Bacterial Endotoxins - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120465057, 9781483215891

Bacterial Endotoxins

1st Edition

A Comprehensive Treatise

Editors: Solomon Kadis George Weinbaum Samuel J. Ajl
eBook ISBN: 9781483215891
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1971
Page Count: 526
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Description

Microbial Toxins, Volume V: Bacterial Endotoxins covers the physiology, pathology, and immunology of bacterial endotoxins. The book discusses the relationship of lipopolysaccharide structure to bacterial virulence; the importance of blood-group and Forssman antigenic determinants in interactions between human and microbes; and the chemical modification of endotoxin and inactivation of its biological properties. The text also describes the effects of endotoxic lipopolysaccharides on the complement system; the host-dependent detoxification of bacterial endotoxin; and the metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins. The release of vasoactive agents and the vascular effects of endotoxin are also considered. The book further tackles the febrile response to endotoxin; some major aspects and the relationship between shock and endotoxemia; as well as the effects of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) on the susceptibility to infections. The text also encompasses the role of hypersensitivity and tolerance in reactions to endotoxins. Pathologists, immunologists, physiologists, and microbiologists will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Contents of Other Volumes

1. The Relationship of Lipopolysaccharide Structure to Bacterial Virulence

I. Introduction

II. Genetic Relationships of Escherichia, Salmonella, and Shigella

III. Comparison of Cell Walls

IV. Pathogenicity as Related to O-Antigenic Makeup

V. Conclusion

References

2. The Importance of Blood-Group and Forssman Antigenic Determinants in Interactions between Man and Microbes

I. Introduction

II. Discovery and Serological Properties of Heterophile Antigens

III. Heterophile Antigens of Bacteria

IV. Blood-Group ABH(O) Active Substances and Forssman Antigen in Viruses

V. Biological Implications of Sharing of Blood-Group- and Forssman-Specific Determinants among Microbes and Mammalian Cells

VI. Chemistry of the Forssman and Blood-Group Cross-Reacting Antigens and Their Immunodeterminant Structures

VII. Blood-Group and Forssman-Active Antigens in Transplantation

VIII. Concluding Remarks

References

3. Chemical Modification of Endotoxin and Inactivation of Its Biological Properties

I. Introduction

II. Types of Endotoxin and Their Bioassay

III. Methods of Chemically Modifying Endotoxins

IV. Summary

V. Concluding Remarks

References

4. Effects of Endotoxic Lipopolysaccharides on the Complement System

I. Introduction

II. Structure of LPS

III. Induction of Characteristic Complement-Mediated Lesions on LPS

IV. Complement Consumption by LPS during Lesion Formation — Preferential Reactivity with the Terminal Complement Components

V. Terminal Complement Components and the Biological Reactivities of Complement

VI. Generation of Biologically Active Factors by Interactions of the Complement System with LPS

VII. Correlation of Endotoxicity of LPS with Its Complement-Consuming Capacity

VIII. Pathways to Fixation of the Terminal Complement Components

IX. Developmental Considerations

X. Clinical Considerations

XI. Endotoxin-Complement Interactions in Experimental Animals in Vivo

XII. Summary

References

5. Host-Dependent Detoxification of Bacterial Endotoxin

I. Introduction

II. In Vivo Distribution of Parenterally Administered Endotoxin

III. Effect of Serum or Plasma on Endotoxin

IV. Mechanism of Tolerance to Endotoxin

V. Tissue Factors

VI. Role of Endocrine Factors

VII. Summary

References

6. Metabolic Effects of Bacterial Endotoxins

I. Introduction

II. Effect of Endotoxin on Carbohydrate Metabolism

III. Effect of Endotoxin on Enzyme Induction

IV. Metabolic Implications of Endotoxin Pyrogenicity

V. Infection versus Endotoxin

VI. Metabolic Aspects of Tolerance

VII. Changes Induced by Endotoxin

VIII. Metabolic Studies in Mice Sensitized to Endotoxin

IX. Metabolic Implications of Agents Capable of Protecting against Endotoxin

X. Conclusions

References

7. Release of Vasoactive Agents and the Vascular Effects of Endotoxin

I. Introduction

II. Essential Factors Involved in the Initial Vascular Response to Endotoxin

III. Early Vascular Response to Endotoxin in the Dog

IV. Development of Irreversible Endotoxin Shock in the Dog

V. Role of Vasoactive Agents in Response to Endotoxin

VI. Cardiovascular Factors to Be Considered in the Response to Endotoxin

VII. Responses of the Primate in Endotoxin Shock; Significance of Species Differences

VIII. Studies with Live E. coli Organisms

IX. Effects of Endotoxin on Capillary Permeability

X. Special Metabolic and Circulatory Problems in Endotoxin Shock

XI. Role of the Nervous System in Endotoxin Shock

XII. Conclusions and Summary

References

Addendum - The Effects of Endotoxins in the Microcirculation

Text

References

8. Endotoxin and the Pathogenesis of Fever

I. Introduction

II. Physiology

III. Pharmacology

IV. Mode of Action of Endotoxin - Endogenous Pyrogens (EP)

V. Hypersensitivity Fever

VI. Fever Tolerance

VII. Summary

References

9. Experimental Hemorrhagic and Endotoxic Shock

I. Introduction

II. Hemorrhagic Shock

III. Bacterial Endotoxins

IV. Hemorrhagic Shock and Endotoxemia in the Subhuman Primate

V. Acquired Resistance to Shock

VI. Conclusion

References

10. Effects of Lipopolysaccharides (Endotoxins) on Susceptibility to Infections

I. Introduction

II. Effects on Serum Factors

III. Effects on the Reticuloendothelial System

IV. Effects on Granulocytes

V. Effects on Blood Circulation and Coagulation

VI. Effects on Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

VII. Conclusion

References

11. Role of Hypersensitivity and Tolerance in Reactions to Endotoxins

I. Introduction

II. Role of Hypersensitivity in Reactions to Endotoxins

III. Nature and Role of Tolerance to Endotoxins

IV. Summary

References

Author Index

Subject Index






Details

No. of pages:
526
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1971
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483215891

About the Editor

Solomon Kadis

George Weinbaum

Samuel J. Ajl