Bacterial Physiology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483231365, 9781483274850

Bacterial Physiology

1st Edition

Editors: C. H. Werkman P. W. Wilson
eBook ISBN: 9781483274850
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1951
Page Count: 722
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Description

Bacterial Physiology focuses on the physiology and chemistry of microorganisms and the value of bacterial physiology in the other fields of biology.
The selection first underscores the chemistry and structure of bacterial cells, including the chemical composition of cells, direct and indirect methods of cytology, vegetative multiplication, spores of bacteria, and cell structure. The text then elaborates on inheritance, variation, and adaptation and growth of bacteria.
The publication reviews the physical and chemical factors affecting growth and death. Topics include hydrogen ion concentration and osmotic pressure; surface and other forces determining the distribution of bacteria in their environment; dynamics of disinfection and bacteriostasis; bacterial resistance; and types of antibacterial agents. The text also ponders on the anaerobic dissimilation of carbohydrates, bacterial oxidations, and autotrophic assimilation of carbon dioxide.
The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in bacterial physiology.

Table of Contents


Contents

Contributors

Preface

Chemistry of the Bacterial Cell

I. Introduction

II. Form and Size

III. Chemical Composition of the Cell

IV. Direct Methods of Cytology

V. Indirect Methods of Cytology

The Structure of the Bacterial Cell

I. Cell Structure

II. The Spores of Bacteria

III. Vegetative Multiplication

IV. Cell and Environment

Inheritance, Variation, and Adaptation

I. The Gene Theory

II. Genetic Variation

III. Characteristics of Bacterial Mutants

IV. Interclonal Variation

V. Variation and Adaptation : Recapitulation

Growth of Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. Quantitative Studies of Bacterial Growth

III. Growth and Population Cycle of a Bacterial Culture

IV. Conclusion

Physical Factors Affecting Growth and Death

I. Temperature

II. Hydrogen Ion Concentration and Osmotic Pressure

III. Surface Tension

IV. Oxidation-Reduction Potential

V. Radiations

VI. Surface and Other Forces Determining the Distribution of Bacteria in Their Environment

Chemical Factors Affecting Growth and Death

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Injury to Active Proteins

III. Dynamics of Disinfection

IV. Dynamics of Bacteriostasis

V. Bacterial Resistance

VI. Types of Antibacterial Agents

Bacterial Nutrition—Chemical Factors

I. General Outlook

II. The Major Bacterial Growth Factors

Bacterial Enzymes and the Theory of Action

I. Introduction

II. Historical Aspects

III. Nomenclature and Classification

IV. Coenzymes and Related Compounds

V. Special Methods Used in the Isolation and Study of Bacterial Enzymes

VI. Theory of Enzyme Action

VII. Various Factors Controlling Enzymatic Activity

VIII. Origin and Concentration of Enzymes

IX. Discussion of Various Groups of Enzymes

Anaerobic Dissimilation of Carbohydrates

I. Introduction

II. Nature of Anaerobic Dissimilation of Carbohydrates

III. Early Views on Fermentation

IV. Glycolysis

V. Polysaccharides

Bacterial Oxidations

I. Introduction

II. Some Thermodynamic and Kinetic Approaches

III. Reversible Oxidation-Reduction Systems of Biological Importance

IV. Activating Proteins (Dehydrogenase)

V. Types of Oxidation Enzymes

VI. Inhibitors of Oxidation Enzymes

VII. Coupled Oxidation-Reduction Systems: Krebs' Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle

VIII. Aerobic Phosphorylations

IX. Pathways of Biological Oxidation-Reductions. The Pasteur Effect

X. "Oxidation-Reduction Potentials" in Bacteria

XI. Bacterial Respiration

XII. Respiration of Growing Cells and of Resting Cells

XIII. Regulatory Mechanisms of Respiration

XIV. Life without Oxygen. The Anaerobic Bacteria

Autotrophic Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide

I. Introduction

II. Chemoautotrophic Bacteria

III. Photosynthetic Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide

Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide by Heterotrophic Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. Early Concepts of Function of CO2

III. Carbon Dioxide Assimilation and Concepts of Autotrophism and Heterotrophism

IV. Types of C02 Assimilation

V. Replacement of Carbon Dioxide

VI. Importance of Heterotrophic Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide in Biology

Organic Nitrogen

I. Introduction

II. Breakdown of Protein

III. Breakdown of Amino Acids

IV. Decarboxylation of Amino Acids

V. Deamination of Amino Acids

VI. Transamination

VII. Racemization

VIII. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids

IX. Amino Acid Assimilation

Biological Nitrogen Fixation

I. Biogeochemistry of Nitrogen

II. Agents of Fixation

III. Properties of the Enzyme System

IV. Chemical Pathway of Fixation

V. Comparative Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation

Mineral Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Purification of Media

III. Mineral Elements Required for Growth

IV. Mineral Elements in Bacterial Enzymes

V. Mineral Elements for Pigments and Antibiotics

The Comparative Biochemistry of Molecular Hydrogen

I. Comparative Biochemistry

II. Autotrophic and/or Heterotrophic Bacteria

III. Other Acceptors of Hydrogen

IV. The Liberation of Molecular Hydrogen

V. Special Functions of Hydrogenase

Assimilation by Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. Manometric Observations on Assimilation

III. Influence of Poisons on Assimilation

IV. Carbon Balances in Assimilation Studies

V. Oxidative Assimilation During Growth

VI. Polysaccharide and Other Syntheses

VII. Assimilation of Nitrogen

Degradation and Synthesis of Complex Carbohydrates

I. Introduction

II. Bacterial Polysaccharides

III. Mechanisms of Synthesis

IV. General Conclusions

Significance of Autotrophy for Comparative Physiology

Luminous Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. General Characteristics and Physiology

III. Luminescence as a Reaction Rate Tool in Biology

IV. General Implications

V. Conclusion

Bibliography

Subject Index

Microorganism Index

Details

No. of pages:
722
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1951
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483274850

About the Editor

C. H. Werkman

P. W. Wilson

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