Bacterial Physiology

Bacterial Physiology

1st Edition - January 1, 1951

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  • Editors: C. H. Werkman, P. W. Wilson
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483274850

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Description

Bacterial Physiology focuses on the physiology and chemistry of microorganisms and the value of bacterial physiology in the other fields of biology. The selection first underscores the chemistry and structure of bacterial cells, including the chemical composition of cells, direct and indirect methods of cytology, vegetative multiplication, spores of bacteria, and cell structure. The text then elaborates on inheritance, variation, and adaptation and growth of bacteria. The publication reviews the physical and chemical factors affecting growth and death. Topics include hydrogen ion concentration and osmotic pressure; surface and other forces determining the distribution of bacteria in their environment; dynamics of disinfection and bacteriostasis; bacterial resistance; and types of antibacterial agents. The text also ponders on the anaerobic dissimilation of carbohydrates, bacterial oxidations, and autotrophic assimilation of carbon dioxide. The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in bacterial physiology.

Table of Contents


  • Contents

    Contributors

    Preface

    Chemistry of the Bacterial Cell

    I. Introduction

    II. Form and Size

    III. Chemical Composition of the Cell

    IV. Direct Methods of Cytology

    V. Indirect Methods of Cytology

    The Structure of the Bacterial Cell

    I. Cell Structure

    II. The Spores of Bacteria

    III. Vegetative Multiplication

    IV. Cell and Environment

    Inheritance, Variation, and Adaptation

    I. The Gene Theory

    II. Genetic Variation

    III. Characteristics of Bacterial Mutants

    IV. Interclonal Variation

    V. Variation and Adaptation : Recapitulation

    Growth of Bacteria

    I. Introduction

    II. Quantitative Studies of Bacterial Growth

    III. Growth and Population Cycle of a Bacterial Culture

    IV. Conclusion

    Physical Factors Affecting Growth and Death

    I. Temperature

    II. Hydrogen Ion Concentration and Osmotic Pressure

    III. Surface Tension

    IV. Oxidation-Reduction Potential

    V. Radiations

    VI. Surface and Other Forces Determining the Distribution of Bacteria in Their Environment

    Chemical Factors Affecting Growth and Death

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemical Injury to Active Proteins

    III. Dynamics of Disinfection

    IV. Dynamics of Bacteriostasis

    V. Bacterial Resistance

    VI. Types of Antibacterial Agents

    Bacterial Nutrition—Chemical Factors

    I. General Outlook

    II. The Major Bacterial Growth Factors

    Bacterial Enzymes and the Theory of Action

    I. Introduction

    II. Historical Aspects

    III. Nomenclature and Classification

    IV. Coenzymes and Related Compounds

    V. Special Methods Used in the Isolation and Study of Bacterial Enzymes

    VI. Theory of Enzyme Action

    VII. Various Factors Controlling Enzymatic Activity

    VIII. Origin and Concentration of Enzymes

    IX. Discussion of Various Groups of Enzymes

    Anaerobic Dissimilation of Carbohydrates

    I. Introduction

    II. Nature of Anaerobic Dissimilation of Carbohydrates

    III. Early Views on Fermentation

    IV. Glycolysis

    V. Polysaccharides

    Bacterial Oxidations

    I. Introduction

    II. Some Thermodynamic and Kinetic Approaches

    III. Reversible Oxidation-Reduction Systems of Biological Importance

    IV. Activating Proteins (Dehydrogenase)

    V. Types of Oxidation Enzymes

    VI. Inhibitors of Oxidation Enzymes

    VII. Coupled Oxidation-Reduction Systems: Krebs' Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle

    VIII. Aerobic Phosphorylations

    IX. Pathways of Biological Oxidation-Reductions. The Pasteur Effect

    X. "Oxidation-Reduction Potentials" in Bacteria

    XI. Bacterial Respiration

    XII. Respiration of Growing Cells and of Resting Cells

    XIII. Regulatory Mechanisms of Respiration

    XIV. Life without Oxygen. The Anaerobic Bacteria

    Autotrophic Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemoautotrophic Bacteria

    III. Photosynthetic Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide

    Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide by Heterotrophic Bacteria

    I. Introduction

    II. Early Concepts of Function of CO2

    III. Carbon Dioxide Assimilation and Concepts of Autotrophism and Heterotrophism

    IV. Types of C02 Assimilation

    V. Replacement of Carbon Dioxide

    VI. Importance of Heterotrophic Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide in Biology

    Organic Nitrogen

    I. Introduction

    II. Breakdown of Protein

    III. Breakdown of Amino Acids

    IV. Decarboxylation of Amino Acids

    V. Deamination of Amino Acids

    VI. Transamination

    VII. Racemization

    VIII. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids

    IX. Amino Acid Assimilation

    Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    I. Biogeochemistry of Nitrogen

    II. Agents of Fixation

    III. Properties of the Enzyme System

    IV. Chemical Pathway of Fixation

    V. Comparative Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation

    Mineral Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Purification of Media

    III. Mineral Elements Required for Growth

    IV. Mineral Elements in Bacterial Enzymes

    V. Mineral Elements for Pigments and Antibiotics

    The Comparative Biochemistry of Molecular Hydrogen

    I. Comparative Biochemistry

    II. Autotrophic and/or Heterotrophic Bacteria

    III. Other Acceptors of Hydrogen

    IV. The Liberation of Molecular Hydrogen

    V. Special Functions of Hydrogenase

    Assimilation by Bacteria

    I. Introduction

    II. Manometric Observations on Assimilation

    III. Influence of Poisons on Assimilation

    IV. Carbon Balances in Assimilation Studies

    V. Oxidative Assimilation During Growth

    VI. Polysaccharide and Other Syntheses

    VII. Assimilation of Nitrogen

    Degradation and Synthesis of Complex Carbohydrates

    I. Introduction

    II. Bacterial Polysaccharides

    III. Mechanisms of Synthesis

    IV. General Conclusions

    Significance of Autotrophy for Comparative Physiology

    Luminous Bacteria

    I. Introduction

    II. General Characteristics and Physiology

    III. Luminescence as a Reaction Rate Tool in Biology

    IV. General Implications

    V. Conclusion

    Bibliography

    Subject Index

    Microorganism Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 722
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1951
  • Published: January 1, 1951
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483274850

About the Editors

C. H. Werkman

P. W. Wilson

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