Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria

Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria

1st Edition - June 21, 1993

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  • Editors: Dallas G. Hoover, Larry R. Steenson
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483273679

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Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria is based on the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists held in Dallas, Texas. It describes a number of well-characterized bacteriocins and, where possible, discusses practical applications for those that have been defined thus far from the lactic acid bacteria. The book begins with an introductory overview of naturally occurring antibacterial compounds. This is followed by discussions of methods of detecting bacteriocins and biochemical procedures for extraction and purification; genetics and cellular regulation of bacteriocins; bacteriocins based on the genera of lactic acid bacteria Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Leuconostoc, and related bacteria such as Carnobacterium and Propionibacterium; and the regulatory and political aspects for commercial use of these substances. The final chapter sets out the prognosis for the future of this dynamic area. The information contained in this book should benefit those with interest in the potential for industrial use of bacteriocins as preservative ingredients. Anyone interested in lactic acid bacteria or the biosynthesis, regulation, and mechanisms of inhibition of these proteinaceous compounds will also appreciate the material presented. These include food scientists, microbiologists, food processors and product physiologists, food toxicologists, and food and personal product regulators.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors



    Chapter I Antimicrobial Proteins: Classification, Nomenclature, Diversity, and Relationship to Bacteriocins

    I. Introduction

    A. Current Interest in Bacteriocins

    B. Bacteriocins Defined

    C. Nomenclature

    D. Occurrence of Bacteriocins

    II. Colicins

    A. General Features

    B. Mode of Action

    C. Immunity

    III. Killer Toxins, Yeast Antimicrobial Proteins

    IV. Thionins, Plant Antimicrobial Proteins

    V. Defensins, Animal Antimicrobial Proteins

    VI. Conclusions


    Chapter 2 Screening Methods for Detecting Bacteriocin Activity

    I. Historical Perspective

    II. Agar Diffusion Techniques

    A. Introduction

    B. Plating Methods

    C. Media Composition and Conditions of Incubation

    D. Adaptations of Agar Diffusion Methods Used with Lactic Acid Bacteria

    III. Liquid Media

    IV. Titration of Bacteriocins: Critical Dilution Method

    V. Survivor Counts


    Chapter 3 Biochemical Methods for Purification of Bacteriocins

    I. Introduction

    II. Detection and Assay of Bacteriocin Activity

    III. Production of Bacteriocins

    A. Production on Agar

    B. Production in Broth

    IV. Bacteriocin Purification

    A. Biochemical Methods

    B. Purified LAB Bacteriocins

    V. Applications of Purified Bacteriocins

    A. Biopreservation Systems

    B. Characterization of Physical Properties

    C. Immunological Studies

    D. Protein Sequence Determinations and "Reverse Genetics"

    VI. Summary


    Chapter 4 Applications and Interactions of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in Foods and Beverages

    I. Introduction

    II. Using Bacteriocinogenic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bacteriocins to Control Food-Borne Pathogens

    A. Sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to LAB Bacteriocins

    B. Sensitivity of Clostridium botulinum to LAB Bacteriocins

    III. Using Bacteriocinogenic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bacteriocins to Direct Food and Beverage Fermentations

    IV. Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Bacteriocins in Foods and Beverages

    A. Interactions with Food Components

    B. Enhancement of Bacteriocin Activity

    C. Resistance of Target Microorganisms to Bacteriocins

    V. Assays for Bacteriocins in Foods

    VI. Regulatory (United States) and Safety Considerations


    Chapter 5 The Molecular Biology of Nisin and Its Structural Analogues

    I. An Historical Perspective of Nisin

    II. Significance of Posttranslationally Modified Peptides

    III. Lantibiotics Could be Adapted to Multiple Purposes

    IV. A Dilemma Posed by Nisin Resistance

    V. The Molecular Biology of Nisin Biosynthesis is of Unknown Complexity

    VI. Cloning of the Genes for the Nisin and Subtilin Precursor Peptides

    VII. Evolutionary and Functional Relationships between Nisin and Subtilin Implied by Comparison of Their Structural Genes

    VIII. Expression of the Genes for Nisin and Subtilin and Characterization of Their Transcripts

    IX. The Ability to Produce Subtilin Can be Transferred among Strains of Bacillus subtilis

    X. The Ability to Produce Nisin Can be Transferred between Strains of Lactococcus lactis

    XI. What is Known about the Organization of Genes Associated with Nisin Biosynthesis

    XII. What is Known about the Organization of Genes Associated with Subtilin Biosynthesis

    XIII. Strategies and Systems to Express the Structural Genes for Nisin and Other Lantibiotics

    XIV. Processing of Chimeric Precursor Peptides

    XV. Production of Natural and Engineered Nisin Analogues in Bacillus subtilis

    XVI. Structural and Functional Analysis of Lantibiotic Analogues: The Dehydro Residues Provide a Window through Which the Chemical State of Nisin and Subtilin Can be Observed

    XVII. Conclusions and Future Prospects


    Chapter 6 Nonnisin Bacteriocins in Lactococci: Biochemistry, Genetics, and Mode of Action

    I. Summary

    II. Introduction

    III. Nomenclature

    IV. Diplococcin

    A. Identification and Purification of Diplococcin

    B. Effects of Diplococcin on Bacterial Cells

    C. Plasmids and Diplococcin Production

    V. Lactostrepcins

    A. Identification and Definition of Lactostrepcin

    B. Purification and Mode of Action of Lactostrepcin 5

    C. Plasmid Curing and Loss of Las 5 Production

    VI. Lactococcins

    A. Genetics of Lactococcins

    B. The Lactococcin A Secretion Machinery

    C. Biochemistry of Lactococcin A

    D. Mode of Action of Lactococcin A

    VII. Conclusions and Future Prospects


    Chapter 7 Molecular Biology of Bacteriocins Produced by Lactobacillus

    I. Introduction

    II. Evidence and Roles

    III. Classification and Biochemical Characteristics

    IV. Genetic Organization of Bacteriocin Operons

    A. Helveticin J

    B. Lactacin F

    V. Common Processing Sites in Peptide Bacteriocins

    VI. Perspectives and Conclusions


    Chapter 8 Pediocins

    I. Introduction

    II. Description of the Genus Pediococcus

    III. Bacteriocin Activity in Pediococci

    IV. Pediocin AcH

    A. Properties

    B. Toxicity

    C. Mode of Action

    D. Influence of Growth Conditions on Production of Pediocin AcH

    E. Genetics

    F. Antibacterial Effectiveness of Pediocin AcH

    G. Pediocin AcH in Foods

    V. Additional Studies of Pediocins in Meat Systems

    VI. Other Potential Applications for Pediocins


    Chapter 9 Bacteriocins from Carnobacterium and Leuconostoc

    I. Description of the Genera Carnobacterium and Leuconostoc

    II. Habitats and Sources of Carnobacterium and Leuconostoc Species

    III. Bacteriocins Produced by Carnobacterium and Leuconostoc Species

    A. Bacteriocins Produced by Carnobacterium Species

    B. Bacteriocins Produced by Leuconostoc Species

    IV. Chemical Characterization of Leuconostoc and Carnobacterium Bacteriocins

    V. Potential for Application of Carnobacteriocins or Leucocin A in Meat Preservation


    Chapter 10 Bacteriocins from Dairy Propionibacteria and Inducible Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    I. Bacteriocins from Dairy Propionibacteria

    A. Introduction to the Propionibacteria

    B. Nonbacteriocin Inhibitors Produced by the Propionibacteria

    C. Propionibacteria Bacteriocins

    D. Genetics of Propionibacteria and Their Bacteriocins

    II. Inducible Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria


    Chapter 11 Regulatory Aspects of Bacteriocin Use

    I. Introduction

    II. Characteristics of Bacteriocins

    III. Potential Uses of Bacteriocins or Bacteriocin-Producing Organisms in Foods and Pharmaceuticals

    A. Food Preservatives

    B. Health Care Products

    C. Starter Cultures

    D. Genetically Engineered Starter Cultures

    E. Probiotic Organisms

    F. Markers for Food-Grade Cloning Vector Construction

    IV. Factors Affecting Regulatory Approval of Bacteriocins as Food Ingredients

    A. Are Bacteriocins Food Additives or GRAS Ingredients?

    B. Data Required by FDA

    V. Factors Affecting Regulatory Approval of Naturally Occurring Bacteriocin-Producing Strains

    VI. Factors Affecting Regulatory Approval of Genetically Engineered Bacteriocin-Producing Strains

    VII. Players in the Regulatory Arena

    A. U.S. Food and Drug Administration

    B. The International Food Biotechnology Council

    C. Individual States

    D. The President's Council on Competitiveness

    E. Others

    VIII. Future Challenges

    A. Consumer Acceptance

    B. Competition in the Marketplace

    C. Labeling of Biotechnology-Derived Foods

    IX. Conclusion


    Chapter 12 Future Prospects for Research and Applications of Nisin and Other Bacteriocins

    I. From Past to Present

    II. Research Approaches and Incentives

    III. Genetic Engineering

    IV. Traditional and Molecular Screening

    V. Protein Engineering

    VI. Concluding Remarks



Product details

  • No. of pages: 298
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1993
  • Published: June 21, 1993
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483273679

About the Editors

Dallas G. Hoover

Larry R. Steenson

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