Ballistic Materials and Penetration Mechanics

Ballistic Materials and Penetration Mechanics

1st Edition - January 1, 1980

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  • Editor: Roy Laible
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601643

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Ballistic Materials and Penetration Mechanics deals with ballistically protective materials and penetration mechanics. The book discusses historical and practical considerations of ballistic protection, including metallic armor, as well as ballistic testing methodology, the ability of a protective material to stop or slow down a particular projectile, and the theoretical aspects of penetration mechanics. It also highlights the importance of stress wave analysis in the penetration and spalling phenomena. Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the history of the armor and the modern helmet. It proceeds with a discussion of variations in ballistic test methods, errors in test methods, and the importance of the hardness and geometry of both the target and the projectile. The next chapters focus on the importance of fibrous armor, materials that are visually transparent and resistant to penetration by high-energy projectiles and fragments, and transparent armor and ceramic composite armor. The reader is also introduced to materials used in the design of metallic armor, the role of stress waves in the penetration problem, and the use of computer simulation to analyze ballistic impact experiments. The book looks at numerical techniques for modeling hypervelocity impact and concludes with a chapter on the penetration mechanics of textile structures. This book is a valuable resource for scientists working at government, industrial, and university laboratories, as well as law enforcement officers and others who want information on materials that provide the best protection against damage from impacts, explosions, and bullets.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Introduction


    Chapter 2. History of Armor

    I. Ancient armor

    II. Modern body armor

    III. Modern helmet history


    Chapter 3. Ballistic Testing Methodology

    I. Background

    II. Introduction

    III. Test methodologies

    A. Pistol ball test

    B. Arena test

    C. Side spray fragmentation test

    D. Forward spray test

    E. Multiple cube tests

    F. Single cube test

    G. Single and multiple sphere tests

    H. Munition fragment test

    I. Fragment simulating projectile test

    J. Yaw dart projectile test

    K. Parallelepiped test

    L. Shape factor

    M. Criteria for assessing the defeat of armor

    N. Critical angle tests

    O. Determination of ballistic limits

    P. Merit ratings

    Q. Residual velocity test

    R. Transient and permanent deformation testing

    S. Resistance to shock test

    T. Resistance to spalling test

    U. Lethality tests

    IV. Summary


    Chapter 4. Fibrous Armor

    I. Introduction

    II. Fabric armor

    IIl. Felts

    A. Fiber parameters

    B. Fabrication parameters

    C. Dynamics of felt upon impact—theoretical studies

    D. Felt deficiencies

    IV. Laminated fabrics

    A. Fiberglass

    B. Nylon

    C. Kevlar®


    Chapter 5. Transparent Armor

    I. Introduction

    II. Historical

    III Ocular war injuries

    IV. Ballistic goggle and visor materials

    V. Windshields

    VI. Structure/property relationships


    Chapter 6. Ceramic Composite Armor

    I. Introduction

    II. Component parts of composite armor

    A. The ceramic facing

    B. Backup materials

    IIl. Mechanisms


    Chapter 7. Metallic Armor Materials

    I. Introduction

    II. Characteristics of metal armor

    III. Armor types

    A. Steel armor

    B. Aluminum armor

    C. Titanium armor


    Chapter 8. Weapon Effectiveness and Casualty Reduction Analysis

    I. Introduction

    II. The threat

    A. Accuracy

    B. Fragmentation characteristics

    III. The target

    IV. Target vulnerability

    V. Casualties

    A. Lethal area

    B. Fraction casualties

    VI. Casualty reduction

    VII. An example


    Chapter 9. The Role of Stress Waves in Penetration Processes

    I. Introduction

    II. Brittle fractures produced by the reflection of stress waves

    III. Multiple scabbing

    IV. Non-hookean behavior

    V. Stress waves produced by fractures

    VI. Maximum crack velocity

    VII. Penetration of targets by Munroe Jets

    VIII. Conclusions



    Chapter 10. Computer Simulation of Penetration Phenomena

    I. Introduction

    II. Constitutive equations

    III. Approach

    IV. Target failure modes

    V. Important target and projectile parameters

    VI. Composite target

    VII. Hypervelocity impact

    VIII. Summary

    IX. Appendix

    A. Constitutive model

    B. A method for determining the plastic work-hardening function



    Chapter 11. Numerical Techniques for Modeling High Velocity Penetration and

    Perforation Processes

    I. Introduction

    II. Numerical techniques

    A. Lagrangian

    B. Eulerian

    C. Eulerian with explicit interface treatment

    III. Hypervelocity impact

    A. Semi-infinite targets

    B. Targets of finite thickness

    IV. Oblique impact

    V. Summary


    Chapter 12. Penetration Mechanics of Textile Structures

    I. Introduction

    II. Numerical analysis of impact on woven panels

    A. Method of analysis

    B. Mathematical formulation

    C. Solution stability and convergence

    D. Incorporation of material property models

    E. Assessment of accuracy

    III. Influence of fiber properties on ballistic resistance



Product details

  • No. of pages: 306
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1980
  • Published: January 1, 1980
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601643

About the Editor

Roy Laible

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  • Caroline R. Tue Jun 05 2018

    Ballistic Materials and Penetration Mechanics

    Ballistic Materials and Penetration Mechanics