Avian Immunology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123969651, 9780123972729

Avian Immunology

2nd Edition

eBook ISBN: 9780123972729
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123969651
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 31st July 2013
Page Count: 456
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Description

The second edition of Avian Immunology provides an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge of avian immunology. From the ontogeny of the avian immune system to practical application in vaccinology, the book encompasses all aspects of innate and adaptive immunity in chickens. In addition, chapters are devoted to the immunology of other commercially important species such as turkeys and ducks, and to ecoimmunology summarizing the knowledge of immune responses in free-living birds often in relation to reproductive success.

The book contains a detailed description of the avian innate immune system, encompassing the mucosal, enteric, respiratory and reproductive systems. The diseases and disorders it covers include immunodepressive diseases and immune evasion, autoimmune diseases, and tumors of the immune system. Practical aspects of vaccination are examined as well. Extensive appendices summarize resources for scientists including cell lines, inbred chicken lines, cytokines, chemokines, and monoclonal antibodies.

The world-wide importance of poultry protein for the human diet, as well  as the threat of avian influenza pandemics like H5N1 and heavy reliance on vaccination to protect commercial flocks makes this book a vital resource. This book provides crucial information not only for poultry health professionals and avian biologists, but also for comparative and veterinary immunologists, graduate students and veterinary students with an interest in avian immunology.

Key Features

  • With contributions from 33 of the foremost international experts in the field, this book provides the most up-to-date review of avian immunology so far
  • Contains a detailed description of the avian innate immune system reviewing constitutive barriers, chemical and cellular responses; it includes a comprehensive review of avian Toll-like receptors
  • Contains a wide-ranging review of the "ecoimmunology" of free-living avian species, as applied to studies of population dynamics, and reviews methods and resources available for carrying out such research

Readership

Immunologists, cell biologists, pathologists, poultry scientists, vaccinologists and veterinarians. Also zoologists, ecologists, ornithologists and evolutionary biologists interested in using immunological parameters as selection traits for studies on survival and evolution

Table of Contents

Dedication

Acknowledgments

Foreword

List of Contributors

Chapter 1. The Importance of the Avian Immune System and its Unique Features

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Contribution of Avian Lymphocytes

1.3 The Contribution of the Bursa of Fabricius

1.4 The Contribution of the Chicken MHC

1.5 The Contributions to Vaccinology

1.6 Conclusions

References

Chapter 2. Structure of the Avian Lymphoid System

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Thymus

2.3 The Bursa of Fabricius

2.4 Germinal Center of the Peripheral Lymphoid Organs

2.5 The Spleen

2.6 Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

2.7 Harderian and Conjuctiva-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

2.8 Mural Lymph Node

2.9 Ectopic Lymphatic Tissue and Pineal Gland

2.10 Bone Marrow

2.11 Blood

References

Chapter 3. Development of the Avian Immune System

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Origins and Migration Routes of Hematopoietic Cells Using Quail–Chick Complementary Chimeras

3.3 Aortic Clusters as the Intra-Embryonic Source of Definitive Hematopoiesis

3.4 Formation of the Aorta: A Dorsal Angioblastic Lineage and a Ventral Hemangioblastic Lineage

3.5 The Avian Thymus and T Cell Development

3.6 The Bursa of Fabricius, B-Cell Ontogeny and Immunoglobulins

3.7 Lymphocyte-Differentiating Hormones

3.8 Development of the Immune Responses

3.9 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 4. B Cells, the Bursa of Fabricius and the Generation of Antibody Repertoires

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Generation of Avian Antibody Repertoires

4.3 The Development of Avian B Cells

References

Chapter 5. Avian T Cells: Antigen Recognition and Lineages

5.1 Introduction

5.2 TCR Structure and Lineages

5.3 CD3 Signaling Complex

5.4 CD4 and CD8

5.5 Co-Stimulatory Molecules

5.6 T Cell Lineages

5.7 Perspectives

References

Chapter 6. Structure and Evolution of Avian Immunoglobulins

6.1 The Basic Structure of Immunoglobulins

6.2 Avian Immunoglobulins

6.3 Ig Half-Life

6.4 Natural Antibodies

6.5 Maternal Antibodies

6.6 Fc Receptors

6.7 Avian Antibody Responses

6.8 The Chicken Egg as a Source of Antibodies

6.9 Avian Antibodies as Tools for Research

References

Chapter 7. Innate Immune Responses

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Constitutive Barriers

7.3 Cells of the Innate Immune System

7.4 Pattern Recognition Receptors

References

Chapter 8. The Avian MHC

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Classical Chicken MHC is Small, Simple and Rearranged

8.3 The Classical Chicken MHC Encodes Single Dominantly Expressed Classical Class I and II Molecules

8.4 The Properties of Single Dominantly Expressed Class I and II Molecules Can Explain Responses to Pathogens and Vaccines

8.5 The Presence of a Single Dominantly Expressed Class I Molecule is Due To Co-Evolution with Tap and Tapasin

8.6 The Chicken MHC Provides Insights into the Primordial MHC and the Subsequent Evolution of the MHC

References

Chapter 9. Avian Antigen-Presenting Cells

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Avian Myeloid Cell Lines

9.3 Functional Properties of Chicken DCs

9.4 Migration

9.5 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 10. Avian Cytokines and Chemokines

10.1 Definitions

10.2 Description of Avian Cytokine and Chemokine Families

10.3 The Interleukins

10.4 The Interferons

10.5 The Transforming Growth Factor-β Family

10.6 Chemokines

10.7 Receptors

10.8 Available Reagents

10.9 Regulation of Cytokine Responses

10.10 Viral Proteins that Block Cytokine Action

10.11 Potential Use of Cytokines as Vaccine Adjuvants

10.12 Improved Vaccines Based on Viral Mutants Lacking Cytokine Antagonists

References

Chapter 11. Immunogenetics and the Mapping of Immunological Functions

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Selecting for Immunological Traits in the Chicken

11.3 Key Gene Loci for Immunological Traits

11.4 Statistical Approaches to Detect QTL

11.5 Statistical Procedures for QTL Detection

11.6 Strategies for the Use of Molecular Data in Selection

11.7 Systems Biology

11.8 Transgenic Animals

11.9 Future Directions for Systems Biology in Avian Immunology

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 12. The Mucosal Immune System

12.1 Mucosal Immune System

References

Chapter 13. The Avian Enteric Immune System in Health and Disease

13.1 General Considerations

13.2 Gut Structure and Immune Compartments

13.3 Development of the Enteric Immune System

13.4 Viral Infections of the Gut

13.5 Bacterial Infections of the Gut

13.6 Parasitic Infections of the GUT

13.7 Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 14. The Avian Respiratory Immune System

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract

14.3 The Paraocular Lymphoid Tissue

14.4 Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

14.5 The Contribution of the Trachea to Respiratory Tract Immune Responses

14.6 The Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

14.7 The Immune System in the Gas Exchange Area

14.8 The Phagocytic System of the Respiratory Tract

14.9 Handling of Particles in the Respiratory Tract

14.10 The Secretory IgA System in the Respiratory Tract

14.11 Gene Expression Analysis as a Tool to Investigate Host–Pathogen Interactions

References

Chapter 15. The Avian Reproductive Immune System

15.1 Introduction

15.2 The Structure and Function of the Avian Reproductive Tract

15.3 Structure and Development of the Reproductive Tract-Associated Immune System in the Chicken

15.4 The Reproductive Tract Immune System and Infection

15.5 What do we Need to Know? Directions for Future Research

References

Chapter 16. Avian Immunosuppressive Diseases and Immunoevasion

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Immunosuppression

16.3 Mechanisms of Immunosuppression

16.4 Immunoevasion

16.5 Conclusions

References

Chapter 17. Factors Modulating the Avian Immune System

17.1 Endocrine Regulation of Immunity

17.2 Physiological States

17.3 Dietary Effects on Immunity

17.4 Assessment

References

Chapter 18. Autoimmune Diseases of Poultry

18.1 General Characteristics of Autoimmune Diseases

18.2 Autoimmune Vitiligo in Smyth-Line Chickens

18.3 Spontaneous Autoimmune (Hashimoto’s) Thyroiditis in Obese-Strain Chickens

18.4 Scleroderma in UCD 200/206 Chickens

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 19. Tumors of the Avian Immune System

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Tumors of the Immune System

19.3 Oncogenic Mechanisms of Tumor Viruses

19.4 Immune Responses to Oncogenic Viruses

19.5 Anti-Tumor Responses

19.6 Conclusion

References

Chapter 20. Practical Aspects of Poultry Vaccination

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Immunology of Vaccination

20.3 Immune Response Polarization

20.4 Chicken Vaccine Adjuvants

20.5 Stimulating Memory and Longevity of Immune Responses

20.6 Development of the Neonatal Immune System

20.7 Maternal Antibodies

20.8 In ovo Vaccination

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 21. Comparative Immunology of Agricultural Birds

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Innate Immunity

21.3 Cytokines

21.4 Chemokines

21.5 Cell Surface Antigens

21.6 Surface Immunoglobulin

21.7 Major Histocompatibility Complex

21.8 Secreted Antibodies

21.9 Cell Lines

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 22. Ecoimmunology

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Assays to Assess Immune Function in Free-Living Birds

22.3 The Major Histocompatibility Complex

22.4 Development of the Immune System in Free-Living Birds

22.5 Factors Causing Variation in Immune Responses

22.6 Immune Function as a Life History Trait

22.7 Immune Function in an Evolutionary Context

22.8 Priorities for Future Research

Acknowledgments

References

Appendix A. Genetic Stocks for Immunological Research

A.1 Introduction

A.2 Major Histocompatibility Complex Lines

A.3 Notes on the Tables

Acknowledgments

References

Appendix B. Resources for Studying Avian Immunology

B.1 Introduction

References

Abbreviations

Index

Details

No. of pages:
456
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123972729
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123969651

Reviews

"This book provides foundational and more advanced knowledge on avian immunology… Appendices provide resources for researchers including genetic stocks and monoclonal antibodies and cytokines. This book is a very useful tool for anyone interested in conducting research on the topic or as an advanced introduction to avian immunology." --BTO.org, January-February 2014

"This book is an introduction to the field, beginning with an overview of avian immune system, its unique features and its importance to business and research. Further chapters focus on specific details of avian immune system…Extensive lists of genetic stocks for immunological research and further study resources make this book both a foundational reference and a stepping stone towards more advanced research subjects." --ProtoView.com, January 2014

"This book would serve as reference that all can resort to for old and new information. This field lacks such a resource and I personally have used the first version extensively whether as refresher or to acquire new knowledge. Much of the classical discoveries in this area are not readily available to the public and this book will afford access to such information. The appendices are especially helpful as many scientists are not aware of the resources available." --Dr. Rami A. Dalloul, Associate Professor, Dept. of Animal & Poultry Sciences, Virginia Tech, USA

Ratings and Reviews