Backscattering Spectrometry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121738501, 9780323152051

Backscattering Spectrometry

1st Edition

Authors: Wei-Kan Chu
eBook ISBN: 9780323152051
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th September 1978
Page Count: 400
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Backscattering Spectrometry reviews developments in backscattering spectrometry and covers topics ranging from instrumentation and experimental techniques to beam parameters and energy loss measurements. Backscattering spectrometry of thin films is also considered, and examples of backscattering analysis are given. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an introduction to backscattering spectrometry, what it can and what it cannot accomplish, and some ""rules of thumb"" for interpreting or reading spectra. The relative strengths and weaknesses of backscattering spectrometry in the framework of materials analysis are outlined. The following chapters focus on kinematics, scattering cross sections, energy loss, and energy straggling; backscattering analysis of thin films of various degrees of complications; the influence of beam parameters; and mass and depth resolutions and their relationships to the mass and energy of projectiles. Many examples of backscattering analysis are also presented to illustrate the capability and limitation of backscattering. Backscattering applications when combined with channeling effects are considered as well. The final chapter provides a list of references on the applications of backscattering spectrometry. This monograph will be a useful resource for physicists.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of a Backscattering Experiment and Its Layout

1.3 Basic Physical Processes

1.4 Examples and Applications

1.5 Strengths and Weaknesses of Backscattering Spectrometry

1.6 How to Read a Backscattering Spectrum

1.7 Book Outline


Chapter 2 Basic Physical Concepts

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Kinematic Factor K

2.3 Scattering Cross Section σ

2.4 Energy Loss and Stopping Cross Section

2.5 Linear Additivity of Stopping Cross Sections (Bragg's Rule)

2.6 Energy Straggling

2.7 Linear Additivity of Energy Straggling


Chapter 3 Concepts of Backscattering Spectrometry

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Depth Scale for an Elemental Sample

3.3 Energy E before Scattering

3.4 Numerical Methods to Find the Energy E before Scattering

3.5 Height of an Energy Spectrum for an Elemental Sample

3.6 Depth Scale for a Homogeneous Solid Containing More Than One Element (Compound Sample)

3.7 Height of an Energy Spectrum for a Homogeneous Solid Containing More Than One Element (Compound Sample)

3.8 High-Energy Edge of an Energy Spectrum for an Elemental Sample with Several Isotopes

3.9 Energy Loss and Yield Respond to Atoms per Unit Area

3.10 Numerical Methods to Compute Backscattering Spectra


Chapter 4 Backscattering Spectrometry of Thin Films

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Energy Spectrum of a Thin Elemental Film

4.3 Energy Spectrum of Multilayered Elemental Films

4.4 Energy Spectrum of a Homogeneous Thin Film Containing More Than One Element (Compound Film)

4.5 Energy Spectrum of Multilayered Films Containing More Than One Element (Layered Compound Films)

4.6 Influence of Energy Straggling and System Resolution


Chapter 5 Examples of Backscattering Analysis

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Surface Impurity on an Elemental Bulk Target

5.3 Elemental Samples Containing Uniform Concentrations of Impurities

5.4 Composition of Homogeneous Samples Containing More Than One Element

5.5 Impurities Distributed in Depth in an Elemental Sample

5.6 Thickness of Thin Films


Chapter 6 Instrumentation and Experimental Techniques

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Accelerator

6.3 Energy Stabilization System

6.4 Energy Calibration

6.5 The Vacuum System

6.6 Beam Definition and Measurement

6.7 Backscattering Beam Energy Analysis

6.8 Sample Holders


Chapter 7 Influence of Beam Parameters

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Mass Resolution

7.3 Accessible Depth

7.4 Depth Resolution at Normal Incidence

7.5 Depth Resolution at Glancing Incidence

7.6 Sensitivity to Detection of Surface Impurities

7.7 Low-Energy Tails

7.8 Non-Rutherford Scattering, Nuclear Reactions, and Detection of Low-Mass Impurities

7.9 Microscopic Beam and Nonuniform Layers


Chapter 8 Use of Channeling Techniques

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Crystal Alignment Procedures

8.3 Perfect Crystal

8.4 Lattice Disorder Amorphous Layers and Polycrystalline Films

8.5 Flux Peaking and Lattice Site Location of Impurities

8.6 Influence of the Analysis Film


Chapter 9 Energy-Loss Measurements

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Extraction of ε Values from [ε] Measurements

9.3 Measurement of [ε] from Thin-Film Data

9.4 Determination of [ε] from Signal Height


Chapter 10 Bibliography on Applications of Backscattering Spectrometry

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Surfaces

10.3 Bulk Properties

10.4 Oxide and Nitride Layers

10.5 Deposited and Grown Layers

10.6 Thin-Film Reactions

10.7 Ion Implantation in Metals

10.8 Ion Implantation in Semiconductors

10.9 Hydrogen and Helium in Metals

10.10 Sputtering and Blistering Processes

10.11 Microbeams and Other Applications

Appendix A Transformation of the Rutherford Formula from Center of Mass to Laboratory Frame of Reference

Appendix B Influence of Energy Straggling on a Thin-Film Spectrum

Appendix C The True Position of the Edges of a Narrow Rectangular Signal

Appendix D List of Energy-Loss Complications

Appendix E Rough Targets

Appendix F Numerical Tables

Table I. Elements

Table II. KM2 for ¹H as Projectile and Integer Mass M2

Table III. KM2 for 4He as Projectile and Integer Target M2

Table IV. K for ¹H as Projectile

Table V. K for ¹H as Projectile

Table VI. 4He Stopping Cross Sections ε

Table VII. Polynomial Fit to the 4He Stopping Cross Sections ε

Table VIII. 4He Stopping Cross Section Factor [ε0]

Table IX. 4He Energy-Loss Factor [S0]

Table X. Rutherford Scattering Cross Section of the Elements for 1 MeV 4He

Table XI. Surface Height of Backscattering Yield for 4He on Elemental Targets H0



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© Academic Press 1978
Academic Press
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Wei-Kan Chu

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