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Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123555106, 9781483273679

Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria

1st Edition

Editors: Dallas G. Hoover Larry R. Steenson
eBook ISBN: 9781483273679
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st June 1993
Page Count: 298
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Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria is based on the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists held in Dallas, Texas. It describes a number of well-characterized bacteriocins and, where possible, discusses practical applications for those that have been defined thus far from the lactic acid bacteria.
The book begins with an introductory overview of naturally occurring antibacterial compounds. This is followed by discussions of methods of detecting bacteriocins and biochemical procedures for extraction and purification; genetics and cellular regulation of bacteriocins; bacteriocins based on the genera of lactic acid bacteria Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Leuconostoc, and related bacteria such as Carnobacterium and Propionibacterium; and the regulatory and political aspects for commercial use of these substances. The final chapter sets out the prognosis for the future of this dynamic area. The information contained in this book should benefit those with interest in the potential for industrial use of bacteriocins as preservative ingredients. Anyone interested in lactic acid bacteria or the biosynthesis, regulation, and mechanisms of inhibition of these proteinaceous compounds will also appreciate the material presented. These include food scientists, microbiologists, food processors and product physiologists, food toxicologists, and food and personal product regulators.

Table of Contents




Chapter I Antimicrobial Proteins: Classification, Nomenclature, Diversity, and Relationship to Bacteriocins

I. Introduction

A. Current Interest in Bacteriocins

B. Bacteriocins Defined

C. Nomenclature

D. Occurrence of Bacteriocins

II. Colicins

A. General Features

B. Mode of Action

C. Immunity

III. Killer Toxins, Yeast Antimicrobial Proteins

IV. Thionins, Plant Antimicrobial Proteins

V. Defensins, Animal Antimicrobial Proteins

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 2 Screening Methods for Detecting Bacteriocin Activity

I. Historical Perspective

II. Agar Diffusion Techniques

A. Introduction

B. Plating Methods

C. Media Composition and Conditions of Incubation

D. Adaptations of Agar Diffusion Methods Used with Lactic Acid Bacteria

III. Liquid Media

IV. Titration of Bacteriocins: Critical Dilution Method

V. Survivor Counts


Chapter 3 Biochemical Methods for Purification of Bacteriocins

I. Introduction

II. Detection and Assay of Bacteriocin Activity

III. Production of Bacteriocins

A. Production on Agar

B. Production in Broth

IV. Bacteriocin Purification

A. Biochemical Methods

B. Purified LAB Bacteriocins

V. Applications of Purified Bacteriocins

A. Biopreservation Systems

B. Characterization of Physical Properties

C. Immunological Studies

D. Protein Sequence Determinations and "Reverse Genetics"

VI. Summary


Chapter 4 Applications and Interactions of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in Foods and Beverages

I. Introduction

II. Using Bacteriocinogenic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bacteriocins to Control Food-Borne Pathogens

A. Sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to LAB Bacteriocins

B. Sensitivity of Clostridium botulinum to LAB Bacteriocins

III. Using Bacteriocinogenic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bacteriocins to Direct Food and Beverage Fermentations

IV. Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Bacteriocins in Foods and Beverages

A. Interactions with Food Components

B. Enhancement of Bacteriocin Activity

C. Resistance of Target Microorganisms to Bacteriocins

V. Assays for Bacteriocins in Foods

VI. Regulatory (United States) and Safety Considerations


Chapter 5 The Molecular Biology of Nisin and Its Structural Analogues

I. An Historical Perspective of Nisin

II. Significance of Posttranslationally Modified Peptides

III. Lantibiotics Could be Adapted to Multiple Purposes

IV. A Dilemma Posed by Nisin Resistance

V. The Molecular Biology of Nisin Biosynthesis is of Unknown Complexity

VI. Cloning of the Genes for the Nisin and Subtilin Precursor Peptides

VII. Evolutionary and Functional Relationships between Nisin and Subtilin Implied by Comparison of Their Structural Genes

VIII. Expression of the Genes for Nisin and Subtilin and Characterization of Their Transcripts

IX. The Ability to Produce Subtilin Can be Transferred among Strains of Bacillus subtilis

X. The Ability to Produce Nisin Can be Transferred between Strains of Lactococcus lactis

XI. What is Known about the Organization of Genes Associated with Nisin Biosynthesis

XII. What is Known about the Organization of Genes Associated with Subtilin Biosynthesis

XIII. Strategies and Systems to Express the Structural Genes for Nisin and Other Lantibiotics

XIV. Processing of Chimeric Precursor Peptides

XV. Production of Natural and Engineered Nisin Analogues in Bacillus subtilis

XVI. Structural and Functional Analysis of Lantibiotic Analogues: The Dehydro Residues Provide a Window through Which the Chemical State of Nisin and Subtilin Can be Observed

XVII. Conclusions and Future Prospects


Chapter 6 Nonnisin Bacteriocins in Lactococci: Biochemistry, Genetics, and Mode of Action

I. Summary

II. Introduction

III. Nomenclature

IV. Diplococcin

A. Identification and Purification of Diplococcin

B. Effects of Diplococcin on Bacterial Cells

C. Plasmids and Diplococcin Production

V. Lactostrepcins

A. Identification and Definition of Lactostrepcin

B. Purification and Mode of Action of Lactostrepcin 5

C. Plasmid Curing and Loss of Las 5 Production

VI. Lactococcins

A. Genetics of Lactococcins

B. The Lactococcin A Secretion Machinery

C. Biochemistry of Lactococcin A

D. Mode of Action of Lactococcin A

VII. Conclusions and Future Prospects


Chapter 7 Molecular Biology of Bacteriocins Produced by Lactobacillus

I. Introduction

II. Evidence and Roles

III. Classification and Biochemical Characteristics

IV. Genetic Organization of Bacteriocin Operons

A. Helveticin J

B. Lactacin F

V. Common Processing Sites in Peptide Bacteriocins

VI. Perspectives and Conclusions


Chapter 8 Pediocins

I. Introduction

II. Description of the Genus Pediococcus

III. Bacteriocin Activity in Pediococci

IV. Pediocin AcH

A. Properties

B. Toxicity

C. Mode of Action

D. Influence of Growth Conditions on Production of Pediocin AcH

E. Genetics

F. Antibacterial Effectiveness of Pediocin AcH

G. Pediocin AcH in Foods

V. Additional Studies of Pediocins in Meat Systems

VI. Other Potential Applications for Pediocins


Chapter 9 Bacteriocins from Carnobacterium and Leuconostoc

I. Description of the Genera Carnobacterium and Leuconostoc

II. Habitats and Sources of Carnobacterium and Leuconostoc Species

III. Bacteriocins Produced by Carnobacterium and Leuconostoc Species

A. Bacteriocins Produced by Carnobacterium Species

B. Bacteriocins Produced by Leuconostoc Species

IV. Chemical Characterization of Leuconostoc and Carnobacterium Bacteriocins

V. Potential for Application of Carnobacteriocins or Leucocin A in Meat Preservation


Chapter 10 Bacteriocins from Dairy Propionibacteria and Inducible Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria

I. Bacteriocins from Dairy Propionibacteria

A. Introduction to the Propionibacteria

B. Nonbacteriocin Inhibitors Produced by the Propionibacteria

C. Propionibacteria Bacteriocins

D. Genetics of Propionibacteria and Their Bacteriocins

II. Inducible Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria


Chapter 11 Regulatory Aspects of Bacteriocin Use

I. Introduction

II. Characteristics of Bacteriocins

III. Potential Uses of Bacteriocins or Bacteriocin-Producing Organisms in Foods and Pharmaceuticals

A. Food Preservatives

B. Health Care Products

C. Starter Cultures

D. Genetically Engineered Starter Cultures

E. Probiotic Organisms

F. Markers for Food-Grade Cloning Vector Construction

IV. Factors Affecting Regulatory Approval of Bacteriocins as Food Ingredients

A. Are Bacteriocins Food Additives or GRAS Ingredients?

B. Data Required by FDA

V. Factors Affecting Regulatory Approval of Naturally Occurring Bacteriocin-Producing Strains

VI. Factors Affecting Regulatory Approval of Genetically Engineered Bacteriocin-Producing Strains

VII. Players in the Regulatory Arena

A. U.S. Food and Drug Administration

B. The International Food Biotechnology Council

C. Individual States

D. The President's Council on Competitiveness

E. Others

VIII. Future Challenges

A. Consumer Acceptance

B. Competition in the Marketplace

C. Labeling of Biotechnology-Derived Foods

IX. Conclusion


Chapter 12 Future Prospects for Research and Applications of Nisin and Other Bacteriocins

I. From Past to Present

II. Research Approaches and Incentives

III. Genetic Engineering

IV. Traditional and Molecular Screening

V. Protein Engineering

VI. Concluding Remarks




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© Academic Press 1993
21st June 1993
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Dallas G. Hoover

Larry R. Steenson

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