He has authored more than 70 research articles and 18 book chapters and reviews.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA

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