Ballistic Materials and Penetration Mechanics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444419286, 9780444601643

Ballistic Materials and Penetration Mechanics

1st Edition

Editors: Roy Laible
eBook ISBN: 9780444601643
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1980
Page Count: 306
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Ballistic Materials and Penetration Mechanics deals with ballistically protective materials and penetration mechanics. The book discusses historical and practical considerations of ballistic protection, including metallic armor, as well as ballistic testing methodology, the ability of a protective material to stop or slow down a particular projectile, and the theoretical aspects of penetration mechanics. It also highlights the importance of stress wave analysis in the penetration and spalling phenomena. Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the history of the armor and the modern helmet. It proceeds with a discussion of variations in ballistic test methods, errors in test methods, and the importance of the hardness and geometry of both the target and the projectile. The next chapters focus on the importance of fibrous armor, materials that are visually transparent and resistant to penetration by high-energy projectiles and fragments, and transparent armor and ceramic composite armor. The reader is also introduced to materials used in the design of metallic armor, the role of stress waves in the penetration problem, and the use of computer simulation to analyze ballistic impact experiments. The book looks at numerical techniques for modeling hypervelocity impact and concludes with a chapter on the penetration mechanics of textile structures.

This book is a valuable resource for scientists working at government, industrial, and university laboratories, as well as law enforcement officers and others who want information on materials that provide the best protection against damage from impacts, explosions, and bullets.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction


Chapter 2. History of Armor

I. Ancient armor

II. Modern body armor

III. Modern helmet history


Chapter 3. Ballistic Testing Methodology

I. Background

II. Introduction

III. Test methodologies

A. Pistol ball test

B. Arena test

C. Side spray fragmentation test

D. Forward spray test

E. Multiple cube tests

F. Single cube test

G. Single and multiple sphere tests

H. Munition fragment test

I. Fragment simulating projectile test

J. Yaw dart projectile test

K. Parallelepiped test

L. Shape factor

M. Criteria for assessing the defeat of armor

N. Critical angle tests

O. Determination of ballistic limits

P. Merit ratings

Q. Residual velocity test

R. Transient and permanent deformation testing

S. Resistance to shock test

T. Resistance to spalling test

U. Lethality tests

IV. Summary


Chapter 4. Fibrous Armor

I. Introduction

II. Fabric armor

IIl. Felts

A. Fiber parameters

B. Fabrication parameters

C. Dynamics of felt upon impact—theoretical studies

D. Felt deficiencies

IV. Laminated fabrics

A. Fiberglass

B. Nylon

C. Kevlar®


Chapter 5. Transparent Armor

I. Introduction

II. Historical

III Ocular war injuries

IV. Ballistic goggle and visor materials

V. Windshields

VI. Structure/property relationships


Chapter 6. Ceramic Composite Armor

I. Introduction

II. Component parts of composite armor

A. The ceramic facing

B. Backup materials

IIl. Mechanisms


Chapter 7. Metallic Armor Materials

I. Introduction

II. Characteristics of metal armor

III. Armor types

A. Steel armor

B. Aluminum armor

C. Titanium armor


Chapter 8. Weapon Effectiveness and Casualty Reduction Analysis

I. Introduction

II. The threat

A. Accuracy

B. Fragmentation characteristics

III. The target

IV. Target vulnerability

V. Casualties

A. Lethal area

B. Fraction casualties

VI. Casualty reduction

VII. An example


Chapter 9. The Role of Stress Waves in Penetration Processes

I. Introduction

II. Brittle fractures produced by the reflection of stress waves

III. Multiple scabbing

IV. Non-hookean behavior

V. Stress waves produced by fractures

VI. Maximum crack velocity

VII. Penetration of targets by Munroe Jets

VIII. Conclusions



Chapter 10. Computer Simulation of Penetration Phenomena

I. Introduction

II. Constitutive equations

III. Approach

IV. Target failure modes

V. Important target and projectile parameters

VI. Composite target

VII. Hypervelocity impact

VIII. Summary

IX. Appendix

A. Constitutive model

B. A method for determining the plastic work-hardening function



Chapter 11. Numerical Techniques for Modeling High Velocity Penetration and

Perforation Processes

I. Introduction

II. Numerical techniques

A. Lagrangian

B. Eulerian

C. Eulerian with explicit interface treatment

III. Hypervelocity impact

A. Semi-infinite targets

B. Targets of finite thickness

IV. Oblique impact

V. Summary


Chapter 12. Penetration Mechanics of Textile Structures

I. Introduction

II. Numerical analysis of impact on woven panels

A. Method of analysis

B. Mathematical formulation

C. Solution stability and convergence

D. Incorporation of material property models

E. Assessment of accuracy

III. Influence of fiber properties on ballistic resistance




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About the Editor

Roy Laible

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