Avian Biology

Avian Biology

Volume II

First published on December 28, 1972

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  • Editors: Donald S. Farner, James R. King
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483269429

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Avian Biology, Volume II is a collection of papers that deals with the biology of birds such as their integumentary and respiratory systems. One paper describes the integument of birds that includes the skin, feathers, pterylosis, skin muscles, and other integumentary derivatives such as beaks, comb, claws, and spurs. The book explains the process of molting and the different generations of feathers; such molting is dependent on the wear and tear of the plumage, as well as hormonal changes. One author compares the blood vascular system of birds and mammals, and then gives a detailed description of avian hematology. Other papers deal with the respiratory functions, digestive system, and the nutritional needs of birds. Of interest is one author's description of the production of nutritive fluids, holocrine, which is secreted for the young. This secreted fluid contains about 23 percent protein, 10 percent fat, and no sugar. Unlike mammalian milk, it also contains cells. Another paper examines the intermediary metabolism of birds and the climatic effects on metabolism. This book is suitable for bird enthusiasts, zoologists, and avian biologists.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Note on Taxonomy

    Contents of Other Volumes


    Chapter I. The Integument of Birds

    I. Skin

    II. Feathers

    III. Pterylosis

    IV. Muscles of the Skin

    V. Integumentary Derivatives Other Than Feathers


    Chapter 2. Patterns of Molting

    I. Introduction

    II. Definitions

    III. Homology

    IV. Social Factors

    V. Describing Molts and Feather Generations

    VI. Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 3. Mechanisms and Control of Molt

    I. Introduction

    II. Mechanisms of the Pattern of Molt

    III. Molting and Breeding Schedules

    IV. Hormonal Control of Feather Loss and Replacement

    V. Direct Effects of the Environment on Molt

    VI. Energetics and Molt

    VII. Summary


    Chapter 4. The Blood Vascular System of Birds

    I. Introduction

    II. Avian Hematology

    III. Morphology of the Blood Vascular System

    IV. The Electrophysiology of the Heart

    V. General Hemodynamics

    VI. Regulation of the Cardiovascular System

    VII. Cardiovascular Adjustments to (Habitual) Diving and Alterations in Ambient Gas Composition

    VIII. Cardiovascular Performances During Flight

    IX. The Cardiovascular System and Gas Exchange

    X. The Role of the Cardiovascular System in Excretion and Osmoregulation

    XI. The Role of Peripheral Circulation in Temperature Regulation


    Chapter 5. Respiratory Function in Birds

    I. Introduction

    II. Anatomy

    III. Respiration of Resting Birds

    IV. Respiration of Heat-Stressed Birds

    V. Respiration of Flying Birds

    VI. Respiration During Specialized Activities


    Chapter 6. Digestion and the Digestive System

    I. Introduction

    II. The Buccal Cavity, Buccal Glands, and Pharynx

    III. The Esophagus and Crop

    IV. The Gastric Apparatus

    V. The Intestine

    VI. The Liver

    VII. The Pancreas


    Chapter 7. The Nutrition of Birds

    I. Introduction

    II. Requirements Represented by Nutrient Expenditures

    III. Requirements Represented by Syntheses and Storages of Nutrients

    IV. The Net Nutritive Value of Feeds

    V. Production of Nutritive Fluids for the Young


    Chapter 8. The Intermediary Metabolism of Birds

    I. General Considerations

    II. Tissue Metabolism

    III. Influence of Diet

    IV. Endocrine Control of Metabolism

    V. Influence of Reproductive (Laying) Cycle

    VI. Climatic Effects on Metabolism

    VII. Influence of Migration on Metabolism

    VIII. General Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 9. Osmoregulation and Excretion in Birds

    I. Introduction

    II. The Avian Kidney

    III. Postrenal Modification of the Urine —Role of the Cloaca and Intestine

    IV. The Avian Salt Gland


    Author Index

    Index to Bird Names

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 336
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1972
  • Published: December 28, 1972
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483269429

About the Editors

Donald S. Farner

James R. King

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