Bacterial Endotoxins

Bacterial Endotoxins

A Comprehensive Treatise

1st Edition - January 28, 1971

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  • Editors: Solomon Kadis, George Weinbaum, Samuel J. Ajl
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483215891

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Microbial Toxins, Volume V: Bacterial Endotoxins covers the physiology, pathology, and immunology of bacterial endotoxins. The book discusses the relationship of lipopolysaccharide structure to bacterial virulence; the importance of blood-group and Forssman antigenic determinants in interactions between human and microbes; and the chemical modification of endotoxin and inactivation of its biological properties. The text also describes the effects of endotoxic lipopolysaccharides on the complement system; the host-dependent detoxification of bacterial endotoxin; and the metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins. The release of vasoactive agents and the vascular effects of endotoxin are also considered. The book further tackles the febrile response to endotoxin; some major aspects and the relationship between shock and endotoxemia; as well as the effects of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) on the susceptibility to infections. The text also encompasses the role of hypersensitivity and tolerance in reactions to endotoxins. Pathologists, immunologists, physiologists, and microbiologists will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Contents of Other Volumes

    1. The Relationship of Lipopolysaccharide Structure to Bacterial Virulence

    I. Introduction

    II. Genetic Relationships of Escherichia, Salmonella, and Shigella

    III. Comparison of Cell Walls

    IV. Pathogenicity as Related to O-Antigenic Makeup

    V. Conclusion


    2. The Importance of Blood-Group and Forssman Antigenic Determinants in Interactions between Man and Microbes

    I. Introduction

    II. Discovery and Serological Properties of Heterophile Antigens

    III. Heterophile Antigens of Bacteria

    IV. Blood-Group ABH(O) Active Substances and Forssman Antigen in Viruses

    V. Biological Implications of Sharing of Blood-Group- and Forssman-Specific Determinants among Microbes and Mammalian Cells

    VI. Chemistry of the Forssman and Blood-Group Cross-Reacting Antigens and Their Immunodeterminant Structures

    VII. Blood-Group and Forssman-Active Antigens in Transplantation

    VIII. Concluding Remarks


    3. Chemical Modification of Endotoxin and Inactivation of Its Biological Properties

    I. Introduction

    II. Types of Endotoxin and Their Bioassay

    III. Methods of Chemically Modifying Endotoxins

    IV. Summary

    V. Concluding Remarks


    4. Effects of Endotoxic Lipopolysaccharides on the Complement System

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure of LPS

    III. Induction of Characteristic Complement-Mediated Lesions on LPS

    IV. Complement Consumption by LPS during Lesion Formation — Preferential Reactivity with the Terminal Complement Components

    V. Terminal Complement Components and the Biological Reactivities of Complement

    VI. Generation of Biologically Active Factors by Interactions of the Complement System with LPS

    VII. Correlation of Endotoxicity of LPS with Its Complement-Consuming Capacity

    VIII. Pathways to Fixation of the Terminal Complement Components

    IX. Developmental Considerations

    X. Clinical Considerations

    XI. Endotoxin-Complement Interactions in Experimental Animals in Vivo

    XII. Summary


    5. Host-Dependent Detoxification of Bacterial Endotoxin

    I. Introduction

    II. In Vivo Distribution of Parenterally Administered Endotoxin

    III. Effect of Serum or Plasma on Endotoxin

    IV. Mechanism of Tolerance to Endotoxin

    V. Tissue Factors

    VI. Role of Endocrine Factors

    VII. Summary


    6. Metabolic Effects of Bacterial Endotoxins

    I. Introduction

    II. Effect of Endotoxin on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    III. Effect of Endotoxin on Enzyme Induction

    IV. Metabolic Implications of Endotoxin Pyrogenicity

    V. Infection versus Endotoxin

    VI. Metabolic Aspects of Tolerance

    VII. Changes Induced by Endotoxin

    VIII. Metabolic Studies in Mice Sensitized to Endotoxin

    IX. Metabolic Implications of Agents Capable of Protecting against Endotoxin

    X. Conclusions


    7. Release of Vasoactive Agents and the Vascular Effects of Endotoxin

    I. Introduction

    II. Essential Factors Involved in the Initial Vascular Response to Endotoxin

    III. Early Vascular Response to Endotoxin in the Dog

    IV. Development of Irreversible Endotoxin Shock in the Dog

    V. Role of Vasoactive Agents in Response to Endotoxin

    VI. Cardiovascular Factors to Be Considered in the Response to Endotoxin

    VII. Responses of the Primate in Endotoxin Shock; Significance of Species Differences

    VIII. Studies with Live E. coli Organisms

    IX. Effects of Endotoxin on Capillary Permeability

    X. Special Metabolic and Circulatory Problems in Endotoxin Shock

    XI. Role of the Nervous System in Endotoxin Shock

    XII. Conclusions and Summary


    Addendum - The Effects of Endotoxins in the Microcirculation



    8. Endotoxin and the Pathogenesis of Fever

    I. Introduction

    II. Physiology

    III. Pharmacology

    IV. Mode of Action of Endotoxin - Endogenous Pyrogens (EP)

    V. Hypersensitivity Fever

    VI. Fever Tolerance

    VII. Summary


    9. Experimental Hemorrhagic and Endotoxic Shock

    I. Introduction

    II. Hemorrhagic Shock

    III. Bacterial Endotoxins

    IV. Hemorrhagic Shock and Endotoxemia in the Subhuman Primate

    V. Acquired Resistance to Shock

    VI. Conclusion


    10. Effects of Lipopolysaccharides (Endotoxins) on Susceptibility to Infections

    I. Introduction

    II. Effects on Serum Factors

    III. Effects on the Reticuloendothelial System

    IV. Effects on Granulocytes

    V. Effects on Blood Circulation and Coagulation

    VI. Effects on Metabolism and Temperature Regulation

    VII. Conclusion


    11. Role of Hypersensitivity and Tolerance in Reactions to Endotoxins

    I. Introduction

    II. Role of Hypersensitivity in Reactions to Endotoxins

    III. Nature and Role of Tolerance to Endotoxins

    IV. Summary


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 526
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1971
  • Published: January 28, 1971
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483215891

About the Editors

Solomon Kadis

George Weinbaum

Samuel J. Ajl

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