Aversive Conditioning and Learning

Aversive Conditioning and Learning

1st Edition - January 1, 1971

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  • Editor: F. Robert Brush
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261140

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Aversive Conditioning and Learning covers the significant advances in establishing the phenomena, principles, and other aspects of aversive conditioning and learning. This book is organized into three sections encompassing nine chapters. The first section deals with operant and classical conditioning of responses of the autonomic nervous system and with behavioral measurement of conditioned fear. The next section discusses the mechanism of avoidance learning and a number of problem areas, including the effects of response selection on the ease of acquisition and the nature and slow time course of the processes that reinforce avoidance learning. Other problems explore are the influence on avoidance learning of prior experience with uncontrollable shock and with reliable and unreliable predictors of shock, an analysis of avoidance learning in terms of a Markov model of short- and long-term memory, and the nature of retention of conditioned fear and the possible hormonal mechanisms that control performance motivated by fear. The last section examines some of the unexpected effects of punishment, which usually produces suppression of behavior. This section emphasizes the effects of noncontingent aversive stimuli that may account for the suppressive effects of punishment and on the paradoxical facilitation of behavior that sometimes results from response-contingent shock. This book will prove useful to medical psychologists, psychiatrists, and workers in the related fields.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Aversive Conditioning

    1. Autonomic Aversive Conditioning in Infrahuman Subjects

    I. Introduction

    II. Background

    III. Operant Autonomic Conditioning

    IV. Classical Conditioning of Autonomic Responses

    V. The Comparison of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    VI. Autonomic Changes during the Operant Conditioning of Skeletal Responses

    VII. Conclusion


    2. Behavioral Measurement of Conditioned Fear

    I. Introduction: The Conditioning, Measurement, and Definition of Fear

    II. Variables Influencing the Conditioning and the Measurement of Fear

    III. Extinction Phenomena

    IV. Similarity of Fear and Frustration

    V. Summary and Some Implications


    Avoidance Learning

    3. Species-Specific Defense Reactions

    I. Introduction

    II. Avoidance Studies

    III. Acquired Drive Studies

    IV. The CS-Termination Contingency

    V. What is Left?


    4. Relaxation Theory and Experiments

    I. The Theory in General

    II. Experiments

    III. Conditioned Relaxation

    IV. Summary of Experiments


    5. Mathematical Models for Aversive Conditioning

    I. Preliminary Considerations

    II. The Two-Operator Linear Model

    III. Discrete Performance Level Markov Model

    IV. General Markov Model

    V. Response Latency

    VI. Choice Reversal under Aversive Stimulation

    VII. Conclusions


    6. Unpredictable and Uncontrollable Aversive Events

    I. Definition of "Prediction" and of "Control"

    II. Uncontrollable Aversive Events

    III. Unpredictable Shocks

    IV. General Summary


    7. Retention of Aversively Motivated Behavior

    I. The Defining Experiment

    II. Requisite Antecedent Conditions

    III. Determinants of the Interval of Minimum Retention

    IV. The Problem of Stimulus Generalization

    V. Nonassociative Manipulations of the U-Shaped Retention Function

    VI. The Search for the Events that Mediate the U-Shaped Retention Function

    VII. Conclusion


    Problems of Punishment

    8. Some Effects of Noncontingent Aversive Stimulation

    I. Introduction

    II. Responses Elicited by Aversive Stimulation

    III. Effects of Aversive Stimulation on Ongoing Behavior

    IV. Noncontingent Aversive Stimulation and the Suppressive Effects of Punishment


    9. Suppression and Facilitation by Response Contingent Shock

    I. Introduction to the Study of Punishment

    II. Stimulus (Cue) Properties of Punishment

    III. Response Eliciting Properties of Punishment

    IV. The Nature of Punishment: Summary and Interpretation


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 638
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1971
  • Published: January 1, 1971
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261140

About the Editor

F. Robert Brush

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